Propriety Ascertained in Her Picture, Vol. 1

Author(s): Elphinston, Mr James


AUGUSTUS found hiz Language ripe
for immortaility: hiz ſmiles bade Roman
Lerning aſcertain Propriety in her Picture. A
LEO'S goolden days gave rizing Tempels to' ring
widh hightened harmony; gave, not onely a Raphael
to' paint, but a Vida to' ſing. Reviving Art
and Science danced down hand in hand. LEWIS,
foſtering Genius, and founding Acaddemies,
rendered France dhe admiration ov dhe World,
and her Language dhe Diccion ov it. YOOR
MADJESTY, emmulous no les ov preceding, dhan
ov contemporary Glory; and finding Glory,
onely in dhe improovment ov mankind; haz
dained, not merely by pattronage ov dhe ſublimeſt
Muzic, and by dhe inſtitucion ov a Brittiſh
Acaddemy, to' raiz rivals to' dhe moaſt exquizite
Artiſts ov Anticquity; but, by fixing Ingliſh
Speech in Ingliſh Orthoggraphy, to' ſecure dhe
unfading luſter ov Truith, and dhe unfailing
ſucceſſion ov a Horrace, a Boileau, and a
If an umbel individdual haz prezumed to' attempt
a task, hiddherto' held arduous for Acaddemies;
he hopes for pardon, onely az he ſhal
be found to' hav performed it: nor wil, i nſuch
caſe, dhe Smile be regretted, hwich conſtitutes
him, widh ſo dutifool venneracion,
moaſt devotedly zellous,
az peculiarly onnored, Servant;
APRIL 6, 1786.
EVVERY tung iz independant ov evvery oddher.
Hooevver ſeeks dhe anallogy (or nattural rule) ov
anny tung, muſt dherfore find it at home: nor wil dhe
ſeeker ſeek in vain. Ingliſh diccion dhen haz no laws,
but her own. Yet, in her picturage, and conſequently
in much ov her livving practice; hav anny oddher laws,
or anny lawleſnes, been prefferably regarded. No more
can anny language adopt dhe ſyſtem ov anny oddher;
dhan anny nacion, dhe hoal pollity ov anoddher nacion:
for ſuch adopter wer no more a diſtinct nacion or language;
wer but a mongrel, or an eccoe.
LANGUAGES indeed, az nations, howevver independant,
becom recipprocally illuſtrated by tokens ov propinquity.
Anceſtors ar vennerabel, dho dheir authorrity
be paſt; and collatterals chear, by mutual illuminacion.
Nedher dhus eſſencial, badges ov boath wil remain;
hwile. Anallogy procedes, by her own domeſtic
laws. Dezirous nevvertheles ov grattifying, az wel az
ov garding, Ettymollogy (or traceabel orrigin); ſhe labors
to' doo booth, az far az intelligibel repprezentacion
can admit. But, firſt, dhe charge ov innovacion, widh
dhat ov inconſiſtence, muſt recoil on dhoze, hoo ſlaviſhly
recurring to' raddical and incompattibel ſymbols,
hav latterly rejected manny juſt pictures, drawn for
Ingliſh words, on dheir impoartacion; and diſguized
dheze, az nearly az poſſibel, in dhe ſhroud ov dheir
progennitors. Dhus did moov and proov impoart dhe
eſſence (dropping dhe terminacion) ov mouvoir and prouver.
O and oo, differing onely az direct and depreſſive;
and ſo being, ov old, promiſcuouſly repprezented; move
and prove came to' be dhe more poppular pictures;
eſpeſcially widh dhoze, hoo, knowing no more dhe deſcent,
dhan dhe dezert, ov dhe children; took movere
and probare, to' be dhe immediate parents.
Az ſurely did Ingliſh picturage, two hundred years
ago, inſert dhe ſervile, in fourm or foorm, now duly
foarm, dhe bench; and more lately, in hoaſt, ov hwatevver
idea; az reject anny ſervile from dhe prior part ov
wherfore (ment hwerfore) and Shakſpere, now Shakſpear;
ſhake and where (hwere), now hware, being az much out
ov dhe queſtion, az forme or forma, hoſt and hoſte (afterwards
oſt, and hôte for ôte); az hoſtie, hoſtia, or hoſpes.
In dhe reign ov Truith, ear and eve obeyed her. Nedher
thaught, braught, nor anny oddher aught; more
dhan jail, perſwade, aſſwage, or ſuttel, had yet begun
to' confound rime and rezon, widh dhe appearance ov
ought, thought, brought; gaol or goal, perſuade, aſſuage,
ſubtle, and dheir fellow-falſifiers. Nay, az, haz, waz,
iz and hiz had dhe rezzolucion to' be ſeen, az wel az
herd, in Queen Elizzabeths days. For it waz, and evver
wil be, dhe firſt axiom ov ORTHOGGRAPHY:
In oddher words: Orthoggraphy iz dhe mirror ov Orthoeppy;
propper immage, ov propper ſound. On dhis
principel, Analogy, dhe conſiſtent queen ov tongs; ov
each in itſelf, and ov all widh each oddher; muſt adapt,
by elizzion, inſercion, or chainge; hwatevver ſhe brings
into' anny diccion, to' dhe preciſe repprezentacion ov
dhe ſound ſhe iz dhare to' convey; widhout regard
edher to' ſounds, or to' ſymbols; dhat may, or may not,
hav belonged to' parent, or collatteral, tungs.
SOM principels muſt be common to' human language:
but each language haz a ſyſtem ov her own. Certain
diccions, like dhe Greek, uzing but won power ov an aſpirate;
hav no need ov more dhan won picture. Few
(if anny) moddern tungs, beſide our own, enjoy dhe
dental aſpirate at all. Dhe Ingliſh, widh dhe French,
haz loſt dhe guttural. In compenſacion ov dhat unregretted
aſpirate, hwich dhe aincients pozeſſed, at leaſt in
won power; dhe modderns hav acquired an art dheir parents
knew not (or knew dhey needed not); or aſpirating,
ſom barely (az dhe French) dhe ſilken ſibbilacion;
oddhers (az dhe Itallian) prefixing dhe dry dental, to'
dhat aſpirate; and ſom (az dhe Ingliſh) dooing boath; in
dhe ſounds ov ſh and tſh; zh, and dzh. If not evvery
diccion hav depreſſive aſpirates; and, if no oddher hav
had occazion to' dubbel dhem; certain it iz dhat Ingliſh
ſpeech dubbels, (dhat iz, repeats) az wel az depreſſes,
evvery won ov its aſpirates; dhe labial, dhe
dental, and dhe ſibbilating. Notthing, dherfore, can
juſtify our continnuing to' diſſembel a facculty, hwich
we prezerv in ſo ampel a manner, and in ſo conſtant
practice. Shal we ſee (and ſee we muſt) laf, laffing;
cof, coffing; widh ſtuf, ſtuffing; ſtif, ſtiffer, ſtiffen, and
dhe reſt? and ſhal we hezzitate to' write, hwat we can no
more forbair to' read, dhan to' ſpeak; hav, havving;
liv, livving, livved, livver, or dhe like? Shal we fay and
ſee fiſh, fiſher, and fiſſure; threſh, threſher; pres, preſſure,
azure and ſeizure (or ſezure)? and ſhal pleaſe, hwich iz itſelf
pleze, make us fonder ov ſeing pleaſure, dhan ov
feeling plezzure? Or doo plaiſir, loiſir, tréſor and meſure,
command dhe Ingliſh eye to' enjoy pleaſure, leaſure
or leiſure, treaſure and meaſure; hware dhe ear haz
ſuch titel to' claim dhe reallities ov plezzure, lezzure,
trezzure and mezzure? Som doo affect dhe ſound ov
lezure; but dhey ar few, and dhoze few doo but affect
it. To' edher interrogation, muſt dhe anſer be neggative.
Dhe dental aſpirate we enjoy beyond anny oddher
nacion (perhaps aincient or moddern), in all dhe plennitude
ov its dubbel emiſſion. We hav nevver, like dhe
Greeks, hoo had it but in won power, nexured it in won
picture: nor hav we dhe ſame rezon widh dhe Lattins,
dho dhey had dhe ſame rezon widh dhe Greeks, to' uze
onely a direct combination. Unconfined az iz dhis aſpirate,
to' anny peculiar ſymbol; if th compound dhe direct,
dh muſt compound dhe depreſſive: dhe dental aſpirate
being indeed no oddher dhan dhe dental mute, in
edher power, aſſuming dhe aſpiracion. Far dherfore
from offering anny apollogy for prezenting dhe depreſſive,
az wel az dhe direct, dental aſpirate; won cannot
but bluſh dhat dhis, and ſo much more ov dhe picturage
in dhis work, ſhood be at wonce demonſtrative and
ANALLOGY howevver being dhe gennerous gardian, not
jellous rival ov Ettymollogy, wil exterminate no raddical,
dhat endaingers not dhe ſound; offer no inſertive, unles
prooved indiſpenſabel; nor propoze anny chainge, beside
dhe demonſtrably recquizite, for dhe prezzervacion
and promocion ov our tung. Graiter conceſſions Orthoggraphy
cannot make to' Orrigin; hoo, to' Language az
to' Man, iz a forrain power. And ſuch dhe French
Acaddemy held her: elſe had not yet been ſettelled on
ſo happy principels, dhat independant picture, hwich aſcertaining,
diffuzes dhe French language. Scarce a century
haz paſt ſince aage, iſle, meſme, viſcomte, eſtre,
eſtoile, eſchole, became univerſally âge, île, même, vicomtre,
être, êtoile, êcole; and dhe like: az dhe century
preceding had exploded recepte, debte, doubte, voulte,
faulte; for dhe true and unalterabel recette, dette, doute,
faute; and dhe reſt. Dhe Itallian Acaddemiſcians
had ſet dhe exampel; and rendered dhe eldeſt
daughter ov dhe Lattin tong, conſiſtent and communicative
az her parent. Dhey fixed her Orthoggraphy, beyond
dhe power ov chainge; and went immediately fardher,
dhan even dhe French hav yet been abel to' follow.
Ingliſh Orthoggraphy muſt pas like firy trial: happy, if
ſhe can ſo ſurvive it! Hers ar dhe ſelf-ſame ennemies,
and hers dhe ſame intereſt to' overthrow dhem. Hers
alſo dhe ſame aid, even dhat ov Anallogy; reziſtles
our cauz, az in anny oddher. Dhe obſtinacy ov Preſcripcion
muſt itſelf guiv way; Ettymollogy's aw muſt
fly before her. So ſhal Ingliſh rezon be eſtabbliſhed in
Ingliſh libberty; our language ſhal proov acceſſibel, az
ſhe iz accompliſhed; hwen accompliſhed in appearance,
az ſhe iz in reallitv. So ſhal dhe purity ov our ſpeech
be prezerved by dhe truith ov her picture;and irreffragabel
theory be, at length, carried into' univerſal
LANGUAGES, howevver deſcended, or allied; becom
ſepparate and independant, az nacions. A raſcional travveller
vizzits oddher, even parent, contries; chiefly, for
dhe bennefit ov hiz own. But he goes not promiſcuouſly
to' collect evvery novvelty, or anticquity, he finds. Hiz
candor diſcovvers manny things indiſpenſabel to' won
ſittuacion, dhat ar incompattibel widh anoddher. But
Rezon he ſees common to' mankind. He marks
her attencion in evvery clime or community, to' dhe
improovments and enaccions, dhe laws and cuſtoms, dhat
reſpectively ſuit it. Admiring dhus abraud certain particculars,
hwich dhe ſame Rezon denies him to' bring
home; he doz howevver, by her fool conſent and kind
cultivacion, bring home dhat ſpirrit az taſte ov devizing,
promoting, and perfetting, hwatevver may improov hiz
particcular contry; dho he may not, perhaps cannot, hav
found dhat identic improovment in anoddher; but hwich
he knows (from hwat he haz ſeen) oddher contries wood
hav pozeſſed and practiſed, had dhey equally required
or admitted it.
DHE ſame iz dhe Traveller into' forrain languages,
az into' forrain contries; dhe chief end ov vizziting boath,
being dhe improovment ov dhe native. He perceivs
manny things genneral, nor a few peculiar. Far from
attempting to' impoart dheze, or perverſely to' retain
(them, if miſtakenly impoarted; he doz impoart dhe taſte
he haz richly improoved, from hiz wel-earned knollege
ov oddher tungs; and, widh dhe taſte, dhe ſpirrit ov
dooing juſtice to' each, az ov drawing dhence reſpectively,
among numberles advantages, dhat ov rendering
his own language, in unborrowed buty, admirabel az her
ſiſters, perhaps matured before her; nor dhe les, poſſibly
dhe more, dheir formidabel rival.
IDEL wer it to' repeat, dhat, languages being diſtinct
az nacions; dhe conſtitucion ov anny won, aincient or
moddern, can nevver pretend dhe ſmalleft authorritv, or
influence over anny oddher. Brittain waz pepelled from
Gaul; but dhe Gauls cood nevver be Brittons. Dhe
Brittiſh language ſprung from Gaulic or Celtic, and Teutonnic;
from French, Spanniſh, Itallian, Latin, and
Greek; iz no more anny won, ov dhoze languages; dhan
dhe Brittons ar Celts, Teutons, or anny oddher ov dheir
progennitors. No language dherfore, az no pepel; can
bair dhe repprezentacion, more dhan dhe reallity, ov
anoddher; or be amenabel to' laws, hwich it cood nevver
HWEN dhe eſſence ov a language (hwich iz its complete
ſyſtem ov ſound) iz braught by raſcional nature, in
dhe foolnes ov time, to' maturity; it becoms dhe duty
ov man to' perform hiz part (dhe ſole part, widh hwich
he iz entruſted) in dhe aſcertainment ov human ſpeeeh;
dhat ov firſt inveſtigating from dhe pureſt livving practice,
dhe hoal ſyſtem ov real or audibel propriety in hiz language;
and dhen ov repprezenting dhat propriety, by
dhe moaſt expreſſive ſyſtem ov litterary ſymbols; ſo to'
picture ſpeech, az nearly az poſſibel, in dhe exact ſtate
ov perfeccion ſhe may hav attained: (that dhus he may
proppagate abraud, az wel az perpettuate at home, dhe
purity, he haz been at length ſo happy to' compas; may
ſecure alike dhe purified language from relapſing into'
barbariſm, and from degennerating into' corrupcion; may
raiz her to' her juſt rank among polliſhed languages,
hwile he renders her dhe wordhy vehikel ov hiz nacions
wizdom and attainments, to' remoteſt ages.
SOM wil ſay (for hwat wil not ſom ſay?) 'All chainges
ar daingerous, dherfore non ſhood be made.' Dhis may,
muſt, hav always been ſaid; it iz obvious, by hoom.
Yet chainges diſgracefool, no les dhan daingerous, hav
been inſenſibly, often abſurdly, made dheze two centuries
paſt; hwile dhe chainges, indiſpenſabel to' Truith,
hav continnued edher dredded, or unknown. Language
indeed iz too much dhe glory, to' be dhe work, ov man.
He made no more hiz ſounds, dhan his organs: dhat iz,
no man, or ſet ov men, devized human ſpeech, or contrived
dhe ſmalleſt ſound ov it. Man, following Nature,
promotes and perfets harmony. Hwen he finds dhat,
by biz attentive coopperacion, dho unaſſumed inſtrumentallity,
hiz Language haz attained her ſummit; it
dhen becoms hiz provvince to' preclude, if he can,
fardher chainge: nor can ſuch precluzion be effected,
but by fixing her in ORTHOGGRAPHY.
SUCH rezoners (nor ar dhey few) wil reply: Language
iz all chance, and caprece; it iz dherfore idel to'
think ov edher ſtopping or ſtuddying it'. Directly dhe
reverſe iz Language: dhat carracteriſtic facculty, hwich
dhe Guivver enabels man ſo to' mature, dhat evvery part
and partikel, evvery ſyllabel and ſound, ar reducibel to'
demmonſtracion; and evince human ſpeech az conſiſtent,
and az harmonious, az dhe rezon, it iz guivven to' convey.
Oppozite aguen to' vulgar idea, ſo ſteddy iz livving
language, wonce matured by Time, and depozzited
in Orthoggraphy, dhat it afterwards admits verry littel
varriacion: witnes dhe Latin tung, from dhe days ov
AUGUSTUS; and dhe French, from dhe reign ov LEWIS
DHO no language can be aſcertained or communicated,
widhout being committed to' due repprezentacion;
oddher diccions appear, before dhey received dheir final
polliſh, to' hav been chiefly endaingered in dheir outworks;
hwaraz ours, for want ov dhe fences ov ORTHOGGRAPHY
haz been expozed to' immediate corrupcion
in her verry vitals: ſom not knowing how to' gard
dheir ſpeech, oddhers not knowing hwat ſpeech to' gard.
Hence dhe contraſt ov dhe Ingliſh and dhe Scottiſh Dialects;
and dhe difference grown widh dhe diſtance, between
LONDONS language, and dhat ov dhe provvinces. It waz
before barely poſſibel to' inveſtigate INGLISH TRUITH:
now it iz impoſſibel to' miſtake her. Dhey, dhat for
ſom time may be thy to' exhibbit her, wil at leaſt approov
dhe boldnes, dhat diſplays her here; dhat ſhows
no that vowel open, or open thut; and renders dhe verry
tires, an object ov intuiſcion. Won haz but to' read
(if poſſibel) army ſentence, or cupplet, az hiddherto'
written; and dhe ſame, according to' ORTHOGGRAPHY;
to' be ſtruc not onely widh PROPRIETY, hware alone the
can be found, but widh dhe ſweet neceſſity ov aſcertaining
her in her picture. Ov dhis PROPRIETY dhe ear, not
dhe eye, iz dhe judge: for dhe ear iz dhe eye ov dhe
mind. Let us hear, to' write: dhen ſhal we ſee, to'
ſpeak. Let us firſt ſpel, az dhe beſt ſpeakers ſpeak; and
dhen (but not til dhen) let us pretend to' ſpeak, az we
FROM long and attentive diſcrimminacion ov livving
ſpeech, in dhe center ov Ingliſh purity: haz been at laſt
completed a picture, hwich TRUITH can ſtamp widh dhe
name ov INGLISH ORTHOGGRAPHY: dhat ſacred depozzit,
hware LONDON, in prime polliſh, firſt ſees hwat
ſhe ſays, and hwat dherfore ſhe haz onely to' prezerv
but hware dhoze, hoo cannot hear her, may alſo ſee it:
and, conſiding in a delinneacion ſo authenticated; may
ſpeedily imbibe in dhe remoter corners a purity, hwich
Coarts doo not always beſtow. Hwile all endowed widh
ſpeech, ar dhus intereſted in propriety; ſuch members
ov dhe Metroppolis, az hav had dhe good-fortune,
(hweddher from dellicate edducacion, or from incorruptibel
taſte) ov keeping equally free from grocenes, and
from affectacion; hav doutles a chance, if ſtil but a
chance, for purity. But dhe diſtant hav no poſſibel
chance, unles from repprezentacion. If dherfore a few
cood, az non can, be ſure ov edher acquiring or prezerving
Propriety, widhout an atteſted Picture; widhout
dhat Theory, ſtrictly ſo called, hwich can alone emboddy
livving Practice; indiſpenſabel wood be ſuch
Picture or Theory, to' dhe grait majorrity, even ov dhe
Brittiſh Cappital.
SINCE dhen falſe picturage haz ſo long diſguized alike and
diſonnored Ingliſh Propriety, muſt it dherfore continnue
to' doo boath? If we hav hiddherto' miſrepprezented,
and often miſtaken, TRUITH, for want ov havving ſeen
her; ſhal we ſhut our eyes to' her charms, now ſhe dains
to' diſplay dhem? or ſhal we be affraid ov beguinning
to' doo her juſtice, becauz we hav not ſooner begun?
Hoo wil not raddher own widh won poet, panting for
evvery ORTHO—
Rien n'eſt beau, que le vrai: le vrai ſeul eſt aimable.

Il doit regner partout, et même dans la fable.
Naught, but dhe Truith, iz lovly; naught iz fair.
No charms haz Fabel, if no Truith be dhare.
and conſequently forguiv him, hoo envies dhis poets parragon?

Quod verum atque decens, curo et rogo; et omnis
hoc ſum.
Dhe true, dhe decent, iz my arduous taſk.
'Tiz all I aim at, and iz all I aſk.
Or hoo can forbair joining dhat parragon hwen he erects
hiz ſtandard?
Hoc opus, hoc ſtudium parvi properemus et ampli;
Si patriae volumes, ſi nobis vivere cari.
J. E. Grait Marribone-Street, N. 1. March 1, MDCCLXXXVI.
Ov redundant Conſonants
Tabel ov Affinnity 3
Redundant Aſpiracion 4
1. after C and G 5
2. after R 9
5. after T 10
4. medial 12
5. iniſcial 13
L; P, B; S, C, G, unretainabel 15
L, F, K, S, and oddher abuttals (R, N, B, D, G). 19
Ov dhe recquizite Inſertives 24.
H. 25
T. D. 26
V. P. 28
— to' ſhut dhe antepenultimate 29
— to' ſhut dhe penultimate 38
— to' ſhut dhe ſtrong vowel before dhe ſibbilating
aſpirate 41
Dhe rule ov duplicacion 52
Dhe caſe ov an iniſcial aſſemblage 66
Ov miſrepprezented Articulacion 72
Licquid for licquid, and mute for mute.
1. L for R and N
2. M for N 74
3. B and C for T 76
Direct for depreſſive 77
1. S for Z
2. TH for DH 90
3. PH and F for V 94.
Oddher miſrepprezentacion ov Conſonants 100
1. Dhe old guttural, for dhe labial, aſpirate
2. Dhe French for dheIngliſh ſibbilating aſpirate 101
3. Q for C or K 102
4. S and C interchainged 103
5. J and G interchainged 104
C, G, and oddhers, miſrepprezented, by being miſattended 105
Inverſion ov EL and ER final 113
Inverſion ov dhe braud liquid aſpirate (HW). 124
Ov dhe open Vowels.
Ov dheir Serviles.
1. A braud, widh (and widhout) ſervile 134
2. A ſlender, widh its ſerviles 136
3. E, widh its ſerviles 137
4. O direct widh its ſerviles 138
5. O depreſſive, widh its ſervile 143
6. U, widh its ſervile 149
7. Dhe ſervile conſonants 150
Ov dhe Dipthongs and Licquefaccions 151
Ov ſerviles, ſuperfluous to' open vowels 156
Ov ſerviles, infeſting ſhut vowels 161
E, overhwelmed by id'lers 162
1. By A
2. E ſhut, falſified by dhe attendance ov E, I,
and O 169
A ſhut, endaingered by E and U 170
1. By E preceding
2. By U following 171
U ſhut, variouſly encumbered and endaingered 172
Ov dhe endings OUS and OUR 177
Ov E final (or medial) belying ſhut vowels 182
Ov oddher ſerviles dooing ſo 184
Ov Quieſcents. 188
Ov dhe eliding ſervile, named Apoſtrophe or Appoſtroph
Ov dhe compounding and decompounding ſervile
or carracter, named Hyphen or Divizzion 209
Ov miſrepprezented vocallity 224
Open vowels miſrepprezented
1. A ſlender, open 225
2. A braud, open 226
3. E open 227
4. O direct, open 229
5. O depreſſive (OO), open 230
Shut vowels miſrepprezented 230
1. A ſlender, ſhut
2. E ſhut 231
3. I ſhut 233
4. U ſhut 234
5. OO shut 235
Dipthongs and licquefaccions miſrepprezented 237
Serviles rectified. 239
Dhe ſubſtitucion ov conſonants
Dhe ſubſtitucion ov open vowels 246
Dhe ſubſtitucion ov ſhut vowels 251
Summary ov Ingliſh ſubſtitucion 258
ORTHOGGRAPHY, dhe depozzitary and gardian ov
ORTHOEPPY: indiſpenſabel, az to' all ſtiles;
peculiarly to' POETRY, dhe arbitres OV LANGUAGE
Ov forrain Ettymollogy 319
Ov M. l'Abbé Anonyme 335
Page 353, and 3 conſecutive, havving been unfortunately repeated
in dhe folio's, inſted ov 357, and ſo on; dhe 16 concluding pages are
each, numbered 4 too low.
ORTPHOGGRAPHY iz dhe juſt picture, or delinneacion,
ov ORTHOEPPY, or propper ſpeech; and, duly
red, returns it faithfoolly to' dhe ear. On dhe exactnes
ov dhe picture, muſt depend dhe permanence, and extenſion,
ov dhe reſpective language.
SPEECH can hav but two parts; vocaliity and articulacion:
like its employer, ſoll and boddy. Dhe latter, for
dhe ſake ov dhe former, becoms Orthoggraphy's, az
Medcines, prior object. All dhat edher can doo, iz to'.
lop luxuriance, to' ſupply defiſcience, and to' correct error:
hwich laſt may imply dhe oddher two.
DHE conſonants ar ſignifficantly divided into' licquids
and mutes; az wel az into' dhe claſſes ov dhe organs, dhat
emit dhem. Nor iz articulacion, ſimpel or aſpirate, les
natturally divizzibel into' direct and depreſſive; according
to' dhe emiſſion ov dhe breth. A divizzion, hwich
aroze from experriment, wil be juſtified by it; in dhe utterance
ov p, b; f, v; or anny fellow-pair ov oppozite
identicals, raddher dhan cognates. More ſattisfying howevver
muſt be dhe fool vew ov human articulacion, in dhe

norance ov domeſtic principel, or zeal for forrain etymollogy.

ALL primmitive tungs had a guttural aſpirate. Aſpiracion,
dho nattural az bredhing, ads effort to' ſimpel articulacion:
nor haz ſimpel h, in all dialects, been ſo ſubject
to' dhe interchainge ov impropper fuppreffion and impropper
utterance; but becauz it requires more exercision
dhan anny oddher mute. Ov all dhe vocal organs, dhe
throat, if dhe moaſt expreſſive, iz dhe leaſt harmornious
Softening dherfore (or ſmoodhing) dialects, hay been apt
to' harmonize its opperacion away. Dhus hav dhe French
and Ingliſh languages loſt dhe guttural aſpirate. Som
time waz it gon, are it waz known to' be gon: we suspect
not, dhat we looz a power, az we diſcontinue
Nor onely prezervs nature an anceſtral venneracion:
we ar proud to' retain ſymbols ov dhat anticquity, hwich
we ar prouder to' hav ſurpaſſed. Hence hav all deſcendants
been zellous to' arrogate, az if to' incorporate certain
ornaments of geneallogy; hwich intriſic worth
has found, not merely ſuperfluous, but compattibel.
Such ar dhe numberies radicals, hwich adhere to' evvery
rizing diccion; til Anallogy ſift or winnow it, and fevver
dhe chaf from dhe corn. Dhe firſt chaf ſhe haz here
to'blow away, iz dhe ſemblance ov ſuch aſpiracion, az
exiſts no more: dhe next, ov ſuch az nevver did exiſt in
ours; ſom, perhaps, dhat newer cood exiſt in anny
1. after c and g.
DHE ſame cauz, dhat haz banniſhed dhe ſemblance ov
guttural aſpiracion from French, muſt make it ceſe to' tantalize
Ingliſh Orthoggraphv. Long did charactere,
méchanique, mélancholie, écho, briſtel in France; and
longer did charactier, mechanic, melancholy, echo, in
Ingland; before it waz perceived, dhat onely caractere,
mécanique, mélancolie, and éco, remained in won contry;
or carracter, mecannic, mellancoly, and ecco, in dhe
oddher. Chaſm, dhe Greek, cood not paint dhe Ingliſh
caſm: French and Lattin wer out ov dhe queſtion.
Chord and chorus will nevver make more dhan cord and
corus. Dhe French eſchole, eſcholier, ſcholiaſte, and
ſcholaſtique, produced dhe ſimmilar Ingliſh ſchole
(afterwards ſchool) widh ſcholar, ſcholiaſt, and ſcholaſtic.
Shal not dhe ſame rezon, dhat reduced dhe parents to' école,
écolier, ſcoliaſte, and ſcolaſtique; bring dhe children
to' ſcool, ſcollar, ſcoliaſt, and ſcolaſtic?
ANALLOGY ſettels all: in won diccion, eſtomac, and
monarque, diſtique, époque, eunuque; in dhe oddher,
ſtommac (ſtummac), monnark, diſtic, eppoc, eunuc:
dhare, arc and arcange; here, dhe matthemattic arc,
az we1 az Noahs ark, and arcaingel. No more dhan
dhe ſimpel mute can remain in dhe French tecnique, dhe
Ingliſh tecnic, or dhe common icneumon. Greek and
Latin we hav preferred, az uzual, to'parent-French; in
anchor and anchoret, for ancor and ancoret. Anacorete
iz indeed French; but no man can make edher anachoret,
anacoret, or even anaccoret, Ingliſh. Nor haz dhe
moddher conque betrayed us into' conch, for conk.
BEFORE dhe ſlender or ſoftening vowels, e, i, y;
French picturage retained dhe figgure ov dhe old guttural
aſpirate, to'repprezent dhe new aſpirate ſibbilacion cherchez
le chemin de la chymie, archevêque, architecte de la
monarchie. Ingliſh repprezentacion kept dhe ſame
ſymbols for dhe new aſpirate, ſubjoined to'dhe ſimpel
dental. Hwile, from the Teutonnic aſſemblage ſch,
French picture takes dhe primmitive ch; Ingliſh prefers
ſh (not here to'antiſcipate ſibbilating licquefaccion), for
dhe correſpondent ſoftly-aſpirate ſibbilacion: claiming
alſo ch, to'repprezent tſh, or dhe harder ſibbilating aſpirate:
for hwich hoal combination ov ſound, Itallian makes
ſimpel c, before dhe ſofteners, to'ſuffice. Dhus boath
French and lngliſh prezerved dhe old ſymbols, to'repprezent
dhe reſpective new aſpirate: az in won diccion,
chanter, choquer, choiſir; chant, choc, and choix: riche,
niche, arche, and perche; ſo in dhe oddher, chant,
choke (widh ſhoc), chooz and choice; rich, nich, arch,
perch, and dhe reſt. Yet dhe French acroſtiche and
hêmiſtiche (for émiſtiche) left our acroſtic and hemmiſtic,
widhout final aſpiracion. We muſt perceiv dhat after
l or n, az after t, dhe Ingliſh ch emits no more dhan
ſh; and ſo coincides widh dhe French aſpirate. Dhus
Welch, French, Scotch; ar but Welſh, Frenſh, Scotſh;
dhe no les nattural contractives ov Waliſh, Frankiſh,
Scottiſh. So ar milch, batch, and branch, merely milſh,
batſh, and branſh; but for dheir duteous regard to parents!
hweddher domeſtic, az milk and bake; or forrain,
az branche.
DHO dhe Ingliſh archbiſhop, archduke, or dhe like,
be fool az moddern az dhe French archevêque, archiduc,
and dhe reſt; Ingliſh Anallogy, not havving ſo gennerally
moddernized dhe aſpirate before dhe melters (e or i) az
dhe French haz don; muſt dhare prezerv, hwen unaſpirating,
dhe ſimpel mute in dhe unſoftening figgure (k).
If not even dhe French hav moddernized choeur, orcheſtre,
archétype,archiépiſcopal, chiromance or chiromancie; and
ſo hav to'paint dhe remaining ſounds queur, orqueſtre,
arquétype, arquiépiſcopal, quiromance or quiromancie;
no les fairly muſt dhe Ingliſh adapt dhe pictures ov
coir, orkeſtra, arketype, arkiepiſcopal, kirromancy.
FRENCH anallogy ſecures, before dhe ſofteners, dhe
moddern power in the old picture, ov proppers preciſely
az commons: not more ov chyle, chimiſte, chimere, architecte,
or monarchic; dhan ov Chiron, Achéron, or
Antioche. On equal principel dhen az dhe French hear,
and ſee, Caron and Chiron, catécumene and catéchiſte;
wil de Ingliſh (in time) ſee, az dhey hear, kyle, kymmiſt
(or kemmiſt) kimera, arkitect, monnarky, and Antioc: ſo
catecumen and catekiſt; Caron, Kiron, widh Akilles,
Ackeron, and dhe reſt.
AFTER dhe exampel ov dhe French chérubin, hav dhe
Ingliſh moddernized cherrub and cherrubim: nor can
Brittiſh chivvalry yield to' dhe parent chevalerie. Chirurgie,
chirurgien and chirurgique did produce reſpectively
our chirurgeon, chirurgely and chirurgic or
.chirurgical; hwich hav melted the guttural aſpirate into'
dhe ſimpel ſibbilacion in ſurgeon, ſurgery; and now even
ſurgic or ſurgical ſeems expelling kirugic or kirurgical.
From paroiſſe waz formed our parriſh; but from dhe
old paroch, parochial, now herd (and hwy not ſeen?)
DHE French ſchiſme and ſchiſmatique, can nevver
ſanccion dhe Ingliſh ſchiſm and ſchiſmatic, for ſizm
and ſizmatic; more dhan cédule and ciſeaux (or dheir
ſeeming parents, ſchedula and ſciſſaria) can pretend to
authorize ſchedule and ſciſſars, for ceddule and cizzars.
From Scaldis came Eſchauld (ſince Echaut) hwence dhe
Scheldt, truly the Skeld; but eſquiver (if evver it waz
eſchiver or eſchever) ſhood long are now hav tranſmitted
dhe appearance widh dhe reallity ov eſkew.
Scheme and ſchirrous, in Ingliſh dres, muſt appear
ſkeme and ſkirrous. Dhe raddical h, between c and a licquid,
may indulge dhe ettymolodgic eye; widhout violating
dhe ear ov Anallogy: az Chronus and Chloe can
be but Cronus and Cloe.
A FRENCH reformer did propoze dhe tranſpoziſcion, or
interchainge, ov dhe ſeccond and third letters in chaos:
hwich waz but exchainging won dainger for anoddher.
Cahos, hazzarding (raddher offering) an independent aſpiracion,
prezents doutles ſomhwat caottic: caos paints
dhe edher (French or Ingliih) deſcendant ov the aincient
IF dhe direct guttural aſpirate be loſt, ſtil les cood dhe
depreſſive remain. Dhis power indeed waz hardly in nature;
dho, in every ſittuacion, its picture may be found.
Hware uſefool or tollerabel, it muſt be prezerved or tollerated;
az we ſhal hav due occazion to' ſee. Nedher
can it be (prezerved nor tollerated) in dhe beguinning; az
in ghoſt, ghaſtly and aghaſt; hwich, hwatevver dhey
hav been, can no more appear (widhout terrifying), but in
dhe ſhape ov goaſt, gaſtly and agaſt.
2. after r.
DHE Greeks thaught dhe ruf licquid attracted, or
pozeſſed almoaſt inherent, aſpiracion. Dhe French received
it for a time, in few beſide rhapſodie, rhétorique,
rhinocéros; myrrhe and catarrhe; hwich tranſmitted dhe
Ingliſh rhapſody, rhetoric, rhinoceros, myrrh and catarrh.
Rhythme and rhyme hav boath paſt into' rime;
and ſhal not rheum, or rhume, com edher Greekly into'
reum, or Frenchly into' rume? Anallogy, however,
ſoon frowned the idol briſtler from won tung; nor cool
evver ſmile upon it in dhe oddher. Proppers ar often dhe
laſt in propriety; yet rapſody, rettoric, rinoſceros, myr
and catar, wil no ſooner (or not much ſooner) hav dhus
acquired dhe ſimpel buty ov Truith, than dhe Rine and
dhe Rone, Reims, Rodes and Rode-iland, Pyrrus and
Burrus, Pyrra and Myrra, widh their fellows, wil
proud to'emmulate dhe ſimpliſcity.
3. after t.
DHE French havving no dental aſpirate, its appearance
in thym, thon, or Thomas, affects not dhe ſound; az it
might in dhe Ingliſh thyme, thunny, or Thomas; for
tyme, tunny and Tommas. Dho apothicaire, in apoticaire,
haz juſtly dropt dhe unpractiſed aſpiracion; hiz
Brittiſh ofspring, dhus by nature apottecary, diſdaining
at wonce hiz orrigin and hiz eſſence, wil now be notthing
les dhan a Greek apotthecary, widh dhe fool aſpirate, in
Ingliſh duplicacion; hwich he glories to' find dhat Brittons,
az wel az Greeks, can command. Yet dhis power
no won attempts to' exert, in favor ov dhe no les oridginally
Greek Thomas. Theobald; Catherine and Dorothy
hoo wil howevver be az much ſafer az onneſter, widh
dhe ſimpel mute in Tommas, Tebbald, Catterine and
Dorroty: hwich may be equally preddicated ov Bethune
(in Betune) and dhe like French names. In dhe Ingliſh
ile ov Thannet, and Scotch county ov Caithnes; dhe falſifier
iz equally perniſcious. Thomes, like Thomas, haz
hiddherto' bugged dhe ded raddical; hwich hiz parent
Tame, and petty Tems himſelf, ſeem equally, like Tom,
to' diſdain.
DHE French diphthongue emits dhe labial fool, az it
muſt ſimplify dhe dental aſpirate. Dhe Ingliſh diphthong,
on dhe contrary, ſimplifies dhe labial; foolly emitting
the dental aſpirate, in dipthong. Like harmony
renders dhe hoal prior aſpirate evvaneſcent, and dhe
more dhan ſuperfluous, in dhe Ingliſh apophthegm;
hwich can be but appothem, az Phthia Thia: dho hwat
haz been caught briſtling in phthiſic, muſt be by Truith
exhibbited, az by Rezon red, plain tizzic. Demoſthenes
deceivs not by hiz aſpirate; hwich, after dhe ſibbilacion,
can emit no more dhan dhe ſimpel dental; az if
Demoſtenes; hwile Poſtumus dhe propper name, and
poſtumous dhe Ingliſh adjective, like dhe Lattin ſuperlative,
hwence dhey boath ſpring; hav no aſpiracion to'
drop. Dhe lopper ov redundance muſt not ad, dhat Latin
nevver knew ſuch a word az poſthumus; conſequently,
dhat poor poſthumous may be a terrae-filius, but no
oddher way a child ov dhe ground.
A FALSE ſervile iz ſtil worſe dhan a falſe aſpiracion:
dhis endaingers but dhe boddy, dhat dhe ſoll, ov expreſſion.
Dhe idel h encreſed dhe word by a ſyllabel, az in
dhe old French Jehan and Jehanne; ſo in dhe old Ingliſh
Johan and Johanne. Jean and Jeanne hav dherfore
remained in won diccion, hware Jan and Janne
might ſuffice. Joan came of trim, in native ſimpliſcity:
her ſeccond vowel now waz her ſervile. Onneſt
Jon, hoo fancied ſom forrain rellic a no les native part
ov himſelf, ſtickelled hard for hiz h: prommiſing ſollemnly
to' make no more uſe ov it, dhan he had don. Littel
waz he aware dhat h, ſo compreſt, wood aſpire at dhe
dooing ov ſom ſuch duty, az ſilent a now performed to'
hiz ſiſter; or ſuch az h muſt perform in dhe German
names Kehl, Bruhl, and Kuhf. Dho Jon himſelf dhus
perceived not hiz diſguize in John; it cood not eſcape
hiz eglet, Benjamin; hoo, from dhe juſtice he effected
boath to'hiz fahdher and to' himſelf, aroze dhe Rare Ben
Jonſon! Ov him it waz nevver ſurmized, az it haz been
ov hiz preddeceſſor and parragon, SHAKSPEAR; dhat he
waz les a maſter ov Art, for ſhowing himſelf a ſon ov
Nature. Few parents, indeed, can boaſt ſuch prodgeny
az edher. Dhat a Thomas ſhood produce a Thomaſon,
can awake no wonder; but dhat a Tom ſhood gennerate
a Thomſon, or even a Thompſon, hoo cood hav expected?
Yet, amid dhe improovment ov arts, particcularly ov
ſign-painting, Dhe Tompſon, like Dhe Ben-Jonſon, wood
be conſtrued by dhe few, Dhe Phenix; by dhe reſt, Dhe
Griffin, or Dhe Draggon. For, according to dhe new
pollity ov London, hwich contraſts dhe hieroglypphics ov
Egypt (ſuch dhe proggres ov human letters, even beyond
dhat ov arts); dhe name, or anny madgic word, on dhe
ſign-board, delinneates dhe hed, or exhibbits dhe total
5. iniſcial.
FRENCH picturage haz prooved more obſequious
to' Ettymollogy, in retaining h iniſcial, hware idel, dhan
in dhe indulgence ov anny oddher ſuperfluity. In manny
words from dhe Greek; nay, in ſom from, or thro', dhe
Lattin; French haz kept dhe ſhaddow, hwile Ingliſh haz
impoarted dhe ſubſtance. Dhus ar oppozed dhe French
ſeeming Hamadryade, hémiſphere; Homere, Horace;
widh habit, habituel, and oddhers; which ar no more
dhan Amadryade, émiſphere; Omere, Orace; abit, abituel,
and dhe like; to' dhe real Hammadryad, hemmiſphere,
Homer, Horrace, widh habbit, habittual, and
dheir fellows.
TEN, at leaſt, ov Lattin orrigin, hav hugged, widh
like ſervillity, in boath moddern diccions, dhe deceitfool
fantom heure,hoir, hêritage, herbe, hommage, honneur,
honneſte (now ſeeming honnête), humble; widh
hoſtelier, and hoſpital, now written hôtelier, and hôpital;
hwence dhe Ingliſh hour, heir, heritage, herb, homage,
honour or honor, honeft, humble; hoſtler and hoſpital.
Az dhe former ar (nor ſhood bluſh to' own it, raddher
ſhood bluſh not to' own it) eure, oir, éritage, erbe, ommage,
onneur, onnête, umble, ôtelier, and ôpital; dhe
latter ar no les really our, eir (homonnymous to' air) and
dhe old (alſo Freneh-Ingliſh) law-term eyre, for eyr; ſo
erritage, erb, ommage, onnor, onneſt, umbel, oſteller,
contracted oſtler, (not unſeen,) and oſpital (vertually
oſſpital): hwich muſt all at length ſettel in dhis dheir
juſt picture; dhat ignorance may no more pant after dheir
DHE firſt and laſt appear dhe more neſceſſary, by dhe
verry argument dhat might be urged againſt dhem; dheir
cognacion (or relation) to' horary, and hoſpitallity or hoſpitabel.
How elſe ſhal be obviouſly aſcertained, hwat cood
not hay been ſuſpected; dhat dhe former hav no aſpiracion,
and dhat dhe latter hav won? Dhe ſame may be
ſaid ov eir and heredditary or inherrit; alſo ov hoaſt and
oſtler. Hôtel proovs alreddy too redouted a rival to'dhe
Ingliſh manſion or lodging-houſe, not to' claim in otel juſt
natturalizement, or fool aſpiracion in Ingland. Nay,
dhe onneſt oſteller or oſtler, hoos parent (hoſtelier) departed
like dhe Phenix, may bring over not only dhe ſucceſſor
hôtellier, but dhe hoal hôtellerie, to' ſupplant at wonce
dhe inkeeper and dhe in. Hwat indeed iz won petty vulgar
ſyllabel, to' a magnificent ſtrainger ov five? If it be
objected, dhat our, dhe ſubſtantive, iz undiſtinguiſhed
from our, dhe adjective; iz dhe falſehood ov Art les
daingerous, dhan dhe truith ov Nature? Dhat Truith
requires dhe aid ov Falſehood, beſpeaks our our (wood a
SWIFT ſay) ov; il-luminacion; or ſhows dhe ours ov illuminacion
to' be ours.
DHEY dhat think uman, umor, and dhe like, look too
umbel, may innocently indulge dhe ſeeming aſpiracion;
for anny real wil be ſwallowed up in dhe licquefaccion.
But equal muſt be dheir humiliation and umilliacion,
hwen dhey perceiv no difference; and find dhat, hwile
umbel onnor can no longer be tortured into humble honour;
aſpiracion remains neſceſſarily audibel in dhe three coincident
hue, hew and Hugh; ſo diſtinct from dhe three alſo
coincident, u, yoo and yew.
PROPPERS, dhat doo not lead, muſt follow. Hwatevver
be dhe fate ov fair Hellen or Ellen; Humphrey or
Humfrey wil, by ſpurning dhe falſe aſpiracion, doo (in
Umfrey) juſtice at wonce to' hiz parent (Omfroi) and
to' himſelf. Moddeſt Nump nevver wiſhes to'look Humpy,
more dhan doz Nel to' ſeem Helly; dho Helle waz no ineffective
carracter, hwen ſhe lent her name to' a ſea, and
rendered dhe Helleſpont her own.
REDUNDANT h iz not dhe onely load on Ingliſh articulacion.
From ſimmilar mimmicry, or unexammined impoartacion,
manny ſhamefool ſuperfluities remain. Dhe
French faulte, voulte, and parfaict, drew reddy immitators
into' fault, vault, and perfect; hware onneſt earleſnes
iz now proud to'realize boath dhe l and dhe c;
hwich French orthoggraphy long haz rejected, and Ingliſh
harmony nevver cood know. Since, howevver, we followed
dhe French ſo impliſcitly into' error, ſhal we not
az fondly coppy dheir refformacion? Shal not faute,
voûte, and parfait, invite (dho dhey cannot command)
dheir no les faithfool children faut, vaut, and perfet; if
dheze our livving words, in dhe mouth ov Ellegance, be inſuffiſcient
to' aſcertain dheir picture? Oppozite dhen az at
fault and aſſault, how ſhal dhe oppoziſcion be prezerved
at home, or believed abraud, if dhey appear not faut and
aſſalt; won dropping dhe perniſcious, dhe oddher dhe
uſeles raddical? From dhe no les juſtly exploded veredict
and endicter (firſt perhaps indicter) haz Ingliſh law
coppied and kept her verdict and inditct, for verdit and
indite, or endite. If Juſtice be blind, Law ſeems equally
def; and, ſo prooving Ettymollogy's moaſt zellous
partizan, abets dhe chief ennemy ov Orthoggraphy.
DHE French recepte, debte, doubte, iſle, and viſcomte,
wer ſervilely tranſlated centuries ago, into'dhe Ingliſh
recept, debt, doubt, iſle, and viſcount. Orthoggraphy,
dhat braught dhe former, in proces ov rezon widh time,
to' recette, dette, doute, île and vîcomte; might hope
to' bring dhe latter (ſuppozing Ingliſh equal to' French
underſtanding) to' receit, det, dout, ile, and vicount.
Receit, indeed, had joined conceit and deceit; hwen Juriſprudence,
finding it enervated, reenacted receipt; nor
cood ſurely refuze like juſtice to' deceipt, or to' conceipt.
Dhis wants howevver onely an act ov Anallogy, dhe abſolute
az unerring arbitres ov litterary law. But dhe reſtoracion
juſt hinted, ſeems to' plead her authorrity. Can
p be denied to' recepcion, decepcion, or concepcion; more
dhan c to' perfeccion, in edher language? and ſhal dhe
reſpective mute be denied to' ſo near relations, on dhe
ſlender plea ov its conſtituting, in ſo ſmall a part, dhe eſſence
ov won ſet; and in no part, edher dhe eſſence or
dhe aid ov dhe oddher? To' dhe Ingliſh prefect and prefecture,
c iz alike eſſencial: nor ar dhe French préfet and
préfecture, les perfet pictures. Hwatevver be dhe oridginal
compoziſcion ov dhe marritime ſuburb, ſeen Deptford;
nedher part can be fairly red: nor can dhe real name be
drawn from anny picture, dhat prezents not Dedfoard.
BECAUZ dhe French poignant, daigne, feigne, campagne,
Champagne, hav dhe g neſceſſarily licquefied;
dhe Ingliſh poinant, dais, fein, campain, Shampain,
hav claimed dhe ſame ſymbol, widhout pretence ov ſuch,
or ov anny oddher ſervice. If daigner might guiv us
deign, ſhood not deſdaigner (dho truly dédaigner) hav
yielded us diſdeign? But, if diſdain be juſt, can
ſimpel dain be les juſt? Charlemain, wonce alſo (az in
French) Charlemagne, wil dain to' make dhe anſer.
SUPPOZING dhe neſceſſary licquefier ov regne, a no les
neſceſſary diſtinctive in reign; arraign, for arrain, waits,
perhaps, dhe return ov arragnt, for arrant: and hwat
may not be hoped after receipt? But if arrain, dhe
iſſue ov a barbarous arregnare, be unempeached in vocallity;
might not Anallogy and Diſtinccion combine,
to' introduce rane for reign?
Forain and ſouverain, hwen foraing and ſouveraing,
prooved dhe verry nattural parents ov dhe Ingliſh foreign
and ſovereign; firſt perhaps foraigne and ſouveraigne,
if not immediately foraign and ſoveraign. But
ar dhey les vizzibel parents ov forrain and ſovverain
(ſuvverain), dhat dhe children dhus appeal: dhemſelvs?

IN Itallian and French, g is doutles a licquefier; az in,
ſeraglio, bagno, poignard and compagnon; but nevver
cood or can be dhe Ingliſh licquefier, in ſerallio, bannio,
ponniard, more dhan in compannion. Nor can dhe
Itallian proppers be tranſlated into' Ingliſh widhout pootting
on Ingliſh dres; az in Ventimillia, or Campannia,
dhus differing ſuffiſciently from dhe old Campania.
LAW cannot help taking connizance, and making reconnizance;
dho ſhe haz hiddherto' exhibbited cogniſance
and recogniſance, or cognizance and recognizance;
hwich hardly reccognize dheir old French parents cognoiſſanceand
recognoiſſance, now connaiſſance and reconnaiſance:
widhout anny derogacion to' cognitio and recognitio,
dhe ſacred propperty ov a ſtill more polliſhed (dho remoter)
L, wonce eſſencial to' ſhould, would and could, haz
long had no oddher effect, dhan addiſcionally to' miſlead
from dhe reallities ov ſhood, wood and cood.
IF Celtic names dhat uzed a ſeccond l iniſcial, az a
licquefier, uze it no more, ſince dropping dhe licquefaccion;
az Lloyd (or Llwyd) and Llandaffe, now Loyd
and Landaf; can Ingliſh words retain idel abuttals? foar
more dhan foarteen? l, f, k, or even s, more dhan r, n,
m, p, or dhe reſt? more in monnoſyllabels, dhan in
pollyſyllabels? or, ſhal dhoze ad (in charrity) a third ſymbol;
hoo know dhat in evvery diccion a ſinguel letter,
like a ſinguel ſound, may conſtitute a word?
MUST we oppoze tell and foretel, as if telling and
foretelling wer not equally indiſpenſabel? call and recal;
az if dhe vowel wer chainged? or muſt ſhal, mal, (widh
pal-mal); lol, Nol, Mol, Pol, bely dheir effence, in ſhall,
loll, and dhe reſt; becauz ſhilly-ſhally, ſhilling and ſhallop,
lolling, lollard, Nolly, Molly and Polly, fairly prezent dhemſelvs?
Can ſhal ſeem to' claim coincidence widh ſhawl;
hwen even its formative ſhalt, ſo faithfool to' ſhal, refuzes
to' chime widh ſalt?
SHAL we, hoo hav hiddherto dredded to' dubbel dhe
depreſſive labial aſpirate, hware neſceſſarily repeated;
leve, widhout ſhaddow ov pretence, dhe direct dubbling
ſupernumerary, in ſtaff, ſtiff, ſtuff, for ſtaf, ſtif, ſtuf,
and dhe like?
BECAUZ k muſt dubbel c, or be dhe pallatal figgure,
before e, i or y; muſt it doo or be dhe ſame, widh no
ſuch following? becauz in packing, wicked, and lucky;
dherfore in pac, wic, and luc? ſo becauz in attacking,
ranſacked; dherfore in attact, ranſact; attac, ranſac;
attaccabel, or ranſaccabel? Hware indeed k terminates a
root, it may natturally continnue in dhe branches; az in
remark, remarking, remarked, or remarkt; and even in
remarkabel; dho remarcabel be reggular az cabel.
WON s may ſhut a vowel, and anoddher s articculate a
following, in dhe ſame word; az in paſſing, paſſed, paſſage
or paſſabel. Muſt dherfore, or can dherfore, won
s cloze a word, and anoddher s alſo cloze it? Ar bles and
blis les teddy dhan bleſs and bliſs, for bleſſing and bliſſes?
Iz les (ſimpel or compound) inferior, but in barbariſm,
to' leſs? If ſo, let and fit ar les reddy for letting and fitter,
dhan lett and fitt?
HWILE needles haz now no more to' fear, dhan artles;
it may be objected dhat dhe compound tiles (widhout a
ty) bairs occular coincidence widh tiles, dhe formative ov
tile; a diſſyllabel widh a monnoſyllabel! and ſimmilarly
cares dhe diſſyllabel, noun or verb, widh cares, noun or
verb, from care. So muſt it be allowed dhat careſt, the
contractive ov careſſed, no more joſtels widh careſt from
care, dhan doz auguſt the adjective, widh dhe month ov
Auguſt; or buffet, a cupboard, widh buffet, a blow: nay,
dhat prieſt, dhe verb; and dhe noun, prieſt; differ widhout
dainger, in number ov ſyllabels, az wel az in vocallity:
not to' mencion dhe diſſyllabel proppers, Dares,
Dives, or dhe like; dhat claim the identic letters widh
dhe monnoſyllabels dares, dives, and dhe reſt. If dhe
context clear ezily real, much more muſt it ſeeming coincidence.

IF dherfore compas, canvas, harras and embarras,
diſmis and diſcus, attac and ranſac, widh caſſoc, frantic,
lunatic and arithmetic, be reproachles, az pas, mis, tac,
ſac, ſoc or tic; muſt not as aſſes accompany pas paſſes;
and even az azzes, buz buzzes, or the like? Did not
ſo ſay, and ſo ſee, SHAKSPEAR? hware he uzes azzes az
comparrizons; nor cood hav aſſes more in hiz eye, dhan in
hiz ear.
Hoo dhen made dhe moddeſt law, or hoo ſhal meekly
obey it; dhat no Ingliſh noun or verb can conſiſt, ov
(but) two letters? Ar eg, in, as, od, ad, eb, er, in anny
ſenſe les perfet dhan leg or beg, pin, mas, mad, nod,
nab, or mar? dhan drag, ſkin, clas, and ſo foarth?
IF a noun or verb chance to' coincide widh an adverb,
a prepoziſcion, or a conjunccion; hwat inconvenience
can dhence arize, hwen ſo manny words ov dhe ſame clas
in evvery language ſo neſceſſarily, yet ſafely, coincide?
Ar we affraid to' be ſeen in an in? and ſhal dhe adverb
of, no longer joſtling widh dhe prepoziſcion on, pretend
to' duplication?
BUT, if dhe boddily eye muſt be filled, at dhe expence
ov dhe intellectual; ſhal l, f, c, or s itfelf, plead anny
amplifying privvilege, dhat r, n, m, p, b, v, and dhe
reſt, ſimpel or aſpirate, may not equally claim? Shal
and well, ov evvery kind, az wel az ell, bell, ſell, puff,
crack, aſs and graſs, or dheir fellows; hay anny plezing
power, not indulged to barr, penn, cramm, ſtopp, clubb,
love; fatt catt, madd, dogg; and dhe like? If dhoze
be propper, ar not dheze? if not dheze, ar dhoze?
HWILE dhus el and il, wel and til, bel and ſel, puf
and crac, as and gras, proov az faithfool pictures, and az
reddy roots, as bar, pen, cram, ſtop, club, fat cat, or
mad dog; nor can be more ſo dhan lov, hwich iz indeed
luv; hwile mal, Mol, and extol, ar az reggular az dhe
reſt: we dhe more ezily conceiv dhe principel, unexcepcioned
in ours az in oddher ſyſtems, dhat admits no more
final dhan iniſcial duplication; dhe former l oy all and
oll final, being merely dhe occular gard to' dhe open
vowel; nor les neſceſſary to' compounds, dhan to'
ſimpels: alike dhen to' tall and toll, pall and poll, boath diſtinctive;
to' all and widhall, fall and befall, roll and enroll;
ſo to' controll, ſeen alſo controul; hwich renders dhe
vowel equivvocal, widhout grattifying Ettymollogy.
Az notthing innocent, far les anny thing uſefool, can
here be exploded; under Orthoggraphy's own proteccion,
ar dhe abuttals n and b: hweddher expectant instruments
ov formacion, az in limn and limb; or gards alſo
to' dhe open vowel, az in climb and comb.
EXCES wil not ſupply defect. Orthoggraphy
howevver iz not more bound to' retrench dhe von,
dhan to' make up dhe oddher. An aſpirate, in ſimpel
figgure, iz dubbled az annv oddher conſonant: dhis a
lavviſh offer. An aſpirate, ſtil in compound ſhape
dubbels itſelf to' dhe eye, by prefixing onely dhe ſimpel.
Dhus did c dubbel dhe guttural in dhe Greek and
Lattin Bacchus; dho now in French and Ingliſh,
hwich hav boath loſt dhat aſpirate, dhe ſimpel doz but
dubbel itſelf. Dhe -ſimpel labial till dubbels dhe
rate in dhe Ingliſh ſapphire, az in Sappho and Apphia:
ſo dhe direct dental in Matthew, Matthias, or dhe
AINCIENT languages ſeem to' hav uzed no depreſſive
aſpirate, unles dhe labial interchainged (no dout, az row,
by vulgarritv) widh dhe braud licquefier (v widh w).
Dhe Inglih almoaſt alone, ov dhe moddern, haz prezerved
dhe dental; and dhat, like oddher aſpirates, in
edher power.
DHE ſame orthoggraphy dherfore, dhat by dhe ſimpel
dubbels dhe aſpirate in Matthew, muſt in metthod, and
even in Atthens; dhe French, Lattin, and Greek parents
being equally forrain to' dhe Ingliſh children. Dhe like
anallogy dubbels dhe depreſſive aſpirate by dhe depreſſive
ſimpel in gaddher, neddher, hiddher, boddher, oddher, and
broddhel (herd udhher, and brudhdhel) widh dhe reſt.
Proppers wil be clear az appellatives: Rotthes and Roddhery,
Roddherhith (Ruddherhith) and Ruddherfoard.
Attbol and Maddber ſhow at wonce dhe ſhut vowel and
dhe aſpirate.
IF dhen dhe inſertive be alike expedient in Athens
and raddher; h alone can be inſerted to' prolong dhe ſhut
ſound ov a ſlender (dhat iz, to' repprezent dhe ah we hear)
in fahdher, pappah, mammah, Pahtric, Barbahdoes
(hware, az gennerallv, preferred to Barbadoes) and in
gahp (licquefied gyahp) wonce gape; in all hwich it acts,
az doz dhe ettymolodgic l in half, calf, Ralph, calm,
and evvery alm, widh alms and almoner; dho in almond,
az in ſalmon, it ſhuts and ſhortens; making dhem herd,
az dhey dherfore muſt be ſeen, ammond (raddher ammon)
along widh ſammon.
t. d.
WIDH like rezon iz inſerted dhe ſimpel dental; at
wonce to' ſhut dhe preceding vowel, and to' dubbel dhe
aſpirate, dhat ſucceded dhe guttural; dhat ſucceſſor
being compozed ov dhe ſimpel dental, widh dhe aſpirated
ſibbilaccion (tſh and dzh); dho Ingliſhly repprezented
ch and j, or g before e, i, or y.
DHE ſame exigence dhen, dhat inſerts t in ſatchel,
Fletcher, Mitchel, and dutches; and prepares it in diſpatch,
catch, wretch, ditch, notch, or clutch; for diſpatching,
catching, wretches, and dhe oddher formatives,
aught no les to' prepare it in attatch and detatch,
bretch and ritch; for attatching, bretching, ritches, even
Ritchard and dhe reſt. Brave Ritchy has ventured, to'
lead. Riche, dépêche (wonce deſpeſche) ſachet, fléchier,
attacher, and dhe oddher parents, had dhey anny voice
in a forrain parlement, wood no more forbid dhe propriety
ov dheir children; dhan wood rico, ſaccus, or
anny preddeceſſor, from dhe Hebrew down, hav forbidden
No les neſceſſary iz dhe depreſſive (d) in badge, ledge,
bridge, lodge, and judge; dhan in badges, ledges, lodger,
judging, or dhe reſt; being dhe gard ov dhe ſhut
vowel, az dhe ſhutter ov it; hwile bach and attach might
ſuffice to' dhemſelvs, had (they no more likelihood ov
prodgeny dhan haz much, in almoaſt all (the dignity ov
mucho. If ſuch may pas, by like plea; tutch, widh
fammily and frends, muſt hencefoarth watch over dheir
propperty and propriety; hwich hav been ſo long invaded
and violated, widhout aſſerter or avenger.
IN oſtrich indeed, no inſertive iz neſceſſary; becauz
non in oſtriches, hware dhe i iz febel, and coincident
widh i ſhut. But in partridge, no les dhan in partridges,
dhe inſertive iz recquizite, to' preclude the poſſibillity
ov anny ige; a ſound peculiarly abomminabel to'
evvery unviſciated ear.
Bague, loge, juge, abréger, or dhe like, hav had no
more power dhan inclinacion to' prevent badge, lodge,
judge or abridge. Ettymollogy even ſmiled on her judge,
hoom ſhe reccognized dhe legittimate ofspring ov judex,
az ſure az dhis ov jus dicere. About dhe reſt, ſhe knew
almoaſt az littel az ſhe cared, ſeing dhem all hopeles
barbarians; prezerving ſcarce a linneament ov bacca, locare,
brevis, or βραχύς. Won member ov dhis corrupt
clas ſhe gennerouſly fancied yet retrievabel. Allegare
pretended no d. Daining a glance at alléguer, ſhe
ſaw non. ALLEDGE (pronounced ſhe in writing, hwich for
ſevveral rezons the prefers to' oral ſentence) ALLEDGE
has doubtleſs the forcible ſupport of LEDGE, LODGE,
with the other very beautiful minions of their learned
claſs: that claſs, which would rather bear pidgeon, relidgion,
imadgine; Rodger, Trodjan, ſodjorn; than
pigeon, religion, imagine; Roger, Trojan, ſojourn!
Thoſe blockheads only, who, forgetting the very ALLEGIANCE
they profeſs to their honoured friend Analogy;
without allegation of ought, unleſs that ALLEDGE tells
truth! have alleged the beautifully-recovered relique allege,
the dangerous innovation!
v. p.
Like ſapphire and proffer, wil propphet and proffit appear,
hwenevver dhey dare to' appear dhemſelvs. Shal
dhe French prophete, or profit, forbid it? Ettymollogy
alone can prefer even propphet to' proffet. Az French,
like Latin, dubbels apparently, hware really dhe direct
labial aſpirate; edher wood hav dubbelled dhe depreſſive
to' dhe eye, had it ſo don to' dhe ear. Ingliſh
az often dhe depreſſive, az dhe direct:
and ſhal we be affraid or ashamed to' ſhow dhe truith, becauz
oddher nations had not dhat truith to' ſhow? Shal we
ſay and ſee puffing, and differ; and ſay, widhout ſeing,
lovving or livver? Shal p and b; not f and v, be equally
herd and ſeen? mop and mob, or cup and cub; not
luf and lov, or dhe like?
IN twelfth and twelvmonth, dhe ſtifled aſpirate doz
no more good or harm, dhan dhe ſimmilarly pent licquid
in govvernment, vertually guvverment. P and b ar indeed
often employed to' covver m before a dental, az in Brompton,
Hampſted, Embden; ſo in drempt, exempt, exempcion,
glimpſe, Dempſter, ſempſtres. But a licquid havving
ſuch tendency to' communicate dhe depreſſive, and
dhe ſibbilacion, to' receiv it; dhe direct labial proovs
caucionary inſertive. Dho aincient Samſon, immoovabel,
requires it not; dhe ſon ov Sam muſt hav a gard
in Sampfon: elſe wood he becom Samzon, dhe compannion
ov damzon or damzen.
— to' ſhut dhe antepenultimate.
DHE harmony ov human language muſt depend on
(muſt indeed conſiſt ov) dhe propper union ov vocallity
and articulacion. A vowel unſhut by a following conſomint,
if ſtrong (dhat iz, emphatticized) muſt be comparratively
long; if weak, propoarcionably ſhort. A vowel
ſhut iz ſtopt, howevver elſe varied, by dhe ſhutting consonant;
dherfore ov les vocallity, dhan won ov like emphaſis
open; dho dhe ſtrength (and conſequent length)
ov dhe ſyllabel, muſt be encreſed by dhe ſhutters collizzion
widh anoddher conſonant, articculating dhe
quent vowel. Dhis meeting ov uncombinabel conſonants
occazioned in aincient languages, hwat waz called length
by poziſcion; but in ours occazions length, hware it
communicates (az it natturally doz) ſtrength or ſtres: for,
dho ſhutting chainges dhe quallity, it affects not always
dhe quantity of Ingliſh ſound. Indiſpenſabel howevver
it iz, dhat dhe cauz be ſeen; elſe dhe conſequence cannot
be expected.
SINCE language, like all oddher human performance,
muſt procede by dhe alternacion ov labor and reſt; in adjuſted,
if not equal, poarcions; it may be no les plezing
dhan propper, nor les ezy dhan edher, to' trace dhe few
poſſibel mezzures, dhat harmonize dhe variety ov ſpeech.
Effort precedes remiſſion. Strong and weak, dhence
long and ſhort, muſt be dhe firſt mezzure ov expreſſion;
dhe foot named by dhe Greeks TROKEE, or COREE,
az dhe apteſt to' run or to' dance. Edher name, ſtrong
on dhe former ſyllabel, exemplifies dhe foot. Equally,
dho not in equally preciſe number, may dhe feet or ſteps
be exemplified, hweddher in proze or verſe; but, according
to' dheir happy combinacion, muſt dhe harmony ov
boath be aſcertained. A fair Trocaic, in edher, ov three
Trokees and a half; or (familiarized into') four Trokees,
muſt be allowed—
Sollyma, beguin dhe ſong.
Sollyma, beguin dhe carrol.
Dhe next, az dhe oppozite foot, muſt be weak and ſtrong,
or ſhort and long; IAMB; hwenceſoevver named, exemplifying
alſo itſelf. Dhe Iambic haz dherfore but to'
prefix a weak ſyllabel to' dhe Trocaic mezzure:—
Fair Sollyma, beguin dhe ſong.
Dho Trocaics excede not dhoze we hav ſeen, Iambics
may contain anny number ov Iambs, not exceding ſix,
hwich conſtitute dhe French heroic, and dhe Ingliſh Allexandrine;
ſo termed (probbably) for its exces ov a foot,
beyond dhe pentammeter (or five-foot) Iambic, dhe Ingliſh
heroic mezzure
Ye Nymphs ov Sollyma, beguin dhe ſong.
Dhy relm for evver laſts: dhy own MESSIAH reigns!
Az Trocaics and Iambics may dellicately interchainge
dhe peculiar foot ov each oddher; much more may dhey
ſubſlitute a PYRRIC, two weak or ſhort ſyllabels; (dhe tripper
in dhe Pyrric dance;) or dhe SPONDEE, adapted in two
ſtrong or long ſyllabels, to' occazions ov folemnity.
AINCIENT quantity ov vocal ſound iz to' be aſcertained
by poziſcion, coaliſcion, contraccion, cremment (medial
encreſe in dhe inflexion ov noun or verb) or by termination;
conſequently, by derrivacion or compoziſcion;
and, hwen by non ov dhoze cauzes, by claſſical authorrity.
Moddern quantity, depending chiefly on dhe alternation
ov ſtrength and weaknes, hardly admits oddher dhan
dhe four diſſyllabel feet. Ingliſh indeed (like aincient
language) ſo inviggorates won ſyllabel, dhat it may enfebel,
not onely won, but two ſyllabels; hweddher preceding
or following. Foarce howevver producing febelnes,
raddher dhan febelnes foarce; dhe DACTYL;
won ſtrong and two weak, or won long and two ſhort, iz
a far more nattural foot or mezzure dhan dhe ANNAPEST,
its repercucient, or retrogade: two weak and won
ſtrong, or two ſhort and won long. Yet ar dheze mutually
related, az Trokee and Iamb. Dhe Dactyl, or
finguer, conſiſting ov won long and two ſhort members;
ſo gallopping in won long and two ſhort ſteps, being
equal in time to Spondee, compozed widh it dhe aincient
heroic hexammeter (or ſix-foot) mezzure; hware Annapeſt
dho ov dhe ſame time, cood find no admittance.
From each howevver hav we a familliar mezzure: dhe
Dactyllian and Annapeſtic, differing but by a febel ſyllabel.

Dhe former widh Dactyls divides an Iamb:
But dhe latter widh Annapeſts fils up dhe jamb.
Boath at indeed ſo natturally Dactyllian, dhat won name
may ſuffice dhem; az moaſt verſifiers promiſcuouſly commence
widh edher won or two febel ſyllabels; counting
onely from dhe firſt emphatticized.
Dhis verſe, like a gallopper, ſwallows dhe ground
Or dhe verſe Annapeſtic diſplays dhe rebound.
So od, yet ſo even, iz won ſpecies ov dhe old Annapeſtic;
dhat it may edher be varied into a ſort ov ſtanza, or
reduced to' dhe round ov Pyrric, Spondee: hence not
unaptly named Ionicus à minore, progreſſive from dhe
les (Hor. III. xii.) But all moddern languages being
ſtrictly ſubject to' alternacion, Ingliſh Dactyl and Annapeſt
ar equally rezolvabel into' a Trokee and a half; a
ſtronger and weaker, or weaker and ſtronger extreme.
Dhus it iz, dhat dignity and underſtand, equally introduce
to' a dubbel Trokee, in dignitary and underſtanding.
IF dhen dhe ſtres (or enſoarcement) be dhe hinge ov
harmony, ſhal we not endevvor to' command it? If dhe
ſtres be az apt to' ſhut dhe vowel, az dhe ſhut vowel to'
ſhow dhe ſtres; ſhal boath continnue inacceſſible
raddher dhan ſhow dhe ſhutter, dhat aſcertains dhem?
Orthoeppy and Orthoggraphy hav experienced
no violacion ſo genneral az dhat, hwich muſt arize from
dhe privvilege claimed by Ettymollogv, ov prezenting articulacion
ſinguel, if its forrain parent waz ſinguel; howevver
dubbel may be itſelf. Dhis claim, les or more regarded
in dhe yet-forming picturage ov all derivvative
dialects; haz propoarcionably impeded dheir due repprezentacion;
til each came to' repprezent onely herſelf, on
finding herſelf alone in queſtion. Hwen a language haz,
like ours, at length attained her maturity, ſhe muſt fix
and follow her own ſepparate ſyſtem; hwich, far from
diſclaiming all deſcent, wil ſecure deſcent forrain widh
IN our dactyllian diccion, hware ſo frequently won
ſtrong ſyllabel iz followed, not onely by won abſolutely
febel; but by anoddher ſo inferiorly ſtrong, dhat boath at
comparratively febel; dhe antepenultimate vowel (or laſt
but two) iz apt to' be ſtrong; and ſhut, if articulacion
follow; dho onneſt Ettymollogy, hoo hears onely widh
her eyes, and knows no child but in dhe parent; haz
hiddherto' inſiſted, almoaſt widhout denial, on ſeing dhe
vowel ſti1 open, and dhe ſucceding articulacion ſtil ſinguel,
az the continnues to' ſee dhem in dhe Lattin language.
Dhis may be ezily exemplified in evvery articulacion,
and in evvery clas ov pollyſyllabels. Dhe contrail
ſtrikes at wonce ear and eye, in annihilate, exhilarate,
charity, ſerenity, ſublimity; apathy, ebony; gratitude,
adamant; ſycophant, aqueduct, agony. Dubbel
iz dhus dhe direct ſibbilacion, az in capacity, ruſticity,
velocity; ſo in curioſity, philoſophy, philoſopher, and
dhe like. Yet dubbel iz dhe depreſſive, az in Lazarus
or Azimuth, ſo in poſitive and compoſitor, viſible and
Viſigoth, inquiſitive, and heſitate, Iſidore and Iſabel,
widh dheir fellows. Vertually dherfore dhey ar, and
vertuouſly muſt appear, annihhilate (dho ſom, from ſeing,
doo ſay annihilate) exhillarate, charrity, ſerennity, ſublimmity;
appathy, ebbony, grattitude, addamant, ſyccophant,
acqueduct, aggony. So capaſcity, ruſtiſcity,veloſcity; curioſſity,
philoſſophy, ph iloſſopher; widh Lazzarus, Azzimuth,
pozzitive, compozzitor; vizzibel, Vizzigoth; inquizzitive,
hezzitate; Izzidore, Izzabel, and dhe reſt. Won law
rules dhe ſimpels and dhe aſpirates. Dhus propheſy and
prophecy (dhe verb opening always, dhe noun on poettic
occazion, dhe final vowel into' dhe dipthong); gravity
and levity, every and lively, Athelſtan and Ethelred,
treachery and tragedy, majeſty and magiſtrate: all really
(and hwy not repprezentedly?) ſhut dhe ſtrong antepenultimate,
in proppheſy and propphecy (if not yet proffeſy
and proffecy); gravvity, levvity; evvery, livvery; Atthelſtan,
Etthelred; tretchery; tradgedy; madjeſty, madgiſtrate;
and ſo on.
Hence it iz, dhat vile, type, or nature, ar not followed
in vocallity by dhe hiddherto' apparent viliſy, typify, natured;
hwich, not being dheir formatives, but equally
Primmitive, ſubmit to' antepenultimate power, and
shut dhe Strong vowel in dhe real villify, typpify, nattural,
widh dhe like. An immediate and litteral formative
prezervs no les natturally dhe vowel (unchainged) ov its
root. Dhe open vowel ov note remains dherfore in notabel,
dhat may be noted; dhus diſtinct from nottabel
(dhe primmitive and figgurative) dhat muſt be
ſo. Dho dhe diſſyllabels, alien and various, hav dheir
prior vowel open and ſtrong; dhe triſyllabels allienate
and varriegate (ſquezing alſo dhe weak vowels into'
coaliſcion) ſhut duly dhe Strong antepenultimate. Yet
amiabel may edher dilate into' a tetraſyllabel (a word ov
four ſyllabels) or melt dhe medial vowels into' coaleſcence;
and becom a triſſyllabel, without ſhutting dhe
first, dho dhe ſtrongeft vowel. So, az u doz not ſhut by
antepenultimate foarce, witnes purity or accuzative; it remains
equally open in conſtitucion and conſtitucional; nor
les dhe emphattic o, in devotion, devotional. Open iz
dhus dhe ſtrong vowel, az in purify, ſo in glorify,
adorabel, deplorabel, potabel, placabel, capabel, in irony,
ivory, library; horary; in votary, notary, potentate,
az in vote, note, and potent; az in ice, in icikel and
izinglas. No wonder if nice, fine, ſecret, and favor
command nicety, finery and finary, ſecrecy, and favorite.
Nedher haz dhe ennergy ſhut dhe firſt vowel ov apricoe,
hwich ſom ar fond to' name apricot, in politenes to' dhe
parent abricot; dho artichoke be no ſuch pliant plant ov
PROPPERS, being les familliar, demand preciſe picture
more dhan common terms. Nor widhout dhe appearance
can dhe reallitv be known, in Pollydore, Bellerrophon,
Ahinnoam, Ahitthophel, Jehosſhaphat; more
dhan in pollitic, or polittic and polittical; herretic, and
herettic or herettical; in finnical, diminnutive, and ſo on.
Dhe parents Polydore, Polydorus, or Bellerophon, far from
precluding, enforce dhe lov ov truith, by dhe reſiſtles
power ov exampel; ſo Marie la bonne, or Mary dhe
boon (hwen boon waz ſynonnymous to' good) prevents not
Natures opperacion in dhe name ov dhe ſuburb Marribon;
hwich muſt, but in dhe niceſt diſcriminacion ov
dhe febel vowel, coincide widh marrowbone.
NoTTHING, dherfore, not even Ettymollogy, can longer
obſtruct dhe prezzentacion ov truith to' dhe eye, more
dhan to' dhe ear; hweddher in dhe open or dhe ſhut
vowel, dhe ſinguel or dhe dubbel conſonant. Ettymollogy
haz alreddy ſeen (and ſeen wel-plezed) certain
duplicacions, which ſhe had always onnored in parental
diccions, Dubbel dherfore (or repeated) by birth az
wel az breeding, iz dhe chief articulacion ov fallacy and
fallibel, terrify and terribel (horribel narrative!) affabel,
ineffabel; ſtannary, ſcammony; appetite, attitude; irritate,
aggravate; adjutant, adjective; iraſcibel, poſſibel; neceſſity,
neceſſitate; ſuſcitate, faſcinate, eviſcerate, and oddhers.
It cannot hence be imadgined, dhat c (hwich waz
dhe Lattin k) ſibbilated in dhe firſt parents. Manny
(even moddern) parents indeed, in won contry, hav livved
to' ſee dheir children in anoddher; dhe more wordhy
(their deſcent, and dhe more conſpiccuouſly rezembling
dheir anceſtors; dhat, like dhem, dhe deſcendants maintained
heredditary rectitude, and aſſumed no ſemblance
but dheir own. Dhus ar pilori, galerie, loterie, cotignac,
apanage, ouragan, proud ov dheir equally onnorabel and
obviouſly undegennerate ofspring, pillory, gallery, lottery,
quiddeny, appanage, hurricane. But old Ettymollogy,
having unfortunately no acquaintance widh moddern
tungs, or widh anny thing later dhan Lattin; comforts
herſelf for ſeccondary loſſes, hwich ſhe cood nedher prevent
nor foreſee; hwen ſhe contemplates dhe ſtrength ov
dhe chains, dhat hav ſo manny ages enſlaved dhe Ingliſh
language; and hwich ſhe ſmiles to' think ſtil more dhan
ſuffiſcient to' perpettuate dhe thraldom.
A word ov four ſyllabels, ſtrong on dhe firſt, iz apt
alſo by dhe ſtrength, to' ſhut dhe vowel; nor les natturally
apt to' ſhow dhe ſhutter; hwich, by dhe ſucceſſive
benefficence ov Truith, recipprocally ſhows dhe ſtres, or
ſittuacion ov vocal ennergy. Dhus doo alliment, ellement,
ſerraphim, ſuſcitate, prefference, irreziſtibly lead
to' allimental and allimony, ellemental, cerremony, neſceſſary,
prefferabel, and dhe like: hwich tetraſyllabels,
by dhe nattural law ov alternacion, or ov mutually conſequencial
foarce and febelnes, muſt conſtitute each a dubbel
Trokee. Dhe alternate dhen before, ſtil more dhan
dhat after dhe ſrongeſt vowel (it being ezier to' antiſcipate
ennergy dhan to' recovver it) acquires ſuffiſcient (dho but
ſeccondary) ſtrength to' ſhut dhe vowel; hwich we muſt
vizzibly, az audibly, confes in cerremonial and cerremonious,
prefferencial and revverencial, mannumit, mannumiſſion;
hezzitacion, prezzervacion, allabaſter, Maddagaſcar,
and dhe reſt. Yet, if dhe firſt ov an Annapeſt
catch dhus graiter ſtrength, dhan dhe laſt ov a Dactyl
prezervs; dhe latter iz no les real, becauz les ſenſibel,
dhan dhe former ſhutting ennergy ov mellancolly, or ov
Orthoeppy; poettically dherfore enfoarcibel into lawfool
rime widh folly, or widh Sheppey.
— to' ſhut dhe penultimate.
IF dhe articulacion ſhutting dhe antepenultimate, az wel
az articculating dhe ſubſequent vowel, haz been hiddherto'
belied by Ettymollogy, widh ſo few excepcions, and
ſo few frends; ſcarce haz dhe penultimate vowel, ſhut by
ſimmilar cauz, widh its ſhutter renewed for ſimmilar purpoſe,
been treated widh les indignity ov repprezentacion.
Not onely before ic, az before ical; but before it, id,
iſh, age; and indeed before anny oddher ending; haz
dhe natturally enfoarced, and az natturally ſhut vowel,
been, widh like blind ſubmiſſion, left ſeemingly open;
by dhe following conſonants being left ſeemingly ſinguel;
dho' az really ſhutting won vowel, az repeated to'
articculate anoddher.
DHUS grammatic, poetic, critic, analytic, deſpotic,
periodic, Apoſtolic, Malabaric, cynic, mimic, epic, Arabic,
ſeraphic, civic, ethic, ,phyſic, logic; or grammatical,
and ſo on; hav, by Ettymollogy's madgic pencil,
identified dhe true-born Ingliſh grammattic, poettic, crittic,
annalyttic, deſpottic, perioddic, Appoſtollic, Mallabarric,
cynnic, mimmic, eppic, Arabbic, ſerapphic (or
ſeraffic) civvic, etthic, phyzzic (if not yet fizzic) lodgic;
or grammattical, and ſo foarth. Not but dhat Arabbic,
fanattie, lunattic, widh chainge ov nature and ov ſtres,
chainge at wonce dheir Orthoggraphy; into Arrabic,
fannatic, lunatic, and dhe like. Dhus arrithmettic, and
arrithmettical, polittic and pofittical, ar dhe adjectives;
arithmetic and pollitics, dhe ſciences.
WIDH tacit, rigid, vaniſh, image, hav value, ſeraph,
ſenate, camel; rapine, tribute; metal, medal; hazard;
vicar, figure; prophet, profit, and proverb; method,
gather, and ſojourn; ſo natturalized proppers, like Adam,
Athens, Paris; paſſed all by won authorrity, az current
coin, for dhe ſterling taſcit, ridgid, vanniſh, immage; vallue,
ſerraph, ſennate, cammel; rappine, tribbute; mettal,
meddal; hazzard; viccar, figgure; propphet (or proffet)
proffit, provverb; metthod, gaddher, ſodjoin; widh Addam,
Athens, Parris, and dhe reſt. By dhe ſame authorrity
may anny thing pas for its oppozite.
IT may ezily be imadgined dhat, in dhis our counterfeit
coinage, dhe few nouns hwich becom ſuch by tranſpozing
dhe ſtres ov dheir verbs; dho, by dhe tranſpoziſcion,
dhey ſhut dhe vowel dhey ſtrengthen; ar ſo far
from confeſſing to' dhe eye anny chainge, dhat dhey hav
ſacredly kept dhe ſemblance ov dhe parents dhey contraſt:
continnuing to' ſeem cement, preſage, prelude, produce,
record, rebel; yet moddeſtly expecting to' be taken for
cemment, preſſage, prellude, prodduce, reccord, rebbel!
Nor doz dhe indiſpenſabel chainge (hwich iz non ov our
making) preclude anny won ov' dhe latter clas from becomming
(widhout new chainge) a joccular verb; or
army won ov dhe former, from becomming a ſollemn
noun. Dhe verbs premize and refuze, ſimmilarlv huddelled
into' won ſemblance widh dheir nouns, differ alſo in
dhe power ov dhe ſibbilant; dhe ſubſtantives being premmiſe
and reffuſe; hwile dhe adjective refuſe, ſtrong (az dhe
verb) on dhe latter, joins in direct ſibbilacion, dhe clas
ov abſtruſe, morofe, conciſe, and baſe. Orthoggraphy
ſo ſevvers each preſcious minnute, from anny (even
ſeeming) connexion widh minute.
IF in dhe end, after an open vowel (unles in certain
formative caſes) we dare not, like dhe French, uze dhe
direct figgure for dhe depreſſive ſibbilant; much les iz it
poſſibel for dhe direct form, ſinguel or dubbel, to' picture
medially dhe depreſſive ſibbilating power. Hwile
dherfore deſert, preſent, and dheir pleaſant compannions,
dezerting ezy Truith, prezent onely plezzant conundrums;
obviouſly ar dhe ſound and dhe ſenſe,
ov dezert and dezzert or dezzart, prezent and prezzent;
joined by plezzant, pezzant, bezzant, and phezzant or
fezzant; az wel az by plezzure, lezzure, trezzure, and
mezzure. Alike indiſpenſabel being dhus found orrizon
and horizon; raizin, rezon, trezon, wezand, poizon;
blazon, brazen; razor, hazel, ezel; bezom, uzage, and
dheir fellows; nor dheze les dhan baſon, biſon, uſance,
and dheir equally onneſt, if not equally numerous, aſſoaciates;
ſhal we dout about rizzen, prizzon, rozzin, dazzel,
mizzel, muzzel: nozzel, bezzel, chizzel, cizzar,
or clozzet; about wizzard, lizzard, buzzard, bazzard,
or bozzom (wonce boozom, now herd buzzom) widh dozzen,
cuzzen (duzzen, cuzzen) and dhe reſt? Buſy can
no more paint bizzy, dhan duſy dizzy, or huſſy huzzy;
dho huſwife can be but huzzif, az huſband, huzband;
dhe ſibbilant catching nattural depreſſion from dhe depreſſive
— to' ſhut dhe ſtrong vowel before dhe ſibbilating
No ſinguel conſonant dhen can repprezent a dubbel;
leaſt ov all, dhe ſibbilacion. Dhe vowel i, indeed, haz
been emboldened by Ettymollogy to' claim privvileges,
newer known edher to aincient or moddern Orthoggraphy;
particcularly dhat ov continnuing to' appear open,
dho evver ſo audibly ſhut. Dhis if it hav claimed, but in
common widh oddher vowels, no won ov dhem haz carried
dhe boldnes into' ſuch frequency, widh evvery clozer;
nor in ſo peculiar a manner, widh dhe ſibbilacion.
Ettymollogy, howevver, ſeing onely hwat iz aincient or
diſtant; hears notthing dhat iz moddern or near. She haz
dherfore no objeccion to' dhe ſight ov Truith from afar;
nor conſequently to' miſſive and miſſion, paſſive and paſſian;
or to' ceſſion and ſeſſion, a pair ſhe littel ſuppozes
coincident. No umbrage can ſhe take at Roſcius or Priſcian,
beteroſcian, or amphiſcian; hware ſhe dreams ov
no dubbel ſibbilacion more dhan ov army liquefaccion, far
les ov aſpiracion. Viſcid and luſcious ſhe can alſo look
at; but inſiſts on ſeing precious and vicious; her indignacion
havving alreddy been exhauſted, on précieux and
vicieux; hwich ſhe did weep to' behold, after caſting a
tender glance on pretioſus and vitioſus, az wel az on pretium
and vitium; til ſollaced a littel by dhe luxury ov
ſorrow, ſhe ſaid to' herſelf: Let moddern mutilators enjoy
dhe monſters dhey make! and wood hav added, had
ſhe known JONNY GAY:
My juſt revenge may reſt contented,
Widh prix, and price, and vice invented.
Anallogy took pitty on dhe outcaſts, az the had don
on dheir parents; determining to' aſcertain, widh prize,
price, and vice, boath preſcious and viſcious; nor quite
to' exterminate dhe forrain ſpecies and ſpecie, hwen ſhe
made ſpeſcial and ſpeſcify her own. She knew, dho'
Ettymollogy did not, dhat a ſhut vowel cood not be
ſeen widhout dhe ſhutter; morover, dhat Ingliſh waz
nedher French nor Lattin! ſhe did dherfore immediate
juftice to' dhe judiſcious phyziſcian; dhe auſpiſcious
ſuſpiſcion, artificial noviſciate, ſuffiſcient defiſcience, and
dhe reſt.
IN evvery diccion, ſimpels and aſpirates, by dheir
contraſted nearnes, hav been liabel to' interchainge.
Hence dhe Lattin barbariſm ov chommodum for commodum;
and Ettymollogy's old ſtruggel for charus, in prefference
to' carus. Dhe Itallians erly wed ſimpel c before
e and i, az dhe Ingliſh doo ch (vertually tſh); and,
on dhe contrary, ch before dhoze vowels, like dhe Spanniſh,
French, and Ingliſh c elſehware; or like dhe
Lattin c evvery-hware equivvalent to' q or k: witnes
Cicerone, chi che ſia; in Ingliſh picturage (at leaſt
ov dhe articulacion) Chicherone, ki ke ſia. Before dhe
ſame ſlender vowels, dhe Ingliſh, widh dhe French and
Spanniards, adopted c (won Greek ſhape) for dhe ſimpel
ſibbilacion; in words, hoos Lattin anceſtors had rendered
it dhe ſubſtitute of k: az in dhe Spanniſh Ciceron,
or Cecina; dhe French Cicéron, and dhe Ingliſh Cicero,
hwich iz truly Ciſcero; dho Ettymollogv fancy it ſti1 dhe
Lattin Cicero, dhat iz Kikero; hwich it juſt az much rezembels,
az doz dhe French Cicéron Κιϰέρων (Kikerôn).
FROM Lattin nouns in tio, (the Itallian formatives to'
(the dental t ad dhe ſimpel ſibbilant. Dhus became
natio, nazione (natſione). Dhe Spanniſh, keeping onely
dhe latter dental, fairly repprezent it; az nacion. Dhe
French, retaining dhe ſame ſinguel ſibbilacion, paint it by
dhe Lattin hard dental t; az nation. Dhe Ingliſh,
dropping likewize dhe dental, kept impliſcitly (widh dhe
French) its obdurate figgure for dhe ſibbilacion; hwich
dhey did indeed aſpirate, by melting its neſceſſarily febel
vowel into' coaliſcion, widh anoddher dhence equally febel;
dhe former becomming in licquefaccion preciſely
identic, or coincident, widh dhe aſpiracion (i widh h):
hwence dhe Ingliſh word proovs a ſyllabel ſhorter, dhan
dhe French or Spanniſh correſpondent. Yet in ſom (nor
dhoze a few) wer dhe French and Ingliſh cognates parriſyllabic
(equal in ſyllabels) hware dhe French turned atio
into' aiſon: az ratio into' raiſon, hwence dhe Ingliſh ſervile
reaſon, becom now libberal rezon; widhout precluding
dhe no les ſervile ration for racion, rate ov mezzure.
So terminaiſon, termination, for terminacion, and dhe
BY dhis leaſt recconcilabel ov all Ettymollogy's ſubſtitucions;
haz t hiddherto' ſupplanted dhe juſt picture ov
dhe ſibbilacion; hweddher s or c, its now nattural (hware
neſceſſary) repprezentative. Dho s cannot continnue in
Ingliſh, az in French, to' repprezent (except az before
excepted) dhe depreſſive ſibbilant; and dherfore might
always fil its own place widh licquefied aſpiracion; yet,
unles hware it alreddy ettymolodgically doz ſo (az in expreſſion),
it wood be variouſly apt to' miſlead; hware its
moddern ſubſtitute c endaingers notthing. Hwaraz dherfore
dhe French nation, and dhe Ingliſh nation, violate
at wonce Latinnity and Truith; dhe Spanniſh nacion,
nor les dhe Ingliſh nacion (naſhon) by pretending no
more likenes, dhan ſhe haz to' her parent, doz equal
juſtice to' boath. Dhe vowel (or vocal figgure) i, which,
in oddher diccions, iz univerſally equivvalent to' dhe
Ingliſh e; enjoys dhence dhe ſame equivvalence in ours,
edher hwen febel or ſhut; az, by won or dhe oddher
cauz, in evvery ſyllabel ov indivizzibillity.
INTO' won abſurdity, howevver, dhe French hav not
led us; nor hav dhey led us into' manny, or evver committed
won equal to' dhat (we hav hiddherto' practiſed)
ov prezenting before dhe aſpirate licquefaccion, i occularly
(az ettymolodgically) open, for i really (az auriccularly)
ſhut! True it iz dhat, before ti belying ſi or ci,
no ſhutting dubbler cood be vizzibel; an irreffragabel argument,
wer dhare no oddher, againſt any ſuch ſubſtitucion.
Dhus dubbly impoffibel iz dlu continnuance ov anny
ſuch picture az ambition, ambitious; propitious, propitiate,
propitiation; initial, initiate, initiation; or az Titian,
Politian, Domitian, or Domitius; for (dhe indiſpenſabel
az unexcepeionabel) ambiſcion, ambiſcious; propiſcious,
propiſciate, propiſciacion; iniſciacion;
Tiſcian, Domiſcian, Domiſcius, and
dhe like. Here we perceiv dhat dhe vowel, hwich became
neſceſſarily febel by coaliſcion, az dhe a ov iniſciate,
opens into' no les neſceſſary ilrength, in ſuch az
iniſciacion; hware dhe preceding ci remains dhe ſimpel
ſibbilant, articculating dhe febel vowel. Nor iz iniſciate
more clearly a word ov three ſyllabels, i-niſ-ciate;
dhan iniſciacion, ov five: i-niſ-ci-a-cion: dhe laſt being
vertually ſhate and ſhon. Aincient, like iniſciate, melts
dhe ſibbilated i, into' dhe aſpiracion, hwich truncheon
dubbly pictures: for trunſhon wood be dhe ſemblance, az
it iz dhe reallity; had not tronçon trounced us into'
dhe c.
Not i ſhut alone waz exhibbited open, hwen ſhut, before
dhe licquefying or aſpirating ſibbilacion. Simmilarly
waz e falſified by ſpecial, precious, diſcretion; for ſpeſcial,
preſcious, diſcreſcion: nor a and e, les dhan i, ſhut
by antepenultimate power. Dhus hav national, rational,
and diſcretional; az much az conditional, petitioner,
and ſo on, deceived hooevver truſted ſuch apparitions!
For hoo ſhood know dhem to' be dhe appariſcions ov naſraſcional,
diſcreſcional; condiſcional, petiſcioner,
and dhe like reallities? Dhe three laſt indeed follow az
natturally diſcreſcion, condiſcion, petiſcion; az dhe two
firſt depart from nation and from racion. No won wil
now wonder dhat dhe Lattin-looking ratiocinate and ratiocination,
far from being chainged, becom permanently
and perſpiccuouſly Ingliſh in raſcioſcinate and raſcioſcinacion;
dho ſtil too pompous to' be plezing repprezentatives
ov rezon and rezoning; or ov argue and argumentation.
Stacion dherfore, and probation, at; cloſely followed
by dheir immediate agents ſtacioner and probacioner;
hwile dhe ſtrong vowel az natturally ſhuts in dhe remoter
formatives, ſtaſcionary and probaſcionary; like diſcreſcionary
and cliſcreſcional; hwich obey at wonce edher Anallogy.

FIVE hav ventured medially to' prezent, az wel az
realize, dhe aſpirate ſibbilacion; three ov dhem to' ſubjoin
dhe truly febel vowel, hwich it muſt abſorb. But all
five hav perſiſted in ſhutting dhe ſtrong vowel, widhout
ſhowing dhe ſhutter: dhat iz, all five hav conſtantly ſhut
dhe vowel, and conſiſtently left it open! Four ar dhe
prodgeny ov French parents; dhe fifth deſcends from
Greek and Latin, thro' Teutonnic channel. Mediately
iz dhus epiſcopus, dhe vennerabel anceſtor ov biſhop; hoo
can no more be reccognized, widhout appearing biſhop,
dhan cood Matthew in dhe mutilation ov Mathew: for
biſhop muſt clas widh Eliſha. Hwen paroch remained onely
in parokial, paroiſſe produced dhe ſeeming pariſh, and
dhe real parriſh, hwence pariſhioner; hoo muſt becom parriſhioner
(if not parriſcioner) or hope no more to' chime
widh practiſcioner. Façon, couſſin, and boiſſel (now boiſſeau)
cood hav no objection, if dhey had a vote againſt
dheir childrens owning dhemſelvs Fasſhion, coosſhion,
boosſhel. Faſcion, doutles, and cooſſion, wood pleze all
parties az wel.
IT wil ezily be imadgined, dhat dhe ſame ennergies
hav dhe fame effects in opening or ſhutting dhe vowel,
before dhe depreſſive, az before dhe direct ſibbilacion,
ſimpel or aſpirate. Open dhen az dhe emphattic vowel
natturally iz in creation, complecion, devotion, conſtitucion;
and continnues in devotional, az in conſtitucional;
ſimmilarly muſt it be open, in occazion, cohezion, explozion,
contuzion; dho antenenultimately ſhut in occazional,
az in raſcional. Dhe ſame ennergy dhat ſhuts dhe
vowel in addiſcion, muſt ſhut it in divizzion: ſo in vizzion
and vizzionary, provizzion and provizzional. Az
coaliſcion and collizzion, ſo tranſiſcion (or tranziſcion)
and decizzion. Cazzual joins cazzuiſt, az wel az vizzual;
hwile u maintains its native opennes, az uzual.
By dhis happy neceſſity, and onely poſſibel means, ov
ſupplying dhe vizibel ſhutter ov a vowel before dhe licquid-aſpirate
ſibbilacion, ar we enabled to' clear Ingliſh
Orthoggraphy ov its chief reproach; and to' pay, at leaſt
in won inſtance, dhat grait det ov annalodgic exampel,
we ſo long hav incurred to' our guides.
DHAT exces, defect, and falſe immage, might be alike
precluded; Orthoggraphy muſt hav ſtippulated for all
human diction, dhe prelimminary: Won ſound ſhal hav
but won ſymbol, and won ſymbol ſhal hav but won ſound.
If dhe erlieſt languages moaſt ſacredly, az moaſt ezily,
obzerved dhis law ov Nature; dheir deſcendants hav
onely to' keep az near its obſervance, az dhe ſucceſſive
ſyſtems ov dheir ancestors hav left widhin (their power.
Hebrew Orthoggraphy, declining to' paint dhe ſoll ov
ſound, cool not but be equally dellicate, to' exhibbit no
ſuperfluity, defect, or blemmiſh ov dhe boddy. Dhe
Greek, for mannly ages, held anny ſepparate picture ov long
vowels unneſceſſary; making dhe ſhort ſuffice by dhat
aid ov aſſociate ſerviles, hwich haz been dhence tranſmitted
to' moddern, peculiarly to' French and Ingliſh picturage.
Simpel doutles preceded compound found; and
articulacion, az wel az vocallity, muſt appear in its conſtituting
parts, before dhoze parts cood aſſume anny nexure.
Dhe Lattins, admitting no nexure, unles f and v
may be ſo called, prezerved beſide dheze (hwich dhey
held dheir own) dhe oridginally Greek conſtituents (ph)
ov dhe direct labial aſpirate, in dhe terms immediately
impoarted from dhe parent-language. Q or q, waz littel
elſe dhan a varriacion ov c, to' bind u in braud licquefaccion,
widh dhe vowel following; hwile c and g cood each
know but won ſound, dhat iz, k direct and depreſſive.
AINCENT languages wer dhus too ſimply clear to' admit
interchainge, or ſubſtitucion, ov ſymbols; for dhis
wood hav been an obvious infraccion, in boath parts, ov
Orthoggraphy's goolden law. Greek and Roman ſibbilacion
nevver waz aſpirate; dho dhe Hebrew ſibbilant admitted
aſpiracion. Aincient ſibbilaccion, az aſpiracion,
waz natturally direct; nor had it, az haz moddern, a ſepparately
depreſſive figgure. Dho s and z hav deſcended
to' dhe French and dhe Ingliſh, purely az dhe direct and
depreſſive ſibbilacion; dhe aincient preddeceſſor ov z waz
a nexure or combination prefixing t, if not raddher d
(dhe nearer relacion), to' dhe depreſſive ſibbilant. Hence
s, erly allowed ſuſceptibel ov edher power; came to' be
employed, by moddern picturage, in boath; and c ſoftened,
before e, i, or y; or by a mark under, into' dhe direct
ſibbilant, offiſciated (ettymolodgically) for s, hware s
waz engaged in dhe depreſſive ſervice. So, hware c plays
s, k muſt play c; hwile g, at Ettymollogy's command,
encroaches on j, before dhe ſoftening vowels; and, havving
dhare no ſubſtitute for its hard part, muſt itfelf perform
it with dhe garding ſervile (u). If dhen moddern
picturage, among unavoidabel varieties, hav received
boath s and c; muſt it alſo receiv t, for direct ſibbilacion?
Dhis iz alreddy anſered, in favor ov all Orthoggraphy;
ſhood Ettymollogy dy, ov dotage or ov deſpair.

OUT ov dhe queſtion wer, and ar, ſatiety and Miltiades;
hwich nevver ceſing to' be tetraſyllabels, admit
nedher dimminucion, nor chainge. We cannot hav forgot
dhat i melts, onely hwen febel, into' aſpiracion; and hwen
ſquezed by dhe ſtrong preceding ſyllabel into' licquefied
(or aſpirating) combinacion, widh dhe no les neſceſſarily
weak vowel following. In edher ſatiety or Miltiades,
dhe i iz, by antepenultimate ennergy, irreffragably ſtrong;
dherfore abſolutely unconnected widh dhe vowel following.
Dhus dhe i, far from becomming a febel conſonant,
remains dhe ſtrong open vowel, or dipthong; and
dhe four ſyllabels keep az clear az dhe four ov ſociety, or
dhe five ov Alcibiades; hwaraz dhe weak i neſceſſarily
melts into' mere aſpiracion, in ſaciate and inſaciabel;
vertually ſaſhate and inſaſhabel. Hwile dherfore dhe
French ſaciété aught no more to' be falſified ſatiété; dhe
Ingliſh ſatiety is invariabel in ſound or ſemblance, az dhe
Lattin ſatietas; hwich can no more be ſibbilated or ſhortened,
dhan Horraces tetraſyllabel
Heu, nimis longo ſatiate ludo!
Ah! ſaciate ov dhe bluddy game,
Fly, Mars; nor taint Minerva's fame !
It haz not yet been prezumed, dhat dhe Hebrew ſibbilated
dentallity: ſo Phaltiel and Shealtiel (in boath ov which
dhe dental articculates a weak and even meltabel, or combinabel,
vowel) hav remained inviolate: a compliment no
les due to' Greek proppers, not onely when dhe i, az in
Miltiades, iz ſtrong; but hwen febel, az in Bytias, Ingliſhly
Byttias, like Adramyttium. Such dherfore, az
Etius or Photius, muſt retain dhe t in ſound; or, in
Ecius and Phocius, chainge dhe ſymbol. Dhus Poarcius
(and Poarcia) can alone appear.
DHAT dhe hard dental and ſoft ſibbilacion ar, in Nature,
interchaingeabel (az oppozite) cognates; can be
douted by non, hoo know dhat in different dialects γλω̃σσα
(glôſſa) and γλω̃ττα (glôtta) ſignified equally dhe tung.
So dhe German waſſer and watter (hwence dhe Ingliſh
wauter) ar alike nattural ſiſters, az queſtionles children
ov ύ́δωρ (hydor). But it wil no more be pretended,
dhan imadgined; dhat in anny dialect or diſtrict, won evver
did, or cood, repprezent (more dhan be) dhe oddher;
dhat won cood be ſeen, hware dhe oddher wer herd.
Dho dhus evvery derivvative diccion muſt, widhout effort,
retain a ſuffiſcient, az propoarcionabel, rezemblance,
to' near, and les near, and remoteſt parents; no tung wil
evver find her own powers, or her own picture; her own
eſſence (in ſhort) or its repprezentacion; til ſhe looz
ſight ov every oddher tung, aincient or moddern; and
fix her hoal attenſion on dhe ſtuddy, improovment, and
prezzervacion ov herſelf; dhe ſole object ov dhat picture,
hwich muſt convey and aſcertain her to' dhe moaſt diſtant
places and times. Dhus, and dhus onely, hav
Greek and Lattin tranſmitted dhemſelvs (in ſuch purity
and buty!) to' dhe delight and venneracion ov all ſucceding
ages; and dhus it iz dhat dheir daughters, Itallian,
Spanniſh, and French (bating littel elſe dhan t for c, and
redundant h) hav gloried, az far az degennerate dialects
and manners wood permit, to' emmulate at leaſt dhe
conſiſtence ov dheir immortal parents. Hwile dherfore
each language, aincient and moddern, haz its inveſtigabel
ſyſtem ov ſymbols, az ov ſounds; no won iz to' be warped
widh dhe ſymbols, more dhan widh dhe ſounds ov
anoddher: we ar no more to' write Ingliſh like Lattin or
French, dhan to' read Lattin or French like Ingliſh.
Dhe rule ov duplication.
DUPLICACION'S chief difficulty ſurmounted, hwat ſhe
fardher ows to' Truith, wil be paid in dhe obzervance ov
won littel rule: Hwat iz dubbel to' dhe ear, muſt be dubbel
to' dhe eye; in oddher words: A vowel, ſhut to dhe
ear, muſt not ſay to' dhe eye: I am open. How elſe iz
it poſſibel to' dittinguiſh dhe penultimate vowel ov medial
articulacion, ov (ſuch az) Livy and ivy, coney and poney,
ſtudy and ſtudent, herald and heroe, Horace and
Florus, Trojan and Trajan, ſtature and nature, Robert
and Toby, moral and oral, comet and moment, tenant
and penal, choler and colon, ſolace and Solon, gravel and
navel, ever and fever, ſeven and even, devil and evil?
Shal we grudge dhen to' ſhow, more dhan to' ſay,
Truith? Or can we expect to hear, hware we muſt not
ſee, Livvy, cunney, ſtuddy, herrald, Horrace, Trodjan, ſtatture,
Robbert, morral; commet, tennant, coller, ſollace,
gravvel, ever, ſevven, devvil?
IF it be alledged, dhat clas may ſomtimes diſcrimminate;
clas implies grammarians, hoo ar nedher ov evvery
age nor ov evvery clime. Som oddities howevver
may be found to' boaſt dhe diſcovvery, dhat adjectives,
being quallifiers ov ſubſtantives, ar a more confidencial
ſet ov words dhan dhe nouns dhey qualify; dhat dherfore
open ar, az dhey ſeem, not onely puny or
Punic, and mural; but holy, ſolar and polar; coral
(wonce choral), final, finite, private, native, ſilent,
even, ebon, pagan, Roman, and ſo on; dhat oddher
primmitives hav but to' proov dhemſelvs forrainers, to'
claim dhe libberty ov writing our language, az wel az ov
ſpeaking it, in dheir own (reſpectively reſpectabel!) way;
but, dhat all true formatives, ov Ingliſh breed, ſcorn to
ſay won thing, and to' ſhow anoddher. Even to' ſo
cunning, ſo candid, and ſo pattriottic diſtinguiſhers ov
claſſes and ov kinds; it may be anſered, dhat ſeven and
eleven, heavy and level, civil and privy, any and many,
very and foreign, ſolemn and ſolid, clement and proper,
modeſt and modern, ar all onneſt adjectives denying dhemſelvs
to' be (hwat all unviſciated ears know dhem to' be,
and all unviſciated eyes muſt wiſh to' ſee dhem) ſevven,
elevven; levvel; civvil, privvy; anny, manny;
verry, forrain; ſollemn, ſollid; clemment, propper;
moddeſt, moddern; widh dheir fellows. Adjectives, on
dhe oddher hand, ar not dhe truly onnorabel primmitives,
glory, Mary, navy, nature; widh numbers we hav ſeen
and ſhal ſee: not to' mencion vary, or anny oddher verb.
But, Ingliſh formatives at wonce, and adjectives, ar the
ſeeming finic and finical, Spaniſh, Rheniſh, clever, nether,
widh rather, oftener an adverb; and even riſen, az
evvery participel iz an adjective: dho dhe real finnic and
finnical, Spanniſh, Renniſh, clevver, neddher, raddher;
and rizzen, widh ſuch oddhers. Dhe clever iz dhe
agent dhat cleves; nedher, dhe neggative ov edher.
Scholar iz indeed a ſubſtantive, nedher Ingliſh-born, nor
Ingliſh-bred; but wil better dezerv hiz name, and perhaps
hiz peddigree; hwen ſcollar chimes duly with dollar,
or raddher widh himſelf.
Yet, in a dozzen, all ov won clas and ov won ending;
hwat lerner, yong or old, far or near, ſhal hope dhe guiſt
ov knowing, or ov remembering; dhat valor, color, honor,
clamor, liquor, vigor; ar vallor, cullor, onnor, clammor,
liccor, viggor? and dhat vapor, labor, favor, ſavor, flavor,
odor, ar preciſely hwat dhey ſeem? even ov half a
dozzen (clas out ov dhe queſtion), dhat hover, cover, plover,
ar hovver, covver, plovver (huvver, cuvver, pluvver);
and over, Dover, clover, faithfool pictures? Hoo
ſhal dream dhat covet iz covvet (cuvvet), and ſo chimes
widh lov (luv) it; az ſurely az dhe propper Lovit iz Lovvit
(Luvvit), quite diſſonant from Lovat? Iz it humanly
intelligibel dhat primer and proper ar, az forrainers,
primmer and propper; but dhat primmer and propper,
az natives, ar not primer and proper; dhat primer,
dhe coincident and identic ov primmer (verry creddibel!)
iz nedher more prim, nor dhe agent dhat prims;
and dhat dhe primer, or agent dhat primes, is (in reallity,
az in appearance,) dhe verry reverſe ov primmer?
But natives ov evvery clas hav alſo run into' dhe licenciouſnes
ov plezing dhe eye, at dhe expence ov dhe ear.
If lade fairly forms ladel; ſhade and mead hav hiddherto'
exhibbited ſhadow and meadow, for ſhaddow and meddow;
az we ſaw rath, neath, and cleve, prezent rather,
nether, and clever, for raddher, neddher, and clevver.
Orthoggraphy dhus diſcrimminating oppozites from identicals
(near az dhev ar), Vigor, dhe ſurname, no more
joſtels widh viggor dhe abſtract, dhan clever dhe agent
widh clevver dhe adjective; nor wil cavvern and tavvern
retain dhe ſeducing ſemblance ov cavern and
tavern, in ſervile aw ov caverne, caverna, or taberna.

So littel indeed iz dhis fallacious practice reducibel to'
Anallogy, dhat dhe verry vowels and conſonants ſeem to'
vary dheir nature, in order to' forbid its continnuance.
I, ſo peculiarly inclinabel to' ſhut penultimate or antepenultimate,
keeps open in pilot and Pilate, private, pirate
and tyrant (i and y being moddernly won), in primate
and climate; dho it ceſe not to ſhut itſelf in ſpifit
and limit, which ar ſpirrit and limmit; az wel az in
primmacy, primacy, pirracy, tyranny, and dhe like
ſubjects ov antepenultimate power. U, on dhe contrary,
ſo faithfoolly hwat it ſeems, in penultimate, az in antepenultimate
place; indulged dhe ſhutting talk in dhe
apparent puniſh and pumice, ſtudy and ducat, uſher and
Uſhant; hwich now gladly own dhe buty ov Truith, in
punniſh and pummice, ſtuddy and duccat; if not ducket,
az it haz alreddy ventured to' pas. Uſher wer liker hiz
parent huiſſer (truly uiſſier); and fool az like himſelf, in
uſſier. Nor can he keep dhe vizzibel aſpiracion, widhout
alſo dubbling dhe ſibbilant, to' ſhut dhe vowel before
it, in usſher; az wil no les neſceſſarily Usſhant: Oueſſant
can hav no (ſtil more, cannot hav anny) objeccion.
DHO we hav found dhe penultimate vowel az natturally
ſhut before edher c or g ſoftened, az elſehware; dho
Cecil and tragic be indiſpenſably Ceſcil and tradgic;
dhe vowel keeps open in precept, az before cent or gent
final, witnes dhe decent agent; except in dhe Lattin
eſcent, vouched in creſcent; quieſcent, reddy az we ſaw
dhe depreſſive ſibbilacion for dubbel duty before ent, az
before oddher endings, in prezzent plezzure, and dhe
reſt. Licquid, like licquidate, and oblicquity, ſhuts dhe
ſtrong vowel at length to' dhe eye, az evver to' dhe ear.
Yet elſehware dhe ſtrong penultimate before q (widh its
inſepparabel braud licquefaccion) keeps harmoniouſly
open; az in frequent, widh its twins frequently and frequency:
nor les natturally in equal, dho ecquity and inicquity
own equally antepenultimate power.
ETTYMOLLOGY'S ignorance ov moddern tungs makes
her ſomtimes overſhoot her mark. Caring, az littel az
knowing, about banniſſe, dommage, hommage, honneur,
honneſte and honneſteté (now ſeen les falſely honnête and
bonnêteté); dho dheze ſhe wood prefer to' (hwat ſhe ſuſpects
not indeed dhe true pictures) ommage, onneur, onnête
and onnêteté; but, evver peeping at Lattin parents;
dhoze ſhe did hope to' revive in dheir (mediate or immediate)
prodgeny, banniſh, damage, homage, honor or honour;
dhe latter perhaps more vennerabel in Ingliſh, dho
not ov equal ſtanding in fool az aincient ſtile; or even ſo
Roman-like, az honeſt and honeſty: nor cood ſhe, more
dhan oddher ſtraingers, conceiv dheze (hwat all, but ſtraingers,
know dhem) to' be, bannniſh, dammage, ommage,
onnor, onneſt, widh onneſty, its apparent ofspring. Les
waz it ſurprizing, dhat her genneral antepenultimate practice,
ov prezenting an open vowel before a ſinguel conſonant
(hware ſhe no more drempt ov a ſhut vowel, dhan ov
a vizzibel ſhutter), ſhood carry enemy, and even tranquility,
for ennemy and tranquillity; in ſpite not onely ov
ennemi, hoom inimicus muſt inſtantly eclipſe; but ov
hwich, far from reviving, ſeems half to' hav
extinguiſhed, her own tranquilitas. Here Ettymollogy
appears for wonce in compact widh French, againſt her
own language: for tranquilité, havving no liquefaccion
(but ov dhis ſhe knows notthing) admits no duplicacion.

DHIS dhen aſide, if a few quitted dhe miſleader,
hware ſhe cood not miſlead; or followed her, even hware
ſhe forſook herſelf; it waz onely to' doo onnor to' her
genneral practice. Yet ar numbers, nature-guided,
ſpurning her chains for dhe glorious libberty ov Truith.
Dhus, hwile dhe Greek, Lattin, and French canon, widh
dhe French chanoine, pretend to' warrant canon in two
ſenſes, for cannon, hwich iz dhe Ingliſh word in all ſenſes;
and manoir wood leggalize manour or manor, for
our mannor; nedher linum nor linon, penus nor pecunia,
papaver nor pavot, lilium nor lis, hav been abel to' preclude
dhe Brittiſh linnen, penny, poppy, lilly. So alun,
calotte, palette, valiſe; ſalade, galant, balance; ſeulet,
filet; galet or galetas, miroir, marier, charier, parier;
poiré, chéri, furet, virole; querelle, écureuil; carotte,
carogne, ognon, trognon, panier, chamois, poupée, ruban;
patin, petit, pitance; paquet, raquette, magot;
hav nevver drempt ov diſinherriting dheir children, for
appearing widh equal integgrity dennizens ov dhe
land hware dhe latter wer born; in dhe onneſt ſhape
dherfore ov allum, callot, pallet, wallet, ſallad, gallant,
ballance; ſilly, fillet; garret, mirror, many, carry,
parry, perry, ſherry, ferret, ferrel, quarrel, ſquirrel;
carrot, carrion, onnion (unnion), trunnion, pannier;
ſhammy, puppy, ribbon; patten, petty, pittance;
packet, racket, maggot. Az wel might dhe parents
affect dhe identity ov dhe ofspring, az dhe ofspring dhat
ov dhe parents.
HERE hav we had inſtances ov dhe verry nattural doctrine,
dhat, hwen two febel vowels ar ſquezed into' coaliſcion
by preceding ennergy; dhe ſtrong vowel, ſo ſhut,
muſt ſhow dhe ſhutter: az in ſtallion, ſcullion; batallion,
medallion; pavilllon; pinnion, compannion, Spanniard,
ſpanniel, Danniel, Sammuel: ſo in bannio and ſerallio;
Oſtillia, Ventimillia (no more unintelligibly bagnio,
or dhe like); compannions ov inviddious, inſiddious,
aſſidduous, graddual, and dhe reſt not to' repeat ſpeſcial,
viſcious, vizzion, or aught we ſaw under dhe dubbel ſibbilacion.
Diſtinct dhen alike to' edher organ, iz dhe
ſtrong vowel ov ingenious and ingennuous, imperial and
empyrreal, widh dheir fellows. So remember we az wel
dhe open ſtrong vowel ov alien and various, az dhe ſhut
ov allienate and varriegate; ſimmilarly, hware no coaliſcion
can take place, doo' we reccollect capabel and placabel;
yet reccognize, even in ſeccondary ſtrength, cappabillity
and placcabillity; dho capabillity and placability
be (preciſely) allowabel az dheir concretes. Notabel
dhe formative, and nottabel dhe primmitive, may natturally
claim (in like manner) dhe reſpective abſtracts, notabillity
and nottabillity; or, more familliarly (az more
Ingliſhly) notabelnes and nottabelnes.
SINCE notthing dhen but dhe duplicacion ov dhe conſonant,
boath to' ear and eye, can to' boath aſcertain its
reallity; and ſhut dhe ſtrong vowel, particcularly dhe
penultimate; if nouns might be left to' dhe ſhrewdnes
ov conjecture, or dhe happines ov ſkil; in dhe claſſes ov
primmitive and formative, or forrain and domeſtic; can we
riſk equally verbs, on dhe due enfoarcement ov hwich
dhe power ov opperacion depends? Suppozing (dhe unſuppozabel)
dhat boath image and imitate cood be intuitively
conjectured immage and immitate; iz dhare a poſſibillity
for ſtraingers (ov hwatevver age, contry, or carracter)
to' underſtand (indeed to' believ) dhat continue,
conſider, deliver, endeavour (or even endeavor) envelop,
and develop; enamour (or enamor) enamel, examine, imagine:
repleniſh, diminiſh, admoniſh; ar continnue, conſidder,
delivver, endeavor, envellop, devellop; enammor,
enammel, exammine, imadgine; replenniſh, diminniſh,
admonniſh? Can all dhoze (and manny ſuch)
appear to' open dhe penultimate; and enliven or environ
continnue, really, to' doo ſo? Nay, muſt not dhe
nouns retinue, revenue, replevy, apparel, along widh
eleven, join dhe verbs in dhe truith ov retinnue, revennue,
replevvy, apparrel, elevven; or run hedlong widh
avenue (hwich iz avvenue) into' antepenultimate power?
To' dhe nouns belied a no les dainger muſt arize, from
dheir ſeeming to' clas widh dhoze ov ſtrong and open penultimate;
horizon, diſcipel, cathedral, vagary, and
dhe reſt.
So, hwen rebel and rebbel, widh dheir compannions, ar
dhus duly diſtinguiſhed; if Ettymollogy pretend to' pay
no tribbute, and fancy her tribute may ſuffice to' Brian
exigence; becauz tributum ſufficed to' dhe Roman, or
tribut (if dhis ſhe know) to' dhe Gallic; Anallogy, dhe
equal ruler ov Lattin, French, and Ingliſh, wil not onely
exact her tribbute; but will az certainly be joined by dhe
verbs contribbute, diſtiribbute, and retribbute. On dhis
argument continuity or contribution (in hwich dhe intervocal
n, or b, might be ſafely dubbled) haz no more
titel to' (anny) influence, dhan wood tribute, continue,
or continuance; ſuppozing dheze divinabel by modern
ſubtlety! But, if continnue and continnuance, conſidder
and conſidderate, be az neſceſſary az tribbute and contribbute;
continnuacion and conſidderacion ar at lead az vindicabel
az continuation, conſideracion, or dhe like;
unles, hware dhe iniſcial dactyl may be wanted.
IF (in fine) ſom natturalized favorites hav been allowed
(howevver inconſiſtently) to' retain dheir native dres;
and ſom, even Romans, been received in dhe French faſſhion;
if Horace, Terence, and Ovid; az wel az Tacitus,
Herodotus, Thucydides, Eurypides, Sophocles, Ariſtophanes
and Æſchylus hav ſo long perſonated Horrace,
Terrence, Ovvid; Taſcitus, Heroddotus, Thucyddides,
Euryppides, Sopphocles, Arriſtopphanes, Eſkilus; and
dhe like: dhe les familliar ov dhe Aincients hav maintained
dheir genuine dignity, by daring to' appear (hweddher
Frenchly or Lattinly) dhemſelvs; Homer, Heſiod,
Aratus, Diodorus, Longinus, and dhe reſt; hoo hav not
materially varied, edher vowel or articulacion.
FORRAIN appellatives, widh forrain proppers, hwile
ſtraingers, keep natively open hware ſtrong; hwen familliarized,
hav been apt to' ſhut dhe vowel. Dhus differs
dhe penultimate ov ephah and epphod, ov program and
proggres: ſo dhat ov pagod, pagan, or Dagon: and dhat
ov draggon, flaggon, ſpiggot, or biggot. Dho Satturn
and ſattin proov dhus equal antipodes ov Satan; Solon,
ov ſollace or ſollid; Salem ov ſollemn, and colon ov collic,
coller, collar, nor les ov cullor; and, dho propper
names be gennerally dhe laſt to' looz ſight ov orrigin;
Truith (anoddher name for Anallogy) ſooner or later triumphs
over all adverſaries; and, evincing herſelf dhe
onely propriety, induces proppers ſomtimes more to merrit
dheir name, by bravely even leading in her cauz;
hwen ſhe haz wonce routed dheir patriot-ardor to' ſhow
INGLISH az onneſt az oddher diccions; and her practiſcioners
az raſcional at laſt az oddher nacions, hoo hav
trod dhe padhs ov Truith before dhem. Collin Phillips,
and Phillip Collins, ſet a nobel exampel; hwich not
only Callais (or Callis); but Parris wil az ſurely follow,
az London iz Londres à Paris.
DHAT dhe INGLISH, az much az anny writers, abhor
miſrepprezentacion, iz evvident from boath parts ov (their
practice; dho won part, to' be perfet, muſt no longer
counteract dhe oddher. Dhey did endeavor (hware dhey
thought dhey durſt) to' exhibbit fairly, if not uniformly,
each domeſtic ofspring; hwile falſe dellicacy for primmitives,
no longer ſtraingers, left dheze ſuch aſpect az
unwittingly denied dheir eſſence; and pictured dhem unamenabel
to' INGLISH law. How indeed can dhoze heds
ov fammilies, be ſtil counted aliens; dhat hav ſo abſolutely
quitted all oddher nacions and languages, az to'
proov Ingliſh dennizens equally widh dheir children? It
waz dherfore in reallity, dhat lov ov Truith or Propriety,
dhe firſt principal ov all raſcional Nature; nor (ſurely les
viggorous in BRITTISH, dhan in oddher Nacions; hwich
carried Brittons often abraud, in queſt ov hwat cood only
be found at home; and, by exces ov fillial duty, ſwallowing
all ſelf-attenſion, paid exaggerated, or inapplicabel,
reſpect to' evvery or anny parent, or collatteral,
raddher dhan drempt ov anny juſtice to' dhemſelves.
Dhis duly underſtood, hwich, haz but to' be conſiddered;
ORTHOGGRAPHY'S chief obſtakel wil vanniſh, like
ſnow before dhe ſun. Dhe truly propper Forreſt and
Forreſter, wil bring dheir appellative parents az moddels,
to' dhe moddeſt; dhe French foreſt and foreſtier being at
leaſt az diſtant from dheir Ingliſh prodgeny, az from
dheir own (at length appearing) ſelvs, forêt and forêtier;
dho good old uſe and wont ſtil ſtickel hard for dhe reallity
az wel az appearance ov foreſtier: nor can dhey be
more diſtant, dhan ar modele (or modelle) and modeſte,
joli, petit, tacite, or mizaine; from moddel, moddeſt,
jolly, petty, taſcit, and mizzen.
DHE Greek μη̃λον, Dorrically μα̃λον, dhe Lattin malum,
and dhe French melon, wer dhe linneal anceſtors ov
dhe Ingliſh mellon. Dhe Greek and Lattin prior vowel iz
ſtrong and open; dhe French open, dho dhe ſebelleſt ov
vocals: dhe Ingliſh iz ſtrong and ſhut. Becauz not won
ov dhe three preddeceſſors cood ſhut dhe vowel, or conſequently
dubbel dhe medial articulacion; muſt our mellon,
dhat neſceſſarily doz boath, ſhow nedher? Dhe ſtrong
vowel iz no les ſhut in dhe Ingliſh taſcit; hware dhe
medial ſibbilacion can be dubbled onely by an inſertive
ov anoddher ſhape. Shall dhe parents tacite or tacitus,
forbid dheir child to' tel truith by duplicacion, becauz
dhemſelvs cood tel truith onely in ſimpliſcity? Hwy did
dhey not preclude dhe lopping ov dheir own reſpective
terminacion? Becauz dheir ofspring waz a diſtinct creture,
dhat cood lop no terminacion ov dheirs; becauz, in ſhort,
French or Lattin waz not Ingliſh. Iz a child, in dhis diſcrimminating
age, indiſcrimminabel from its parent? Iz
French, or Lattin, Ingliſh now? Doz dhe propriety ov
won language preclude dhe propriety ov anoddher? Or
doz not parental exampel beſt enfoarce fillial duty? Since
magiſtratus and magiſtrat ar alike perfet, can a madgiſtrate
conſiſtently be les ſo?
Matter dhen and manner, long united, az now ſpirrit
and boddy, in Anallogy's cauz; proov dhus no les
wordhy dheir immediate parents matiere and maniere,
dhan ov dheir progennitors materia and manus. Matter
unreproached az unwarped, continues to' ſuppoart her
irreproachabel cozzen, material; hwile ſpirrit pretends
no more to' affect aſpirate dhan ſpiral. Onnor and onneſty,
morraliſt widh morallity, dhe moddeſt ov dhe modiſh,
dhe polliſed ov dhe Poliſh, az wel az ov dhe Brittiſh;
dhe Gallic and dhe Gaulic, dhe Spanniſh and dhe
Daniſh, dhe Flemmings and dhe Romans, Ittaly and
Italians, Athens and Athenians; dhe crittics and dhe
Critoes ov dhe litterate world, now regard French, Lattin,
Greek, or anny oddher tung, juſt ſo far az ſhe may
hav taught dhem not to' ape her appearance, but to' immitate
her excellence; in a perfet contempt for all elſe
dhan addamantine Truith.
ALTERNACION being ſo nattural to' human effort or
ſtres; and ſtres being in our language ſo apt to' ſhut dhe
vowel, az on dhe oddher hand dhe vowel ſhut by colliding
articulation to' draw dhe ſtres; it becoms ezy az ecquitabel,
to' write prezerv and prezzervacion, prodgeny and
progennitor, immage and imadgine, orrigin and oridginal,
neſceſſary and neceſſity, ſpittal and oſpital (oſſpital), mettal
and metallic, meddal and medallion, alien and allienate, annalyze
and anallyſis, anallogy and annalodgic, ettymollogy
and ettymolodgic ov etymmolodgic; no les dhan articulation
or articculacion, and ſo on; dho articculate, or dhe like,
be invariabel: dhe writer obtaining dhus from Truith her
undouted warrant to' paint dhe optionabel ſounds edher
way dhat her ear commands dhem, in dhe reſpective ſittuacion,
to' be red.
DHE prezzent writer, havving dhus ſattisfied himſelf,
cannot think, in dhis or hiz oddher inveſtigacions, anny
apollogy recquizite, or even tollerabel, for acting up to'
hiz wel-erned conviction; and fearleſly exemplifying a
doctrine, reduced not onely to' demmonſtracion, but ſo
ezily braught into' practice. For, hwatevver be dhe faſcinacion
ov Habbit, or dhe obſtinacy ov Prepozeſcion;
Falſehood cannot procede widhout pain, nor Truith commence
widh difficulty.
Dhe caſe ov an iniſcial aſſemblage.
IN ſyllabicacion, not onely a ſinguel intervocal conſonant,
hwich natturally articculates dhe vowel following;
but anny iniſcial aſſemblage ov conſonants, tending equally
to' pas on undivided, may leve dhe preceding vowel
open. Az dherfore cubic and puling, baſer and hater, ar
cu-bic, pu-ling, ba-ſer and ha-ter; dhe ſame combinacions
articculate bleſt and ſty, in ableſt and haſty; a-bleſt,
ha-ſty: dhe former, by contraction, from abelleſt; dhe
latter, by formacion, from haſte. Dhe vowel ſimmilarly,
ov taſte and paſte, remains in ta-ſter, and pa-ſtry; az
juſtly az.doz dhc vowel ov veſt, in veſtry; hweddher divided
veſt-ry or veſ-try. In primmitives, howevver, Ingliſh
ennergy or ſtres, being almoaſt equally apt to ſhut
dhe penultimate and dhe antepenultimate vowel; Orthoggraphy
muſt in edher caſe inſert a ſhutting dubbler, or
divide a nattural combination. But diſtinccion muſt be
made between a mute and licquid, and dhe ſibbilacion
widh a following mute. Dhe former aſſemblage can newer
ſhut dhe foregoing, az it muſt always articculate dhe following
vowel; nor les in compoziſcion, hware it muſt be divided,
az in haples. Dhe latter aſſemblage, dho it may
commence a word, iz medially found (except in the abov
caſe ov formacion) to' be, not onely divizzibel, but divided:
az in proſper, yeſter, baſket; proſ-per, yeſ-ter,
baſ-ket. Dhus it iz dhat chaſtity and chaſtizement own
(in chaſ-ti-ty and chaſ-tize-ment) dhe antepenultimate
ſhutting power, az Ingliſh primmitives, or immediate
tranſplants from dhe French chaſtieté and chaſtiment (now
cheâtiment); and ſo no formative compannions ov chaſten
and chaſtening. Az chaſte commands its prodgeny
cha-ſter, and dhe reſt; ſo doutles doz faſt, faſter;
hwich, hweddher parted faſt-er or faſ-ter, chimes widh
maſter and paſtor; hoo muſt divide widh paſture and
paſtern; impoſtor, impoſture: maſ-ter, im-poſ-tor, and
dhe reſt. Hwile plaſter dhus joins maſter, and poſture
paſture, poſtern joins not paſtern; but, in po-ſtern,
follows dhe old French poſterne, now poterne. To' be
ſtampt Ingliſh, it muſt dherfore aſſume dhe ſervile: poaſt
and poaſtern muſt accompany coaſt and coaſter.
DHE ſtres following, may draw dhe hoal ſibbilating aſſemblage
away from dhe oridginal prepoziſcion: az in
deſpair, deſpize, deſpite, defiant, reſpect, proſpective,
deſpottic; de-ſpair, de-ſpize, de-ſpite, de-ſcant, re-ſpect,
pro-ſpec-tive, de-ſpot-tic: dho deſ-pair, and dhe like,
wood littel alter dhe febel vowel. But dhe ſtres, preceding,
muſt part dhe articulacions; by claiming at leaſt
won to' ſhut dhe ſtrong vowel, in deſperate and deſpicabel,
deſpot and deſpotiſm, reſpit and proſpect; widh
deſcant, diſtant, and dheir fellows: deſ-pe-rate, reſ-pit,
and ſo on. An inſertive dubbler, az in maſſter, proſſper,
deſſcant, wood pleze evvery party, but dhat ov Ettymollogy;
hoom Anallogy wil (ſtrain to') pleze, hware ſhe
SHE cannot howevver forgo dhe ſhutting dubbler (hoos
uſe Ettymollogy, being def, cannot know) widh dhe
ſtrong vowel preceding a mute and licquid: az in public
progreſs; hwich can be aſcertained hwat it iz, onely in
pubblic proggres. Dhe occazions happily ar not numerous,
ov dhe penultimate dilemma. Truith iz dhare dhen
dhe more ezily, but not dhe les neſceſſarily, to' be repprezented.
Hwat we hav been by Ettymollogy's madgic
tied to' ſee, and often conſequently bound to' hear;
tablet and tabret, fabric and Afric, public and publiſh
ſtabliſh and eſtabliſh; goblin, poplin and poplar; becauz
raſcionally red ta-blet, and ſo on, az Hybla, Afra; Hybla,
A-fra; muſt be written tabblet and tabbret, fabbric
and Affric, pubblic and pubbliſh, ſtabbliſb and eſtabbliſh;
gobblin, popplin and popplar; or nevver fairly red
dhemſelvs. Butler and pedlar, or dhe like, need no
inſertive; for dhey may wel part articulations, hwich nature
nevver joined. Copley, or ſuch, but decompounds
(in Cop-ley); and fopling (in fop-ling) claims hiz parent.
Chappel aught to' be attended by chapplain; or chapplin,
az in dhe ſurname. Chapelain dhen cood no more ordain
chaplain, dhan chapelle can ſanctify chapel. Chaplet
iz jut' az ſacred az chaplain, and goblet az chaplet.
Chapplain or chapplin, chapplet and gobbler ar dhe words.
Az- ſuppel forms by contraction, from ſuppeller and
ſuppelly, ſuppler and ſupply; ſo cuppel, dubbel and trippel
or trebbel, form cupplet, dubblet, tripplet or trebblet.
Regglet muſt join guigglet, to' be equally raſcional: ugly
may be gueſſed to' be uggly, and ſmugly known to' be
ſmuggly: ſmuggling iz an onneſt picture, hwatevver be
dhe practice. If Affric ſet ſo eddifying an exampel,
hwich Dupplin iz proud to' follow; Dubblin and Lubblin,
hwen Truith alike prevails; nay Egglon wil, no
more dhan Egglinton or egglantine, retain an ambigguous
aſpect: for dhe ſame iz dhe effect ov penultimate and
antepenultimate ennergy. Dhe ſame dhen muſt be dhe
alternative: Plant a gard, or part frends. Az tabblet
or tab-let; proggres or prog-res; ſo tabblature or tab-la--
ture, orthoggraphy or orthog-ra-phy. But tablet and
tablature, pr-ogres and orthography ar grammatticallv divided,
and ſo uttered by dhe diſtant grammarian, ta-blet,
ta-bla-ture, widh dhe reſt: falſe ſound muſt follow falſe
picture, hware picture alone can lead.
DHAT dhe penultimate howevver iz a les extenſive,
dhan dhe antepenultimate power; alreddy evvident, iz
here alſo obzervabel. Dhe vowel, open in Agra, ſhuts
in Aggrogas, and in Aggrigentum; vulgarly ſees, az
natively herd, Agragas, Agrigentum. So dhe strong
vowel, open in ſacred and ſecret (ſa-cred, ſe-cret), ſhuts
widh equal propriety in ſaccrament, ſaccrifice, and ſeccretary;
dho in accrid it iz ſhut (and ſo ſhood appear) az
in accrimony; id being won ov dhe peculiar terminacions
ov a ſhut penultimate, az in arrid or plaſcid;
unles dhe penultimate vowel be onneſt u, az in lucid,
lurid, or putrid. If dherfore democcracy, hypoccriſy,
and dheir fellows, muſt vizzibly, az audibly, ſhut dhe
ſtrong vowel; no les muſt ſuch proppers az Socrates,
Hippocrates and Democritus, in dhe truly Ingliſh Soccrates,
Hippoccrates (herd indeed Soccrate's, Hippoccrate's),
widh Democcritus. So wil dhe laffing ſage ſpeak,
in hiz verry name, hiz contraſt to' Heraclitus, if not raddher
Herraclitus; nor dhe les penultimately ſtrong and
DHE firſt buty ov Truith iz perſpicuity, dhe ſenſe
being always propoarcionably clear, according to' dhe
propriety ov ſound; hwich can be aſcertained to' dhe
reader, onely by its due repprezentacion. No more
dhen can joſtel under won fallacious aſpect, reprezent
dhe litteral compound, implying prezent aguen; and
repprezent, dhe figgurative ſimpel, prezenting (perhaps
for dhe firſt time) to' dhe mind; dhe firſt vowel keeping
az duly open in dhe won, az natturally ſhutting by ſeccondary
ſtres in dhe oddher. So preciſely differ, in ſenſe
and found, recreate and reccreate, recreation and reccreacion;
az reformation and refformacion, or dhe like.
AFTER endevvoring to' ſupply dhe defiſcient, az
wel az to' cancel dhe redundant, it remains to' correct
dhe intrinſically inaddequate, ſymbol ov Ingliſh articulacion.

Licquid for licquid, and mute for mute.
1. L for R and N; M for N.
Colonel waz triſſyllabbic at firſt, alſo in Ingliſh; and may
ſtil Hudibraſtically be ſo:
Dhus did Sir Knight abandon dwelling,
And out he rode a colonelling.
Ingliſh Anallogy howevver ſo ſtrengthened dhe firſt
vowel, dhat dhe ſeccond became inaudibel; and left a
diſſyllabel boath vowels widh l. Dhis luſcious
recurrence harmony cood no more brook, dhan in dhe
Scottiſh ſurnames Melvil and Colvil; hoos Freneh parents
cood take care ov dhemſelvs. Dhat power dhen, az
different from human Art az from blind Chance -
Dhat Pow'r, triumphant in Horacian ſtrains;
Hwich, over human ſpeech, harmonious reigns;
made dhe beſt chainge poſſibel, becauz dhe chainge
moaſt nattural, in boath caſes: in won, dhat ov dhe
former l into' its neareſt, az moaſt oppozite cognate;
dhus combining az contraſting dhe licquids, in curnel:
commuting no les happily dhe ſtrong vowel (o into' u
ſhut), az cornel waz dhe tree. Dhus hav dhe licquids
been always reſpectively interchaingeabel. Ezily az
λείρον or λίριον (leirion or lirion) ran into' dhe Lattin
lilium, and δωρον (dôron) into' donum; az νύμφη or νύμφα
(nymphe or nympha) produced boath nympha and lympha;
az βελτιςος, and έλθω, (beltiſtos and eltho) turned dhe
Dorric βέντιςος, and ένθω(bentiſtos and entho); or az dhe
Pheniſcian Nibaras waz dhe nattural parent (or child) ov
Λιπάρας (Liparas) Lipara (now Lipari) dhe Lantern ov
dhe Vulcanian or Eolian ilands: ſo ezily did dhe French
falbala communicate our furbelow; matelas our mattras
or mattres (dho dhe licquid ov coutelas remained in cutlas)
rançon, ranſom; natte, mat. Nor cood dhe ear
open and wonder, hwy Melvil and Colvil treated her
widh Melvin and Colvin, or Bannantyne widh Ballantine;
more dhan dhat dhe French baluſtre ſhood find
dhe Ingliſh banniſter, dhe more rezembling, az dhe
ſmoodher, prodgeny dhan balliſter. Doo we fear dhen
dhe look ov a letter, more dhan dhe jar ov a ſound; and
ſhal dhe Brittiſh Curnel ſtil hezzitate to' appear, in anny
but French uniform; or trembel to' ſhow hiz own (raddher
dhan hiz fahdhers) face? If dhus nattural be dhe
relation ov Sarum (or Sarrum) and Salſberry; ov Salopia,
or Sallop, and Shrowſberry; it iz no more wonderfool
dhat ſom Florridans call rum lum, dhan dhat ſom
Brittons call Belſon Benſon; and, if n be interchaingeabel
widh l, dhe mute next akin to' n may wel be ſo,
independantly ov rezemblance: Δ, Λ (D L). Hence dhe
Pheniſcian Gadir became, thro' dhe Lattin Gades,
and dhe Spanniſh Cadiz, dhe Ingliſh Cales; dhe Eollic
Υδύσσης (Ydyſſes), dhe Lattin and Ingliſh Ulyſſes; AEgidius,
dhe French and Ingliſh Giles: on dhe oddher
hand, dhe French laiterie, dhe Ingliſh dairy; hwence
dhe Scotch day, dairy-maid.
M. for N.
DHE ſmoodh chainges ov n into' cognate powers, we
derive, amid numberles buties, from dhe Greek and
Lattin, thro' dhe French; and firſt in dhe Lattin neggative:
az vizzibel, invizzibel; legal, illegal; recconcilabel,
irreconcilabel; material, immaterial. So, in dhe
Greek and French prepoziſcion en, az wel az Lattin prepoziſcion
in, or elſehware; n runs natturally into' m,
before a labial: az enrich, empovveriſh imprint. Dhe
French write dhus Edimbourg, az wood dhe Lattins hav
written Edimburgum. No wonder dhe Scots long continnued
to' abbreviate dheir cappital, Embruch; hwile dhe
Ingliſh knew onely (az dhey can onely know) Eddinburrough
or Eddinburrow: hweddher from Edwinburrough,
commonly seen Edinburgh; or from Edenburg,
az oddhers hav chozen to' write; let Ettymollogy decide.
Dho dhe labial licquid dims natturally precede dhe ſimpel
mute ov dhe ſame organ, edher dhe dental or labial licquid
may go before dhe direct labial aſpirate; but dhe
dental alone before dhe depreſſive; dhe prepoziſcion remaining
inviolate or unviolatcd. So infeſt and inveſt
infix and enfoarce, invallidate not dhe emphaſis or dhe
triumph. Dhe licquid labial dhus, taking place onely in
words oridginally Greek; lovs to' be followed by dhe
vizzibel components ov dhe aſpirate. A propper indeed,
like Bamf, haz no ſuch claim; but ſurely can no more
paint dhe labial licquid by dhe dental figgure (in Banf)
dhan can dhe dental licquid be painted by dhe labial figgure
in accompt, compting-houſe, compter, or comptroller;
for account, counting-houſe, counter, and controller.
Ettymollogy, havving no ears, fils dhus her eye widh
hwat raddicals ſhe can; delighting (we remember) particcularly
in aſpirates, for want ov knowing hware dhey
hav returned into' ſimpels; az in diphthong, Ogilvy,
Caithnes, Garthmore, Thomas, Michael; for dipthong,
Ogilby, Caitnes, Gartmore, Tommas, Micael; and dhe
3. B and C for T.
DHO licquids be dhus intermeltabel, and aſpirates interchainged
widh dheir ſimpels; to' hint dhat mutes ov different
organ, or even ov oppozite power, cannot be interchaingeabel;
ſeems an indignity to' dhe attention at
wonce ov dhe reader, dhe hearer, and dhe writer. Yet
c for t in victual and victuals, hware we muſt hear vittel
and vittels; iz ſtil les digettabel, dhan in climacteric,
hware dhe ſame Harmony commands climatteric in Brittain,
and Connetticut in Amerrica; dho Connecticut, enfoarcing
dhe ſeccond, may more ezily ſevver dhe ſyllabels.
But can a ſimpel credditor be found widh pacience for
dhe ſubtle debtor, hoo ſo ſecretes (ſuttel dettor) hiz intrinſic
vallue? Dhe Lattin (annalodgic) victuale produced
dhe French victuaille: dhis, dhe Ingliſh victual, hwich
ſoon ſettelled in vittel; preciſely az dictamnus and dictame
paſt into' our dittany. Dhis dezerter muſt dherfore be
redoomed to' dhe chains ov dictamny, if poor vittel muſt
continnue crampt in victual. Hwat indeed may not be
claimed by dhe lodgic ov Ettymollogy? Says B: I am T
in debtor, ſubtle and ſubtlety; az prefferably to' T's own
pretenſions in dettor, ſuttel and ſuttelty, az debt and
doubt ar beyond edher det or dout. C avers: I am,
in victual, victuals, az duly az B can annihware be T;
az dhe lips can be dhe teeth, or az anny thing can be
anny oddher thing. B iz B, bluſters won, in dhe Lattin
debitum and debitor, dubius, indubitabilis, ſubtilis and
ſubtilitas; ſo doutles in dheir moddern prodgeny. Dhat
dherfore B iz T in debt and debtor, doubt and doubter,
ſubtle and ſubtlety; iz alike undouted and indubitabel.
C iz C, retriumphs dhe oddher, in victus and
dherfore C iz T, in victual and victuals. Hwat dhen
may not be prooved to' be annihware, bccauz it iz ſomhware;
and anny-thing, becauz it iz ſomthing? Iz not a
letter equally effective, hwen ov equal effect — hweddher
to' repprezent ſound, or to' render ſound uncomattabel?
On dhis grait principel ſaw we T play S, or ſoft C, in
attention, relation, and ſatiate; for attenſion, relacion,
and ſaciate; nay dubbel S in initiate and diſcretion
for iniſſiate or iniſciate, diſcreſſion or diſcreſcion;
bccauz T mull play T in attentive, relate, diſcrete
and ſatiety (initiata diſcretione, ſatiata attentio):
nor annihware cood, or can play anny oddher part.
Dho T dherfore, always, and onely itſelf; pretended
not, to' ſibbilate dhe Lattin parents; dhat madgic mute
haz long made good its right (here firſt made bad) to' opperate
dhe ſibbilacion ov dhe children.
1. S for Z.
No conſonant attracts ſo much enquiry, az dhe ſibbilacion.
Not onely az a mute, haz it boath powers and
boath ſymbols (S and Z): it haz been deemed a fifth
licquid. Ov edher clas doz it partake, and from boath
differ. Mute-like, it aſſociates a licquid: l, n, m; not
r. Sly, ſnuf, ſmel, ar exampels. But it aſſociates alſo
(hwich no oddher mute doz) anny oddher direct ſimpel
mute: az in ſpy, ſty, ſky, ſcate, and ſquil. Like a licquid,
it melts (direct or depreſſive) according to' concommitance;
and if, like oddher mutes, it communicate
its power to' dhe licquid it iniſcially articculates; it receivs
alſo dhe power ov anny conſonant, widh hwich on
edher hand it combines. No les dhen in ſpot and tops,
dhan in diſmal damſel, hoo cannot be aſcertained from
her picture, unles dhat picture be preciſe; az it can onely
be in dizmal damzel: for ſom, boath near and far,
ar ſtraingers alike to' dhe plaſtic and pliant power, hweddher
ov licquid or ov ſibbilacion. Hence it iz, dhat panſy
(being panzy) cannot rime widh fancy; nor palſy be oddher
dhan palzy. Nay ſo apt ar licquids to' depres dhe
ſibbilacion, dhat dhat, hwich waz neſceſſarily direct in
dhe ſimpel word; finks into' depreſſion, hwen pent between
dhem in dhe compound. Dhus two proppers, compounding
impoartant precepts, Win ſlow, and On ſlow;
depres equally dhe ſibbilant in Winſlow and Onſlow; ſo
diſtinguiſhed from dhe oridginal maxims, in Winzlow
and Onzlow, az if combining wins low and ons low. Dhe
ſibbilacion, even febel before dhe licquid, acquires ſom
degree ov depreſſion: dhus in diſlike, diſregard, diſmis;
hwen herd (az often) dizlike, disregard, dizmis. Direct
dhen az muſt ſ be in ſmug, no les muſt it be depreſſive
in gums; and, az dhe ſibbilacion differs in ſmile
and limes, ſo muſt it in glimpſe and limbs or limns; in
mix (which iz mics) and ſkims. Dhe ſame iz it in ſpar
and rasp; yet oppozite, az dhe r in harp and harm, or
dhe ſibbilants in ſpaſm; or in ſpaſms, hware dhe licquid
depreſſes dhe ſibbilant on edher ſide. Dhus, equal
to' licquids in melting, and beyond mutes in ſociabillity;
nay, beyond boath in ſtrength, and equal to' edher in
ſoftnes ov intrinſic harmony; dhe ſibbilant cood not but
proov dhe chief inſtrument ov conformation, in dhe
boddy ov human ſpeech. Wel might ſuch ſuperiorrities
make ſom even aincient grammarians pronounce it
a letter ov its own power; and, ſaying no more, ſhow it
at leaſt beyond dheirs. But dhey hav no more boddily
ear dhan intellectual eye, hoo venture to' ſibbilate dhe
ſibbilacion az unplezing in itſelf; or, az if annihware
conſtituting (like dhe gooſes, or dhe ſnakes) dhe total expreſſion
ov man. Inconſidderacion alone obzervs not,
dhat unvaried mellody (or ſoftnes) muſt az neſceſſarily
cloy, az dhe unrelieved ruf muſt grate. Dhe ſibbilacion
doutles varies its buty by ſhifting its powers; by aſſuning,
not only cameleon-like, but like evvery ſocial carracter,
and beyond evvery oddher articculating carracter,
dhe complexion (more or les) ov its company. Iniſciallv
hav we dhus ſeen it lend, az elſehware it borrows; and
ov booth we find ſweet vouchers in dhe ſmalleſt lambs,
or in dhe ſlender goſlings, more ſafely fledged gozlings.
IN dhe beguinning dherfore dhe oppozite powers muſt
be ſeen, az wel az herd; but, in dhe end, dhe direct
figure (s) repprezents dhe formative in edher emiſſion
according to' hwat precedes it; dhe ſibbilant prooving
depreſſive after a depreſſive, or after an open vowel.
Hence dhe vizzibel, az real, contraſt ov ſeal and zeal,
Sion and Zion; and dhe no les real, (dho invizzibel) antipodiſm
ov ſuch az bits and bids, cups and cubs, fops
and fobs, ropes and robes; elſe and elſ, curſe and curs,
diverſe and divers, tenſe and tens; or az dhe glimpſe and
limbs we ſaw. So differ dhe final ſibbilants ov as and aes
or a's, copperas and opperaes or oppera's; Phyllis or
Phillis and fillies, Davis and Davies; Harris and Harry's,
az wel az Harries; Pharos and Pharaohs; hwich
iz herd, and hwy not ſeen, Pharohs? Becauz Pharaon
iz boath herd and ſeen Pharaon! So may we even
more clearly diſcrimminate dhe final conſonant dhan dhe
final vowel, hwen dhey are febel; az we hav often alreddy
perceived; and may perceiv in Iſſus and iſſues,
Apollos and Apollo's, or dhe like. Dhus ar bids,
fobs, curs, divers; a's, opperaes and dhe oddher formatives,
vertually bidz, fobz, curz, diverz; a'z, opperaez,
and dhe reſt. Equal antipodes ar dhe plurals,
pence and pens; dhe former contraſting, az wel az contracting,
pennies. Dho peas dhen, dhe plural, claims
dhe direct form ov dhe depreſſive ſibbilant; peze, dhe
collective (vulgarly, az pleonaſtically peaſe) can hav no
ſuch titel. Doz pois or piſum advance anny? If dhe
plural ov dhis ſo vizzibly prolong dhe vowel, ſhal it not
az vizzibly depres dhe conſonant, in dheze: evenat dhe no
ſmall riſk ov carrying dhats plural, dhoze, along widh it?
But ſhood boath be indulged in dhe formative plea ov falſifying
dheir end, dho dhey can no more dheir beguinning;
hav eaſe and cheeſe more regard for aiſe and caſeus,
or annv oddher anceſtor, dhan for Truith and dhemſelvs,
in eze and cheze? Mutt pleaſe attend pleas, az peaſe
peas? (Que l'un, et l'autre, eſt plaiſant!) Wil not pleze
raddher bring peze to' ſeze and teze, widh equal eze and
plezzure? So wil ſhine, widh reſpective buty, chezcake
and Cheſhunt; hwile Chesſhere appears at laſt herſelf. So
wil be duly oppozed leze, in ſuch compound at leze-madjeſty,
and leſe; dheze and geeſe, peze and pece; from
which latter dhe French parent wil, widh her own mantel,
covver dhe coincident piece. Flece, Grece, Friezland,
and dhe Millaneze, wil not be more contraſted.
Such oppoziſcion wil dhen adjuſt verſe and proze, purpoſe
and propoze, doſe and doze, cloſe and cloze, Ros and
roze: nor les wil be jointly adjuſted dhoze hoze, wonce
hozen; and widh its own identity, noze, hwich ſpring
thro' nez from naſus.
DHE direct haz been allowed dhe final formative figgure;
even aſſuming depreſſive power, hweddher after
a depreſſive conſonant, or after an open vowel: but, de
dhe direct figgure cannot ſhut a vowel. Hwile
hees or he's, haves (or havs) and doos (or does) wer dhe
words; s plauzibly preferred dhe formative plea. But
his, has, or does, can no more paint hiz, haz, or doz
(duz), dhan as, is, and was, can prezent az, iz, and
waz; dhan buſy and buſineſs can prommiſe bizzy and bizzines,
hwich ſhrinks into' biznes for particcular occupacion;
dhan buſſy or buſſar can ſpeak huzzy or hoozar;
dho huſband and huſwife plead equally wedloc widh
depreſſive, for perſonating huzband and huzwife, or
INGLISH verbs, and dheir actions, hwen coincident in
all elſe, ar butifoolly apt to' diſcrimminate final ſibbilacion.
Verb aſſumes dhe genial depreſſive, noun dherfore
dhe oppozite power. Dhus device and advice, hiddherto'
appearing deviſe and adviſe, in fillial aw ov (dhe
French) deviſer and aviſer, wonce adviſer; form device
and advice, widh dutiles diſregard to' devis, deviſe, or
avis, wonce advis: hwile on dhe contrary, boath ſtrong
on dhe former ſyllabel, and identic to' dhe ear, practiſe
and practice (from practiquer and practique, now
pratiquer and pratique) prezerv in different ſhape, dhe
ſame direct ſibbilacion. So chaſe and chace (from chaſſer
and chaſe) diſtinguiſh verb and noun to' dhe eye, dho
dhe ear find a perfet coincidence. Widh purchaſe and
purchace, dhe eye may be alike tickled; hwile prommiſe,
purpoſe, and dhe reſt, vary nedher dhe power nor
dhe picture ov dhe ſibbilacion. Az prize and price in
like manner ſpring from priſer and prix; dhe verb rize,
falſified riſe, forms dhe real riſe or rice, for its accion,
coincident widh dhe grain. So, from choiſir and choix,
dhe apparent verb chooſe, (indeed equally chuſe!) and
dhe true accion choice. But dhe verb, under Rezons
commencing reign, wil now be found chooz, dhe compannion
ov looz, ſo ſacredly ſhrouded in loſe! on won hand,
dhat it may not appear looſe (a juſt avoidance); and, on
dhe oddher, dhat it may (at its own graiter perril)
ſeem dhe parent ov loſs; hwich muſt (alas!) be owned
loozes large enuf offspring, in los. But ſhood Truith ſtil
look littel, loſſes may be multiplied ezily az before. If
rize, prize, chooz and looz, ſecure dhus dhemſelvs, az
wel az dheir actions, riſe or rice, price, choice and los;
dhe two former hav doutles equal right to' command dheir
no les legittimate prodgeny, dhe two verbs raiz and
praiz. Dho ſuch be dhe irreffragabel doctrine ov Anallogy;
dhoze, hoo feel not yet its foarce; and, fancying
ſafety in riſe and priſe, for dhe verbs; not in rice widh
price, for dhe nouns; find riſe alike reddy for rize and
for rice, muſt (conſequencially!) retain raiſe and praiſe,
Φράσις in Lattin form phraſis, had dhe medial direct
az dhe final ſibbilacion. Dhe French phraſe (or fraſe)
haz it neſceſſarily depreſſive: nor haz les natturally
tranſmitted dhe depreſſive widh varied vocallity, to' dhe
Ingliſh phraze (or fraze); hwich, fearing no more (in
phraſe) to' be committed widh baſe, caſe, mace, or
brace; finds onnor widh ſafety in joining, under dhe auſpices
ov Truith, its own fearles frends maze, gaze, blaze,
braze, and dhe reſt. Dho manny nouns and verbs retain
dhus dhe ſame (hweddher direct or depreſſive)
power, and dherfore picture, ov dhe ſibbilacion:
hware dhe active and action (or verb and noun)
vary, by Natures guidance, from depreſſive to' direct;
muſt dhey, or can dhey, under dhe reign ov Rezon,
continnue clodhed widh won form? Can riſe, uſe,
abuſe, excuſe, diffuſe, refuſe, houſe, and mouſe, repprezent
widh equal (indeed widh anny) precizzion, rize, uze,
abuze, excuze, diffuze, refuze, houz, mouz; and rice,
uze; or riſe, uſe, and ſo on, az dhey ſeem? Doz dhe
grammattical diſtinccion ov noun and verb ſuffice? lz
evvery reader a grammarian? Or doz dhe ſenſe prezent
dhe ſound, not dhe ſound dhe ſenſe? If ſo, hoo wood
not coart dhe Brittiſh language, in her common clodhing;
prefferably to' all oddhers, in dhe brightnes ov
Orthoggraphy? Dhey, widh evvery polliſh and illumination,
ſtil hold a ſtrainger a ſtudent; hwaraz Ingliſh intuiſcion
conjures him a conjurer! Widhout dhis happy
power, poor Ingliſh, in her vulgar dres, muſt remain
uncomattabel. Dhe prezzent plan indeed, in abſolute
independance on ſuch aid, or raddher in total defiance ov
it; procedes ſtep by ſtep, widh dhe light ov Anallogy
hoo ſeems likely to' render our language az plezzant, becauz
az perſpiccuous, az anny ov her preddeceſſors or contemporaries.
Widhout edher aſking or prommiſing
wonders, dhis and oddher conundrums may be ſolved.
No buddy can pozes two ſolls: no ſoll can inform two
boddies. Simmilar may be ſolls, in boddies
dhe les ov chainges, az ov evils, iz to' be chozen. Hwatevver
iz right, haz but to' ſtand; hwatevver iz wrong,
muſt be corrected. Dhe actions dhen or nouns, hwich
ar alreddy riſe, ufe, abuſe, excuſe; dhe adjectives diffuſe
and refuſe, widh dhe ſubſtantive reffuſe; az wel az
houſe, mouſe, and dheir few fellows, being right, cannot
be righter: nor can dhe verbs be right, unles dhey
ter-equal (and equally obvious) truith, in rize, uze,
abuze, excuze; diffuze, refuze, and evvery oddher fuze,
widh houz, its fammily and trends. Hwile looſe and
gooſe and gueſe, ceſe and ſeze; creſe widh encreſe
and decreſe, greſe and grezy, ar dhus alike ſtrong in dhe
truith, az Lucrece, Grece, or flece; az breze, freze,
ſneze, or ſqueze: groſe might join moroſe, had not dhe
good grocer more ſollidly joined groce widh nice, from
hiz happy ignorance ov gros and niais. Moroſe howevver
iz fairly joined by ſuch adjectives az conciſe, preciſe,
abſtruſe, recluſe; hwich lead to' dhe direct medial after
dhe open vowel, and before final ive: az in evaſive,
coheſive, deciſive, corroſive, abuſive, concluſive. Advize
and devize muſt expect dhe company ov revize and revizal;
az juſtly az. refuze, dhat ov refuzal. Dhe French
guiſe tranſmitted dhe depreſſive ſibbilacion to' evvery
Ingliſh wiſe, implying manner or ſhape. But wize alone
can, aſſuredly and aſſuringly, paint dhe power ov dhe
word, ov hwatevver orrigin or idea; dho, not onely
but dhe vulgar wiſdom, by depreſſive concommitance,
may repprezent dhe abſtract; hwile notthing
but preciſe picture can ſpeak to' dhe eve dhe reallity ow
wizzard, more dhan ov lizzard, buzzard, hazzard, or
dhe like. Final febelnes admits ezily dhe direct ſibbilacion,
in prommiſe and premmiſe, az in practiſe and practice;
but premize widh compromize, and evvery ſuch
ſtrong active ending, muſt depres it: dhus anattomize,
annalyze or annalize, realize, and dhe reſt. Dhis depreſſion
propoarcionably affects primmary and ſeccondary
ſtrength. Simpels doutles command (becauz dhey conſtitute)
compounds: az baſe, debaſe and embaſe; ſo raſe,
eraſe, and dhe like. Equally direct faw we chaſe and
chace, purchaſe and purchace. Such equallity occazions an
unimpoartant interchainge ov chouſe, ſouſe, and grouſe,
widh chouce, ſouce, and grouce. But verbs tend more
natturally to' dhe depreſſive: nor can dhey admit,
hware dhey need no ſervile. Such ar blouz, touz, rouz,
and carouz.
INISCIAL and final ſibbilacion dhus eſtabbliſhed in its
picture, medial alone remains in queſtion. Sibbilating
ſociabillity iz now too wel known, to' fear anny-thing for
dhe diſmal damſel (hoo iz at beſt but a dizmal damzel),
more dhan for priſm, or prims, alſo vertually prizm and primz.
Dho dheze be acceſſibel in edher ſhape; priſon
iz impregnabel az riſen; and booth widh pleaſant, widh
a thouſand, reaſons! Human ingenuity cannot, thro' ſuch
outworks, guet at prizzon, rizzen; or at plezzant rezon,
in a thouzand ſezons; hwile dhe girdles, like maſon,
baſon, biſon, or advowſon, offer not a ſemblance ov
defence. Medial ſibbilacion dherfore (az all oddher
truith) defies reggular approach, onely hwen irreggularly
repprezented. Moddern Ettymollogy may be plezed
widh dhe direct ſhaddow for dhe depreſſive ſubſtance, in
dhe ſinguel ſibbilacion between vowels. Hwen ment
direct in French orrigin, it iz dubbled; az in preſſentiment,
reſſentir, reſſembler, reſſuſciter, reſſort, reſſource;
deſſert, deſſein, deſſiner, and dhe like. Dhe ſinguel
dhen muſt be depreſſive in préſent and préſenter, préſerver
and préſider, réſerver and réſider, réſiſter,
and réſoudre; in déſert, déſigner, déſiſter, deſir and deſirer.
Ingliſh not admitting (az not needing) dhe directive
expedient, admits onely dhe univerſal expedient ov
direct Truith: dhat here dhen ov guivving to' dhe direct
ſound, dhe direct ſymbol; and, to' dhe depreſſive,
dhe depreſſive: az in preſentiment, reſuſcitate, reſource,
deſign; dezire, deziſt, reziſt, rezult; widhout precluding
perſiſt, inſiſt, or conſiſt. Dhus obviouſly, az unconfoundedly,
appear deſert, dhe after-collacion; desert,
dezerving; and dezzert or dezzart, wild. Beſides, our
language haz manny words, beguinning widh dhe direct
ſibbilant (s); hwich ſhe alſo compounds widh pre and re,
to' intimate priorrity and rezumpcion: particcularly ſent,
ſerv, ſide, ſign, ſort, and ſolv. Dhe compounds muſt
be direct az dhe ſimpels; and ſo ar finely diſtinguiſhed
by oppozite ſibbilacion, from dhe elſe coincident
deſcendants ov dhe French. Diſtinct dhen alike to'
ear and eye muſt be preſent, prezent, and prezzent;
reſent and rezent, reſerv and rezerv; preſide and prezide,
reſide and rezide, reſign and rezign, reſort and rezort,
reſolv and rezolv, widh reſolucion and rezzolucion. No
compound iz dhe French poſſéder or poſſeſſion, more dhan
dhe Ingliſh pozes or pozeſſion; hwich poſſeſs and poſſeſſion
muſt no more bely. Dhe French parents ar fairly painted:
ſhal not dhe Ingliſh children? Or ſhal pozes dred
dhe ſemblance ov its antipode (pozes) dhe formative ov
pose, more dhan doo cares and careſt confuzion widh dhe
ofspring ov care; or dhe truly auguſt, widh dhe month
ov Auguſt? Iz dhe Anallogy (or Truith) hoo may find
it indiſpenſabel to' clodhe even oppozite reallities widh
won appearance, les abel dhan Abſurdity or Falſehood,
to' diſtinguiſh dhem? May not a man, undiſtinguiſhed
by aught elſe, be ſuffiſciently known by hiz company?
SIMPEL ſibbilacion preciſely pictured, aſpirate finds
ezy aſcertaimnent. Sibbilacion iniſcial, ſimpel or aſpirate,
iz equally diſputeles. No Ingliſh word beguins
widh dhe depreſſilively-aſpirate ſibbilant, widhout dhe
oddher dental vertually prefixed; az in ginger, julep
(dzhindzher, dzhulep). Sibbilant aſpiracion direct muſt
iniſcially be painted ſh; az in ſhoo, on ſhore; unles before
u open, hware dhe licquefaccion becoms dhe coincident
ſubſtitute ov aſpiracion, a ticculating oo: az in
ſure ſugar (ſhoor ſhoogar). Compoziſcion, or formation,
renders dhe ſame pictures medial: Baſhaws, aſhore
aſſure. Nor can aught, but dhe aſpiracion, aſpirate
dhe end: witnes fiſh, and finniſh. But licquefaccion, ſo
natturally coinciding widh aſpiracion; aſpirate ſibbilacion
medial may arize alike direct and depreſſive, from
dhe ſibbilants articculating or melting i febel into' coaliſcion
widh anoddher febel vowel; and ſo may be conſtituted
reſpectively ov ſi or ci, and zi. Dhus in paſſion,
expreſſion, mission, concuſion; in caucion, complecion,
diſcreſcion, tranſiſcion (or tranziſcion),
piſcion, capriſcious notion, ſuperſtiſcious nacion, vivacious,
yet viſcious, rezzolucion! Widh gracious ingratiate;
depreciate, viſciate; propiſciate, propiſciacion,
and dhe reſt. Simmilarly, and indiſtinguiſhably, may
e febel repprezent dhe ſibbilants melting aſpiracion.
Perfet iz dhus dhe rime, az coincident dhe ending, in
ocean and mocion, teſtaceous and vivacious. So doutles
proppers: Atthanaſius, Theodoſius, Phocius, Dionyſſus,
Mauriſcius, Phocion, Oſſian: Aſia, Pheniſcia, Cappadocia,
Meſia or Myſſia, Lyſcia, widh Lucius, Lucia,
and dhe reſt. If dhe depreſſive licquid-aſpirate vertually
follow dhe dry dental in Androgeos, Trajan, contagion,
contagious, currageous, and ſuch; no les muſt it
appear widhout dhe prefixture in its own licquefied
form: az in occazion and occazzional, cohezion, vizzion,
divizzion, explozion, concluzion; our picturage not
admitting occazhon, occazzhonal, or dhe like.
DHIS artikel may be completed by obzerving; dhat, az
s becoms depreſſive widh depreſſives; z, widh directs,
becoms direct. Ingliſh indeed knows no ſuch combination,
unles in German names: az in Schwartz, Lintz,
Mentz, Metz, or Lutzen. Yet can we not hav completed
it widhout perceiving dhat, ov articulations two
powers, dhe depreſſive (az dhe ſofter) iz more ſuited to'
dhe ſmoodhnes ov formation; hweddher dhat ov a plural
noun, or ov a noun-formed verb: az in houſe,
houzes; and to' houz, houzing. Nor ſhal we be too ſevere
on certain ears, dhat prefer (howevver improperly,
for all muſt not be ſoft) Zommerzet (Zummerzet) to' Sommerſet
(Summerſet); hwen we reflect, dhat Attic harmony
chainged σύμμαχος (ſymmachos) into' ξύμμαχος (xymmachos);
hwich cood be (iniſcially) no more dhan our Zymmachos;
dhe Greek ξ and Lattin x being, reſpectively,
dhe ſole depreſſive iniſcial ſibbilacion: for dhe direct form
in edher language waz nevver uzed depreſſively; and
dhe depreſſive form (ζ or z) involved dz, a nexure in
boath parts, even iniſcially, audibel at Athens and Room;
dho no more ſo in France or Ingland, hwich retain but
dhe latter. And dhus it iz, dhat Xerxes in aincient, az
in moddern articulacion, cood be no more dhan Zerxes;
hwich French dellicacy ſmoodhs into' Zercès.
2. TH for DH.
HWAT, dho Greek and Lattin depreſſed not dhe dental
aſpirate? Hwat, dho dheir erlier ofspring knew it
not in edher power? Muſt dherfore dhe Ingliſh, hoo pozeſſes
boath powers, in a perfection no oddher tung perhaps
evver cood boaſt, continnue affraid to' paint boath?
or from an abject immitacion, hware iz no coppy; bely
her variety ov articulacion, raddher dhan exert her happy
libberty ov prezenting it? Happier indeed iz dhis libberty,
az diſentanguelled from nexure. If dhe direct
mute, widh its aſpiracion, conſtitute ſo fairly dhe direct
aſpirate; ſhal not dhe depreſſive mute, widh its aſpiracion,
conſtitute (az fairly) dhe depreſſive aſpirate? Shal
t not be d, hwen ſimpel; and ſhal t be alſo d, widh aſpiracion?
Shal te and de, or tea and Dee; ſhal ty and
dy, guiv diſtinct ſounds and idea's; and ſhal dhe The,
hweddher dhe Theodore, dhe Thetis, dhe theater, or dhe
theory; ſhal dhy thigh, widh coincident vowels diſtinguiſhed,
continnue to blend in won ſemblance, oppozite
powers ov articulacion; the the, or dhe dhe; thy thigh
or dhy dhigh? Equally juſt! Dhe aſpirate ov t iz iniſcial
in thic and thin; ov d, in dhis and dhat: and muſt all
foar ſeem to' hav won iniſcial? This or that thic or thin
thing iz no more diſtinctly expreſſive, dhan dhis or dhat
dhic or dhin dhing. This thing iz juſt az good az dhis
dhing; and no better. Nedher can intelligibly paint
dhis thing. So, They, throwing their threads thick, think
thine thin; iz equal, in precizzion ov picture, to' Dhey,
dhrowing dheir dhreads dhick, dhink dhine dhin: for dhe
clear and ezy, Dhey, throwing dheir threds thic, think
dhine thin. Can natives or ſtraingers obviouſly diſtinguiſh
ſo verry poſſibel an expreſſion az? — They thought
the theme, that thwarted them, threatened the three
other brethren; more dhan? — Dhey dhought dhe dheme,
dhat dhwarted dhhem, dhreatened dhe dhree odher bredhren.
— Can edher mistake? — Dhey thaught dhe theme,
dhat thwarted dhem, threttened dhe three oddher breddhren,
— or diſcrimminate dhe articulacion ov? —
Thither Therſites thus the thunder threw,
Tho' throbb'd the thief with Phthian thrillings thro'.
more dhan dhat ov
Dhiddher Dherſites dhus dhe dhunder dhrew,
Dho' dhrobb'd dhe dhief widh Phdhian dhrillings
for dhe at leaſt readabel cupplet:
Dhiddher Therſites dhus dhe thunder threw,
Dho throbb'd dhe thief widh Phthian thrillings
Dhat Phthian can vertually be but Thian, evvery reader
knows. Nor is dhe rime a reppetiſcion ov dhe hoal
ſyllabel: for threw, propperly (dhat iz, foolly) uttered,
haz a licquefaccion, hwich dhe blunt throo haz not; ew
being equal to' u or yoo.
Ether and edher differ ſuffiſciently, dho ſolely, in dhe
power ov dhe aſpirate; widhout dhe vulgar ſervile ov
either, hwich ſom ſtrain to' render dhe effective; az prepoſterouſly
az dhe idel o ov yeoman, for yeman. Againſt
dhe diſtinctive pictures, hwich exactly repprezent dhe
diſtinct powers ov dhe aſpirate, no argument can be alledged,
dhat doz not equally opperate againſt dhe diſtinccion
ov f and v, ov t and d; dhat doz not dherfore
proov dhe diſtinccion ov dhe picture, indiſpenſabel az
dhat ov dhe power. Dhe aſpirates interchainge by formacion:
ſo doo dhe ſimpels. Az natturally az we ſay and
ſee in different languages, patre and padre, Petro and
Pedro; and in our own Pahtric and Paddy, ſtopped and
ſtopt, diſtreſſed and diſtreſt; ſo natturallv muſt we doo
boath in path and padhs, oath and oadhs, mouth and
moudhs; bath and badhe, breth and bredhe, loth and
lodhe, mouth and moudh. We muſt ſee, becauz we muſt
hear, helth, helthy; welth, welthy; and, for dhe ſame
rezon, worth, wordhy; north, nordhern; ſouth, ſouthern;
with dhe noun, and widh dhe preppoziſcion. Dhus ar, and
dhus onely can be ſeen; or, from being seen, herd; dhe
oppozite aſpirate ov foarth (or far-thing) and fardhing,
ov Martha and Carmardhen. Muſt we paint dhe chainged
power ov dhe labial, not ov dhe dental, aſpirate?
eſpeciallv, hwen in dhe latter, dhe ſimpel mute alone iz
to' chainge; hwich ſo ezily chainges, hwen onely ſimpel?
Can we ſay and ſee ſheaf and ſheavs; not ſheath
and ſheadhs? May boath eye and ear diſtinguiſh life and
live, or lives; and may dhey not tithe, tidhe, and tidhes?
Indiſpenſably ar appropriation and plurallity: an
oaths obligacion, and dhe obligacion ov oadhs; a cloths
finenes, and fine clodhs; like a paths narrownes, and
narrow padhs. Dhis, far from precluding, authorizes dhe
real az harmonious ſubſtitucion ov dhe direct ſimpel to'
dhe depreſſive aſpirate, hwen dhe depreſſive aſpirate commences
dhe ſyllabel following; in dhe familliar t'oddher
hwich compounds dhe oddher, az anoddher (ſollemn or
familliar) an oddher. But, if dhe direct aſpirate can,
no more dhan dhe direct ſimpel, repprezent dhe depreſſive
aſpirate; can dhe direct aſpirate repprezent dhe depreſſive
ſimpel? Dhis queſtion ſeems not to' hav been
poot, hwilc burthen and murther painted (ſo long ſo reſpectedly!)
burden and murder. Now, it haz been
poot; ſhal London, hoo talks fairly az natturally,
ov her Bednal-green, and Bedlam-oſpital, pretend widh
her pen to' exhibbit edher, in dhe ſemblance ov Bethnal
or ov Bethlehem? Can dhe wonce pious cappital perſiſt
in profaning a name, hwich ſhe queſtionles ment to' onnor?
Can ſhe knowingly employ it, az dhe vehikel ov
falſehood? Ingland, ardent to' prezerv and to' proppagate
Truith, wil find Scotland firſt her ſcollar, and dhen
her rival. Lethington and Nithiſdale wil ſoon bluſh
dhey evver perſonated Ledington or Nidſdale. Leith
wil remain inviolate, az Lethe or dhe Nith. Yet notthing
millitates againſt dhe London-ſuburb Roddherhith, dho
rif-raf doo name it Redrif.
COOD preſcedent ad foarce to' demmonſtracion, or dhe
practice ov won dialect lend ſanccion to' dhat ov anoddher;
dh may ſtil be traced in old Ingliſh, and its nexure
(or due ſymbol) in Saxon picturage. Nor wil Ettymollogy
hezzitate to' confirm dhe depreſſive figgure ov
dhe dental to' dhe Inglifh Artikel, its branches and cognates;
Dhe, dhis, dhat, and dhe reſt; hwen ſhe ſees
dhe German parents, dho now inſuſceptibel ov dhe aſpirate,
ſo approach it in dhe ſimpel, az faithfoolly to' ſhow
hwat dhey ſay in der, die, and das.
3. PH, and F, for V.
CLOSELY az dhe reſpective articulations, direct and
ar allied; not won direct ſymbol, beſide dhat depreſſive,
ov dhe ſibbilacion in its formative capaſcity, can pretend
to' picture alſo dhe depreſſive power. Dhe cognates p,
b; ph, v, and dhe reſt; being at wonce oppozite, and almoaſt
identical; cannot be diſtinguiſhed, in ſemblance,
az in eſſence, widh too much precizzion. Yet haz
dher dhe dainger, nor dhe neceſſity, ſufficed to' prevent
our hiddherto' employing dhe direct figgure ov evvery
won ov dhe aſpirates for dhe depreſſive, no les dhan for
dhe direct power; ov dhe ſibbilating and dental (az we
hav feen) always; and even ov dhe labial in a few inſtances,
dho it hav a depreſſive picture. Dhe aſpirates
of aincient languages (unles perhaps dhe labial) had no
depreſſive emiſſion, conſequently no depreſſive appearance.
Our language, havving boath powers ov evvery
aſpirate; haz at length found boath pictures, for dhe two
dhat wanted. Ov dhe third, dhe labial, hwich had always
ſo diſtinct ſymbols, from dhe Eollic Digamma down;
in no inſtance can won be allowed to' offiſciate for anoddher.
Yet dhe Greek and Lattin Stephanus haz hiddherto'
(in ſpite ov our ſenſes) commanded our ſeing Stephen,
hware we muſt hear Steven. Dhe ſame contempt
ov all common-ſenſe, and aw even ov a nepos, haz made
us prefer nephew to' nevvew; widh hoos obvious parent
(neveu) we ſeem to' have been az littel acquainted, az widh
dhe atteſtacion our ear gave to' dhe ofspring. It waz indeed
for want•ov knowing (or ov regarding) dhe immediate
parent ov Steven, dha•we made him in onnor prefer
dhe more remote. For Stephanus had procreated
Eſtivane and Eſtivenne (hoo became Eſtienne and Etienne)
are he dhus tranſmitted our Steven. If here, nor
onely here, we hav found Ettymollogy almoaſt az blind
az def; in dhis, az in anny ſenſe, we may wel pronounce
with YONG:
ANALLOGY, our ſurest guide below!
that intellectual rezemblance, relation, propoarcion, connexion,
conſiſtence; hwich enabels, from things dhat ar
ſeen, to' judge ov things dhat ar not ſeen; az, from a
part, ov dhe hoal: dhat indiſſolubel coherence, by hwich
evvery part propoarcionably ſtrengthens or ſuppoarts dhe
reſt; and all dhe parts, each minuteſt member:
Hware all muſt fool, or not coherent be;
And all dhat rizes, rize in due degree.
Ettymollogy iz chiefly daingerous, hwen miſtaken for
Anallogy; az, ov all guides, miſtaken Anallogy muſt be
the moaſt daingerous. Falſe principels muſt produce falſe
practice; and half-vews, les knollege dhan non. Nor les
admirably ſaid dhe ſame philoſopphic poet, hoos underſtanding
waz ſo erly open, and, hwen open, ſo capacious:

A littel lerning iz a daing'rous thing.
Drink deep, or taſte not, dhe Pierian ſpring;
Hware ſhallow drafts intoxicate dhe brain,
But drinking largely ſobers us again.
EVVERY primmitive diccion ſeems to' hav enjoyed dhe
labial, dental, and guttural aſpirates. Dhe ſibbilating
aſpirate, unknown to' dhe parent-languages, aroze (we
ſav) a ſupplement or ſucceſſor to' dhe guttural, hwich dhe
French and dhe Ingliſh hav loſt. Our language howevver
haz dhe compenſacion ov prezerving, almoaſt alone
ov livving tungs, dhe dental aſpirate (we now ſee az
wel az hear) in boath powers. Dhat dhe depreſſive labial
aſpirate haz been, in all tungs and times, liabel to' interchainge
widh dhe braud licquefaccion; or dhe ſound
ov v, widh dhat ov w; cannot ſurprize hooevver knows
dhe cognacion or affinnity ov dhoze labials. But, dhat
dhe Lattin ended no ſyllabel, conſequently no word,
widh v, iz az certain az, dhat, had auriccular Anallogy
ſo commanded, occular wood hav obeyed. In Itallian
and French, dhe ſame cauz had dhe ſame effect; nor
dhis by ſervile immitacion, hwich boath hav nobly diſdained:
for won (at leaſt) ov dhe ſiſters, howevver boath
gennerally harmonious, made dhe harſh iniſcial aſſemblage
vr, hwich dheir parent nevver cood know. Ingliſh
picturage, evver az much affraid ov not following oddher
anallogies, az if ſhe had been affraid to' find her own;
warped, or braudened, widh dhe Teutonnic tungs,
new combinacion vr into' dhe unutterabel wr. Dhus
from verus, ſquezed. and varied into' vrai, firſt vray,
came dhe old Ingliſh wray, ſtil a ſurname, az wel az dhe
ſimpel ov dhe obſolete bewray. Yet Candor gladly owns,
dhat verry, and dhe like, doo onnor to' Ingliſh diccion.
B, v, and w, being dhen, by inſepparabel gradacion, connected;
we may, widhout much Teutonnic aid, bring
from ſcribere and eſcribre, dhe old anceſtor ov écrire; or
from ſcribtum and eſcript, dhe harbingers ov ſcriptum
and écrit, dhe Ingliſh write and writ; hware dhe Scots,
and probbably oddher ſtraingers, hav taken (haples dho
onneſt!) pains to' prezerv, like dhe kn and gn in know
and gnaw, dhe reallity ov an aſſemblage, hwich Nature
cood nevver employ, and can hardly behold widhout pain.
Aincient languages clozed no ſyllabel widh a depreſſive
aſpirate (if indeed dhey had anny). Dheir immediate
iſſue followed dheir exampel. Our libberal Anallogy ends
a ſyllabel widh edher power ov evvery aſpirate ſhe admits;
and wel might cloze a word widh dhe depreſſive
aſpirate, hwich, clozing ſo oft a ſyllabel, muſt be ſo often
dubbled; or hwich, ſhutting ſo natturally won vowel,
az natturally renews itſelf to' articculate anoddher. If
dhis be irreffragabel in hav havving, liv livving, lov
lovving (luv luvving) and dhe like; ſhal we dred to'
ſee, more dhan to' hear, dhe impoartant preppoziſcion
ov? Dhe adverb of, no longer confounded widh its oppozite,
wil no longer be tempted to' barbarous duplicacion.
Ov dhis we herd, a grait way of. We know dhe
impoartance ov diſtinccion; and muſt not poot of dhe
practice ov it. If f cannot, in won inſtance, repprezent
v; ſhal u, in won inſtance, repprezent edher power ov
dhe labial aſpirate? Becauz dhe figgures u and v became
promiſcuous in Lattin picturage, can dhe French lieutenant
make an Ingliſh lieftennant; more dhan dhe French
colonel, an Ingliſh curnel
DAINGER muſt attend dhe repprezentacion ov won
ſound by various ſymbols. Different orrigin may ſomtimes
be ſo indicated, hware no light iz thrown on dhe
idea; but at dhe riſk ov all hoo, innocently unquallified,
cannot be bound to' trace various orrigin; to' trace a diſtinccion,
widhout a difference! Aſpirates hav, in all
written exhibiſcion, firſt appeared hwat dhey ar; dhe
reſpective mute widh aſpiracion. Greek picturage
braught evvery aſpirate into' nexure. Yet dhe ſole aſpirate,
hwich haz in Ingliſh adopted nexure, haz retained
in ſom ſcientiffic terms, drawn, thro' French and Lattin,
from dhe Greek; dhe primmitive components, prefferably
to' dheir combinacion; retained dhe ſepparate
ſymbols, hwich even dheir Greek parent had combined.
Dhus, dho phyzzic be ſafe az philoſſophy, hwile fyzzic (or
fizzic) and filoſſofy wood be more truly fizzical and filoſoffic;
cypher, prophane, and oddhers; for cifer (if not
ſifer) profane, or dhe like; violate, at wonce, Orrigin
and Analogy. But, az in fantom, fantaſy, fezzant,
filter, and even fraze; Rezon guetting graddual ground,
explodes (dhe ſhame widh dhe dainger ov) Affectacion.
1. Dhe old guttural, for dhe labial, aſpirate.
INTERCHAINGE iz doutles moaſt incident to' affinnity;
and dhe cloſeſt affinnity iz equivvalence. For Ettymollogy
iz much too grait an antiquary to' acquieſce in Anallogy's
principel; Won ſound ſhood hav but won ſymbol:
a principel, hwich, in dhe picture ov evvery derivvative
language, more or les violated; wil evverihware, by
dhe new light ov Orthoggraphy, becom widh conſiſtence
regarded. Dho we ſee dherfore, not onely widhout pain,
but widh plezzure, fantom, frenzy, ſtile, rime, and dhe
like, take univerſal place ov phantom, phrenzy;
ſtyle, ryme; az wel az ov rhyme, rhythm, and dheir fellow--
briſtlers; no mocion iz here made, for an act to' exclude
edher ph or y Greek. Widh dhe French we ſtil too
much onnor, at wonce, philoſſophy and phyzzic.
DHE old guttural aſpirate, now ſoftened into' dhe labial,
cannot aſſume dhe Greek, but muſt dhe Lattin,
ſemblance ov dhe labial. Hwat oridginally appeared,
for dhe beſt ov poſſibel rezons, laugh, cough, hough,
trough; ſlough (ſkin), chough, rough, tough, enough; muſt
now appear for dhe ſame beſt ov rezons, laf, cof, hof
trof; fluf, chuf; ruf, tuf, enuf. Hough iz becom
Huf in dhe ſurname; az Brough became Bruf, in dhe
town ov Weſtmoreland. Lough, tranſmuted into' dhe
French and Ingliſh lake, iz, now notthing dhe les luf,
in dhe compound ſtil ſeen Loughborough; hwich may be
painted Lufburrough, dho herd onely Lufburrow; dhe
final guttural being totally loſt, az in plough, ſlough
(mire) and bough (branch); hwich retain howevver dhe
fool dipthong; az doo dhe compound proppers Houghton,
Loughton, Stoughton, Broughton, Boughton; dropping
entirely dhe aſpirate. By interchainge ov dhe ruf
and gentel ſpirrit, az talk dhe Greek Grammarians; or
ov aſpiracion, and its abſence; Hough and Houghton hav
been varied into' Ough and Oughton; (Then, by tranziſcion
ov dhe guttural into' dhe labial aſpirate, hav becom
(in Barkſhere, if not elſehware) Uf and Ufton. Nedher
aſpirate, nor u effective, hav dough and dhough retained.
Dhe latter vowel becoms dherfore a ſervile (or
mute gard) to' dhe open o: az it iz, dho febel, in burrough
fondly ſevvered from burrow! Dhe aſpirate iz
now indeed in littel dainger ov being held effective in
Ingland; but dhe noun wer ſtil ſafer az ezier in dhe ſhape
ov dow, like row or tow; and dhe conjunccion dho iz evvery
way az complete az dhe adverb ſo.
2. Dhe French for dhe Ingliſh aſpirate.
IF dhe guttural aſpirate; no more herd, proovs now
ſo ſparingly ſeen; its ſibbilating ſucceſſor, hwich retained
its form in French, cannot alſo retain dhat form in Inglish
unles hware vertually prefixing oddher dentallity:
az in church, finch, filch, fitch. Dhe ſame rezon dhat
paints dhe French chaiſe, champagne, chevalier, chagrin
(capucin) machine and débauché; muſt exhibbit
Ingliſh ſhaiz, ſhampain, ſhevvalier or ſhevvaleer, ſhagreen,
(cappuſheen or cappuſhin), maſheen (or maſhene);
widh debauſhee, or debbauſhee, az dhe writer may chooz
it to' be red. If evvery oridginal claim an addequate
picture; muſt proppers, dhe moaſt natturalized proppers,
continnue aliens? If we ſay (and we doo fay) Shamoon,
muſt we ſee him, or can we ſee him in dhe appearance
ov dhe French arketype Chamont? If Sharlot
ſo eſſencially differ from Charles, muſt ſhe affect (in
Charlotte) to' rezembel raddher him, dhan herſelf? Rochelle,
dhe fair picture in France, can prezerv her identity
in Ingland, onely az Roſhelle or Roſhel.
3 Q for C or K.
DHE ſame power, emitted by c, k, and q; riſks notthing,
if dhe departments ov each be aſcertained.
can articculate only dhe braud licquefier, ettymolodgically
painted by u, for oo compreſſed into' w; az in
equal quantity. No more dhen can it appear in maſkerade,
peak, anteek; dhan in maſk, riſk, burleſk, pictureſk;
in pic, pike, oblike, or antic: hwich preclude nedher
anticquity, nor oblicquity. Banket (no more banquet)
muſt join blanket and banker; az muſt conker, and
conkeſt; hwich joins nedher inqueſt, nor anny queſt.
Dhe markis (or marker) and marchiones (howevver elſe
equipped) muſt bring dheir eckipage; le marquis et la
marquiſe, leur équipage. Chec muſt produce checker ov
evvery kind; and ſhal échiquier command dhe exchecker?
Liqueur and régliſſe hav gennerated liccor and liccorice;
dhe latter, like dhe Scotch village Leſtarric, ſo harmonized
from Reſtalrig. Muſt dhey dhence boath look,
Lattinly, liquor and liquorice? Becauz dhe French quay
(now quai, truly cai) waz dhe obvious parent ov our key
(kee) dhe hwarf; iz kèy dherfore quay; az dhe WeſtIngliſh,
and Iriſh, wood warp it? So muſt dhe coincident
key be clef or clé; and evvery child its parent!
4. S and C, J and G, interchainged.
S and C.
DHO c waz univerſally dhe Lattin ſymbol ov k; in
Ingliſh, az in French, it haz becom before e or i, dhe
ſubſtitute ov (s,) dhe direct ſibbilacion. It can dherfore
no more paint k in dhe proppers Cis, Sceva, and
Aceldama, for Kis, Skeva and Akeldama, dhan in dhe
appellatives ſceptic and ſceleton; now gennerally ſeen,
az wel az herd, ſkeptic and ſkelleton. And ſhal not Euclid
himſelf be yet abel to' demonſtrate an Iſoſkeles trianguel?
In a few words, our picturage haz followed dhe French
coppy ov retaining dhe ettymolodgic c, hware it retains no
ſound, or leves dhe s non: ſcene, ſcepter, ſciattic, ſcioliſt,
ſcience; ſcintillacion, reſcind, tranſcend, abſces
widh (queſtionles) dheir, cognates. Won cannot blame
dhe gardener for pruning ſcion into' cion; but dhey know
littel ov ſenteur, cimiterre, or ſitus, hoo pretend to' compliment
Ettymollogy widh ſcent, ſcimitar and ſcite; for
ſent, cimmiter, and ſite. Two ſymbols for won ſound
yield dhe eye howevver dhe plezzure and dhe pride ov
diſtinguiſhing ſite and cite, ſit and cit, ſeſſion and ceſſion,
ſignet and cygnet, ſcene and ſean and ſeen. Different
foarces may hav ſent dhe contending cinnabar and ſinnoper,
cifer and ſifer (even cipher), nay ſentinel and centinel,
ſuperſede and ſupercede! But a littel attenſion
wil commonly ſuffice for habittuating ſuperſede and intercede;
for ſteering between dhe rocs ov Ettymollogy.
Dho an acquaintance widh morſus, raddher dhan
widh morceau (wonce morcel), and a prefference ov dear
Lattin even to' domeſtic Anallogy, hwich offers parcel a
native compannion; may hav rendered morſel dhe favorite
figgure; ſimmilar cauz haz, not introduced tinſel
hwich might ſparkel widh handſel or hanſel, ſtil widhout
a, glance at étincelle. So dhe French danſe and
tranſe denied not, dance and trance, admittance to'
Ingliſh Orthoggraphy.
2. J and G.
DHE rival repprezentatives ov dhe depreſſive ſibbilating
aſpirate hav ſomtimes equally baffled moddern Ettymollogy.
Gelée and ſergent did hope to' find dheir children
gelly and ſergeant, az ſurely az général had found
hiz ſon a genneral. But hwat parent ſhal prommiſe for
hiz child? Hiz child tranſplanted into dhe land ov LIBBERTY!
Jelly and ſerjeant, far from owning, diſclaimed
(their parents. Dhe former declared herſelf a native ov
Poartland-ſtreet (N. 64.) Dhe latter ſwore (for ſom,
even ov hiz rank, in dhoze days did ſwair;) dhat he waz
Ingliſh-born; and cood (hwat few ſargents beſide himself
cood) ſwair, he had but a ſinguel ſupernumerary.
Geole proteſted (for ſhe pozeſſed too mannv ſwairers to'
ſwair) dhat her wiſh, like her arms, waz fool. Dhe land
(ſhe ſaid) ov Antigallicans, waz a land ov Antiraſcionals:
elſe wood nevver gaol, more dhan goal, hav attempted to'
make an Ingliſh jail, ſuer ſang at eau — remuer ciel et
terre (dhoze wer her expreſſions) in dhe wild endevvor ov
anny way rezembling her parent. Dhe vennerabel Gervaiſe
and Geoffroi ſmiled ſimmilarly at dhe ISLAND,
hware Jervas and Jervis, Jeffrey and Jeffery wer Oridginals,
if not Aborigines!
C, G, and oddhers, miſrepprezented, by being miſattended.

Two conſonants, oridginally guttural or pallatal, ſoften
in Ingliſh, az in French, before e, i, and its
equivvalent y: c, into' coincidence widh dhe direct ſibbilant
(s); g, into' dhe depreſſive ſibbilated aſpirate (j);
hwich, in French dherfore, iz equal to' zh; but, in Ingliſh,
prefixes dhe dry dental, az if dzh. E final, dhe
genneral ſervant ov dhe vowels, proovs dhus dhe ſilent
ſoftening gard ov dheze two articulations: az in pece and
chainge, peceabel and chaingeabel, judge and judgeabel;
ſo in judgement, chaingeles and pecefool. Nor iz dhe
ſervile les neſceſſary to' Birmingeham and Hwittingeham,
hwich ar dhe verry reverſe ov Birmingham and
Whittingham. Hwile trace dhus and charge retain dhe
ſervile in traceabel and chargeabel; dhey cannot, becauz
dhey need not, in tracing or in charges. Ov various
uſe iz e ſervile to' dhe certain ſibbilant: principally
to' keep it direct after a licquid or dipthong, dhat wood
depres it; or before an aſpiracion, dhat wood render it
aſpirate: az in elſe, elſehware; falſe, falſehood; houſe,
houſehold. Dhus hay we ſeen, az adverſe, diverſe,
diſtinct from divers dhe formative.
BEFORE dhen dhe vowels dhat wood chainge dhem,
(The gutturals require a like prezerver, No articulations
more natturally (non perhaps ſo natturally) ſubjoin edher
licquefaccion. French, az Greek, harmony haz
nevver admitted dhe brand licquefier; hwich Lattin haz
lent Ingliſh, and oddher moddern diccions. Dhis iz
equally ſtriking, in l'équité du langage Français, and in
dhe ecquity ov our language. Az French howevver retains
dhe ſemblance ov u after q, in reſpect to' her immediate
parent; and plants it after g, az gard againſt
dhe ſofteners; in dhis capaſcity our Orthoggraphy ſimmilarly
employs it: az in gues, guide, and Guy; ſo in
plague, plaguy, plaguing and plagued; in harangue, haranguing,
harangued, and haranguer: not excluding
dhe braud licquefaccion ov ſuch az linguiſt, languor,
languiſh and anguiſh; hwich laſt brings it doutles from
angoiſſe. But in dhe dipthong oi, alone, doz French vocallity
admit dhe brand licquefaccion; unles alſo in dhe
interjections ouai and oui, and in dhe few Teutonnic
words ſhe adopts, az oueſt and ouate, our weſt and wad.
In dhe Ingliſh exergue, for exerg, boath dhe French ſerviles
ar ſuperfluous. Tongue, hwich can but be tung,
ads won deception to' anoddher. Nor hav tunged and
tungy anny more need ov ſervile, dhan bunged or bungy
from bung; or dhan longer, longed and longing, from long.
Dhe final ov dhe French long iz indeed a mere abuttal;
attended immediately by dhe gard before dhe ſoftener, in
longue, ſo diſtinguiſhed from longe. In dhe Ingliſh long,
dhe hard guttural, eſſencial to' nazallity, renders itſelf
diſtinctly ſenſibel in articculating a vowel, eſpeſcially febel,
hweddher in dhe ſame or in dhe next word; alike
dherfore in prolonging and prolong it; nor les even widh
dhe ſtrong vowel, in dhe ſollemn prolongacion: az if
prolong-guing (u ſervile), prolong-guit, prolong-gacion.
Elſe hwence dhis plezing hope, dhis fond dezire;
Dhis longing after immortallity?
Anallogy dhus tranſmits, widhout oddher aid, parental
power thro' dhe fammily: az in hang, hanging, hanged,
hanger; ſo in dangel, dangelling or dangling, and dhe
like. Such primmitives az anguel and arguer are doutles
more ſafe by dhe ſervile, dho anguelling and anguerry
muſt run into' angling and angry; nay, morover, dho
dhe ſound ange be not Ingliſh: hwich all dhe world doz
not yet know. Sing makes dhus dhe agent ſinger
chime widh finguer; and ſinge, dhe finger, widh ginger.
Leguer muſt claim dhe company ov eguer and meguer,
az wel az ov tiguer. Not a tigres can fly at dhem.
Nor widhout dhe hardener can dhe g be kept hard, in
dhe Ingliſh homogueneal; or, widhout dhe dubbel dental,
dhe oddher ſtrong vowel aſcertained in betterogueneous.

A SEEMING aſpiracion (dhe fantom ov a fantom) wonce
attempted to' ſupplant dhe pallatal gard in ghitar, ghizzard,
gherkin, and gheſs; for guitar, guizzard, guerkin,
and gues. Dhis ideal appearance ov dhe guttural
aſpirate (hwich ſcarce evver cood boaſt a depreſſive reallity)
ſhows at leaſt dhe demand ov ſom ſervile. And iz
it not az neſceſſary to' diſtinguiſh, boath in ſenſe and in
ſound, guin (better known in beguin), guiv, guil, guilt,
(guilded, dho coincident widh guilt, guiltines) guig,
guear, guet, and guibbous; from gin ſnare, or Jin,
little Jane; give or gyve, jil, jilt, jig, jeer, jet; and
jibbous, a poſſibel (if joccular) ſprout ov jib? Iz it les recquizite
in gueld, (guelding, or guelder) dhan in Guelderland;
in guild widh goold, dhan in dhe Guild ov
Guildhall; in an Ingliſh guilder hoo guilds, dhan in anny
Dutch guilder, howevver employed? Becauz gan (began)
and gave, gat or got, and gaddher; becauz goold or
gooſe, need no gard for dhe pallatal; ſhal gin (or begin),
give, get, and together, gild or geeſe, require won in vain?
Ar not gueſe and togueddher ezy, az gues and gaddher;
forguet, az guet; and targuet, az edher? Shood not Wagner,
dhe innocent ſurname, be dhus garded from anny
ſemblance ov wager; dhe Ingliſh ofspring ov gageure,
and dhe verry nattural coincident ov dhe wager ov war
againſt wizdom? Shal we not be az raſcional in guibbelgabbel,
az in jibber-jabber? and may not our own guibberiſh
hwich ſom wood profoundly trace from a Hebrew
parent; be az expreſſively intelligibel, az dhe French
galimathias, hwich haz dhe certain glory ov Greek extraccion?
Hwile guiddy guirl, guird, guimp, and guimlet
(unawed even by gibelet) demand dhe inſertive; az
doo moddern proppers, like Guy or Guilhermin; dho
even aincient Egypt, ſoftened thro' dhe French, requires
non; dhe old ungarded guttural may ſtil onnor, az forrainers,
gymnaſtic and gymnoſſophiſt; along widh ſuch vennerabel
proppers, az Geber, Gethſemane, Bethphage;
Trogyllium, Gilboa, Gihon. Giddeon muſt dubbel hiz
d, az gymnoſſophiſt hiz s; or each deny hiz name in our
language; dho dhe latter g muſt be apt (for variety) to'
melt in Gyges and Ogygia. Nedher ſoftnes nor ſervile
know Teutonnics, more dhan Celtics: az Gilbert, Gertrude
and Gottingen; ſo Argyle, Elgin, Logy, Carneggy,
Bargenny (or Balgenny) Dalgety, and dhe reſt. No
gard can be wanted for Gib, Gibbon, or Foddhergil, more
dhan for Gilbert; for begging or begger, more dhan
for beggar, longer, or longing; dhe raddical venue pervading
dhe branches. But, in Ingliſh roots; domeſtic
rule may harden won g ſhutting, and ſoften anoddher
dhat articculates; az exaggerate wil ſuggeſt hware
dhe oppozites, abſolutely ſepparabel, run ſmoodhly into'
a duplicacion ov dhe latter. Nor can we be hurt, dho
we ſomtimes hear les dhan we ſee: To' ſudgeſt iz not to'
exadgerate. On dhe oddher hand, dhe hard and ſoft c,
for dhe direct guttural and ſibbilant, ar far more ezily
parted; az in flaccid and ſuccede: alike out ov dhe
queſtion being ſuccéder, ſuggérer or exagérer; flaccidus
or ſuccedere, ſuggerere or exaggerare: in hwich
ſo ar dhe duplicacion kept on boath ſides equally unſoftened,
az dhe Lattin guttural knew no chainge. C hard,
havving k for its ſubſtitute, before dhe ſoftening vowels;
and nevver, in ſuch ittuacion, being k's repprezentative;
cannot hav anny uſe for a ſervile. Yet in cuiras and circuit,
Ettymollogy's dear u performs dhis frendly part;
hwich kiras and cirkit (or cirket) wood render unneſceſſary;
az biſket haz almoaſt exterminated biſcuit; and
baſket altogueddher baſcaud, dhe firſt (probbabel) ofset
ov baſcauda. Mart. xi. 120. Ord. vulg. xiv. 99.
Barbara de pictis veni Baſcauda Britannis:
Sed me jam mavult dicere Roma ſuam.
From painted Brittains I Baſcauda came;
Hoom now imperial ROOM wood native claim.
IF uſeles ſerviles be perniſcious, az oddhers indiſpenſabel;
u can no more appear in gard dhan in regard,
dhan in garden or in garrantee. Poor Ettymollogy
knew not garde, garder, gardien or garant, more
dhan jardin; but ſquinted at guarda, guardar, or annithing,
raddher dhan immediate parents, hoom ſhe
ſcarce regarded more dhan dheir children; hwen ſhe
took upon her to' fancy dhat anny parents had a titel to'
obtrude ſuch ſpawn az guard and guardian: dhe latter
warrantably producing in remote parts, dhe effective
gwardian, az guarantee gwarrantee: ſo dhare prezenting
dhe braud licquefaccion, hwile at London emitting dhe
ſlender. Anallogy's emiſſion ov dhe ſlender licquefier
after a pallatal (k, c, or q) iz a ſtil ſmal voice, hwich dhe
(oppozite) braudener ſurely nevver can picture; and hwich
iz indeed dhe ſole Ingliſh emiſſion, dhat proovs too ſuttel
for ſymbol. Dellicate ears alone can diſcern, hwat onely
dellicate organs can convey: dhat nice licquefaccion,
widh hwich dhe pallatals articculate i open, a ſhut, and
dhe ur pictured by ir. Herd iz dhus, hwat cannot be
ſeen; hwat, omitted or ſtiffened, iz equally groce; in
dhe kind guide, dhe card or gard, in ſkirt or guird:
hware we muſt hear, dho we cannot ſee, dhe kyind gyide;
impoſſibly guride, or dhe like; dhe g keeping hard, before
dhe ſlender licquefier ov dhe vowel. Sky and Guy
may dhus be a Shibboleth, or diſtinguiſher: dhe remote
from ellegance (verry pardonably) guivving dhe ſounds
(blunt) az dhey ſeem; ſo articculating alike ſkirt and curt,
or curd, guird and hurdy-gurdy.
SIMMILARLY obtructive iz dhe u OV buy and build, dhe
w ov ſword and anſwer; for by, bild; ſoard and anſer.
Bild gladly lent dhe u to' guild, dhat needed it. Dhe
verb to' by fears no joſtel from dhe prepoziſcion; more
dhan ſoard dhe weppon, from ſoar' d dhe pretterite: nor
can dhe Ingliſh anſer apprehend annithing„ but from a
Latin gooſe. Dhe licquefier ſinks by affinnity in ſwoon,
ſwoop, and hwoop; but muſt no longer falſify dhe prepoſterous
who, whole, whore; for hoo, hoal and hore.
Dhe unutterabel (az inconceivabel) w before r iniſcial,
like dhe k before n iniſcial, pleads occular diſtinccion;
az ov wry from ry, write from rite, wright from right;
knight from night, know from now, different in vocallity
az in meaning: but knowledge, or even knolledge, has.
no plea from ſound, ſenſe, or compoziſcion. It ſtil may
ſeem to' open dhe neſceſſarily ſhut penultimate, hwile
decompoundabel knowl-edge or knoll-edge, dhe edge ov
dhe knoll or knowl. Knollege may be more ſafely indulged
widh dhe occular iniſcial ov know; dho nollege,
ſecuring ſenſe and ſound, wer dhe happy (az dhe natural)
compannion ov college. A mere ettymolodgic iz dhus
dhe apparent iniſcial ov wren, az ov gnaw (widh gnaſh),
knee, Mnemoſſyne, pneumattic or pneumatic, bdéllium,Ptollemy,
czar, pſalm; or hwatevver oddhers pretend to' commence
widh incombinabels. Nor from dhis clas can be
ſevvered dhe ſcene (if uncrouded) ov Science, hoos anceſtors
wer in no dainger ov commencing anny word or
ſyllabel widh two coincident letters; dho France haz
tranſmitted boath raddicals, ſhood won in tranſmiſſion
be loſt.
Inverſion ov el and er final.
To' Ingliſh articulacion dhe graiteſt obſtakel remains,
in dhe blindeſt ov blind ſubmiſſions to' Ettymollogy.
Dhe febelleſt human ſound iz dhe French e femminine;
often, dho not always, final. Its ſittuacion being dhus
natturally febel, its hoal eſſence, or ſound, muſt edher
be abſorbed in a following vowel; or evapporate, widhout
peculiar care, into' imperceptibillity; thro' dhe ſuperior
foarce ov dhe vowel, hweddher before or after it.
Dhis appears equally in légere and légerement, maire
and maître, bile and bible: in evvery won ov hwich, unles
ſwallowed by a ſucceding vowel, or ſunk in rapiddity;
e femminine iz not onely effective, but effective
in its own place; dhat iz, herd hware ſeen. Soon did
we drop (if evver we impoarted) dhe ſound ov dhe
French e final, after a ſinguel conſonant; retaining it, at
leaſt, in dhe ſervice ov Orthoggraphy; hoo employs it,
az in French, (dho inaudibly) ſo ſtil to' claim its articulacion,
az to' forbid dhe ſhutting ov dhe preceding vowel.
Dhis it doz in dhe Ingliſh bile, hwich elſe wer bil; and
even after dhe compound articulacion in dhe ending aſte,
from dhe French aſte, really (and now ſeemingly) âte: az
in haſte; from dhe old haſte, now hâte. Dhe ſame febel
office doz dhe French e final perform, after a compound
articulacion; after anny mute, embracing l or r: hwich
licquids, havving ſo much intrinſic ſound, ar wel named
half-vowels; and, az ſuch, ſupply (hware dhey ſlifel)
dhe weak vocallity; dhat ſtil, on ſollemn occazions, wil
be herd: az in bi-le, bi-ble; mai-re, maî-tre. But, az
dhus dhe French bible prezervs dhe letters in dheir order;
dhe Inglih bibel doz dhe ſame.
LONG did dhe mute widh r maintain, in our picturage,
dhe French arraingement; ſo long indeed, as it continnued
a ſecret, dhat dhe vowel, hwich opperated after boath
conſonants in French, acted in Ingliſh between dhem.
Centre and fibre wer ſuppozed coincident, at leaſt in dhe
latter ſyllabel; az theatre in dhe laſt, widh dheir parents;
til theater, center, and fiber, wer found dhe children.
R took her place after dhe febel vowel ſhe ſhut; and
evvery mute became proud to' articculate dhe vowel
hwich ſhe did, raddher dhan dhe licquid, hwich ſhe did
not, articculate. So fond waz g herſelf ov dooing a
real, and ſpurning a pretended, duty; dhat ſhe commenced
it at her own perril, widhout a gird, in cager and
tiger; dho now, in eguer and tiguer, ſhe ſecurely looks,
az wel az ſpeaks, dhe truith. C alone remained ſelfiſh
and ſtubborn. Dhe ſelfiſh ar always prepoſterous. She
durſt not truſt herſelf, like g, to' e's articculacion;
ſhe fear'd, wood melt her hard hart. Nor knew ſhe dhat
k waz her oddher ſelf, in ſuch ſcenes ov dainger; or indeed,
dhat herſelf had been all dhe hwile uzurping dhe
place ov her frend. K came at length to' proffer her ſervice;
raddher in relief ov her good cozzen C, dhan in
proſſecucion ov her own claim. C reluctantly quitted
her acres and lucre: akers and luker hailed dheir lawfool
owner; maſſacre gave way to' maſaker, and ſepulchre
(or ſepulcre) to' ſeppoolker. Hware wafer, cipher, and
offer, dho equally French, az being dhe immediate ofſpring
ov gaufre, chiffre, and offre; affect no loch appearance
az wafre, ciphre, or offre; hware dhe ſeccond
indeed for evvery rezon ſhood be cifer, or (ſtil more oridginally)
ſifer; dhe French liver muſt be az ſterling, az
dhe Dutch ſtiver: nor can livre more juſtly paint its own
Ingliſh name, dhan Dover can paint its French name,
ov Douvre or Douvres.
ANNIMATED by long pozeſſion ov won licquid, and
ſecure in dhe flexibillity ov dhe oddher, evvery mute
took now ſpeech upon her; and all emmulouſly proteſted
dhat, dho dhey had been divorced by wicked Anallogy
from r, in order to' articculate an inaudibel ſomthing;
dhey ſhood not, for like petty purpoſe, be toren from lovly
l; hoo wood ſuffice to' dhem, widhout a vowel. R,
ſaid dhey, iz at beſt but a canine barbarian: l we oſt aſſociate
by native dellicacy. Firſt boaſted p and b, in certain
terminating ſittuacions: "Our French parents knew
not l: to' dheir principe, participe, and ſyllabe, we hav,
in dhe aſſumpcion ov dhe lambent licquid, revived almoaſt
Latin vocallity; and, hware dhey received dhe ruf guttural,
dho not its combinacion, from harmonious anceſtors,
az in pourpre and marbre; Ingliſh mellody melted it
into' its oppozite cognate." All dhis iz juſt, but dhe claim
ov aſſociacion: principel, particippel, ſyllabel; purpel,
or marbel; nevver wer, or wil be, principle, and dhe
like. Nor, dho Neapolis might wel ſhrink into' dhe
French Naples, can dhis alſo picture dhe Ingliſh Napels;
more dhan maples mapels, or Gueldre Guelderland.
To' Ingliſh Anallogy indeed r iz no more an alien, dhan.
l. Dhe ſame cauz (febel vocallity in dhe end) haz made
Grocenes aſſume r in (dhe colloquial) idear and windowr,
for idea and window; and Ellegance ad dhat licqnid to'
dhe French parents géographe, and philoſophe, in dhe
Ingliſh geoggrapher and philoſſopher. Dho aſpirates and
ſimpels now rage alike for l; raffel and trifel inſiſting
to' be (hwat dhey nevver wer or can be) raffle and trifle;
dhe depreſſive labial aſpirate haz always ſcorned dhe ly
ov tranſpoziſcion; and found dhe favorite licquid ſuffiſciently
near, hware Nature had placed it, in navel, gravvel
drivvel, and dhe reſt.
DHE next claimants ov l, wer dhe pallatals (c and g).
Eagle ſcreamed dhe demand, hweddher anny won durſt
diſpute dhe propperties or proprieties ov aigle. So
Beagle barked about bigle. "In France (interrupted
Article) hoo queſtions my perfeccion? and, in Ingland,
hoo deſcries anny difference?" — "Article (cries Particle)
iz a mere ſmuggler. My moddher particule waz
reſpectably French, az corpuſcule or veſtibule; or az I am
obviouſly and irreproachably Ingliſh." Dhe diſſyllabel
Treacle, and triſſyllabel Chronicle, urged, on like principel,
dhe aſſociated l to' tériaque and chronique or cronique;
ſo evincing dhemſelvs no les legittimate natives
ov Ingland, dhan dheir parents had been ov France.
DHE firſt, and fierceſt, waz anſered: Aigle iz a perfet
figgure, for it iz unexcepcionably ai-gle. If dhe
Ingliſh prodgeny wer indulged, az it cannot be, in dhe
idel ettymolodgic ov dhe prior part; gle can paint no,
ſyllabel in dhe end ov an Ingliſh word: for it dhare iz
edher a boddy widhout a ſoll, or it annimates a Jac-o--
lantern; gleaming in won place, and opperating in anoddher.
If eaguel dherfore ſhood attempt to' pleze boath
Ettymollogy and Anallogy; yielding dhe tail at leaſt to'
dhe latter, hwile dhe hed retained a, dhe mere fantom
ov a, all alive in aigle, or in aquila; beaguel wood be a
mongrel, diſowned by bird and beaſt. Dho treakels
claims ar equal to' eaguels; eguel, beguel, and trekel,
ar (nor can anny oddher be) dhe words. Article and
particle ar aſſuredly French; nor les aſſuredly ar artikel
and partikel and cronnikel (harmleſly chronnikel),
widh corpuſkel and veſtibel, Ingliſh. Veſtibule haz doutles
more ov veſtibulum; but Euphony (or ſmoodhnes) muſt
retain annimalcule. Muſcle found an ezy migracion into'
muſcel; hweddher dhe petty ſhelfiſh, or dhe parent
ov muſcular mocion. Againſt ankle, inkle, and unkle,
ſtrennuouſly inſiſted ancle, incle, and uncle. Dhe
laſt, being a ſcollar, alledged (not oncle, but) avunculus.
Dhe oddher two argued widh ſimmilar ſtrength.
Ankel, inkel, and unkel (mere upſtarts) ſettelled dhe matter.
Dhe proppers Bunkel, Henkel, and Tickel, raddher
led, dhan followed, rankel, tinkel, tackel, freckel, pickel,
buckel; widh haggel, biggel, boggel, ſtruggel, wriggel,
wrangel, bungel: dheze, or dhe like, requiring
no gard for dhe latter guttural, hwich but repeats
dhe former.
Dhe laſt and loudeſt claimants, az havving leaſt to'
ſay, wer dhe dentals and ſibbilacions. Dhe direct ſibbilant
can indeed in Ingliſh (dho nedher in French, Lattin,
nor Greek) ſlily ſlide into' coaliſcion widh dhe melliffluous
licquid. But notthing can render dhat licquid a hoal--
vowel; or e final in Ingliſh, at wonce neſceſſarily febel,
and effective. Dhe pronouns he, ſhe, me, we, ye, ar
fool az natturallv ſtrong az weak; dhe artikel dhe may be
ſtrong, az dhe pronoun (dhee): and dhe prime ov all
verbs, dhe verry eſſence ov opperacion (be), haz ſurely no
nattural febelnes. More annalodgic (dhat iz, more reggular)
wer dhey ov old: witnes hee, widh dhe ſervile;
hwich muſt ſtil, in hees or he's, be a help at hand. But
an Ingliſh word havving no oddher vowel, muſt endow
even e final widh vocallity; and ſo ſevven leading monnoſyllabels
becom aliens, az much az ſpecie; or ſpecies,
widh dhe laſt vowel open, az if ſpecie's, like Thales,
Hercules, and oddher Greeks. Forrain ſimmilarly and
fool, ar ſimile and epitome; Ingliſhly illedgibel (even az
forrainers) widhout dhe antepenultimate ſhutter in ſimmile,
epittome. No wonder if epittomy ſhood appear, az
ſimmily haz don; or if apoſtrophe raddher Frenchly
ſhrink into' appoſtroph, (than Greekly expand into apoſtrophe,
herd in Ingland by like vertue apoſtrophy.
To' dhe ſame power .proppers dhemſelvs being ſubject,
Penelope, Inarime, and Gethſemane, dho forrain
in dhe final effective (no les dhan Mamre, Coloſſe,
or Bethphage) muſt becom, to' be Ingliſhly utterabel,
Penellope, Inarrime, Gethſemmane, and dhe reſt. Be
dhis az it muſt, nedher dhe dry dental, nor dhe ſibbilacion
cood urge dhe preſcedent ov oddher tongs for combining
prepozzitivelv widh l at all, far les before e final or
ſilent. Moddeſt waz comparratively (the ſibbilacion, hoo
had alreddy ſhown her attachment to' Truith in veſſel,
taſſel, or toſſel, and dhe like; nor les, in dhe depreſſive:
az in hazel, dazzel, drizzel, nozzel, puzzel, and bamboozel;
dho Abſurdity haz puzzled her verry ſelf, to'
dazzle us widh her power ov impoſſibility. Here indeed
ſhe ſeems to' crown her conqueſts. Dhe direct ſibbilant
alone combines widh l, and in Ingliſh onely: az
in ſlow or ſlender. Dhe depreſſive ſibbilant can combine
widh 1, in no human language. No combinacion
can be made to' articculate a non-entity. Dherfore dazzel
muſt appear dazzle, ſince taſſel cannot appear taſsle;
and dherfore tl or dl may articculate a notthing, ſince
(they can in no language articculate anny-thing. Dhis
may be dhe quinteſſence ov litterary Lodgic, yet
cannot excite dhe envy ov Orthoggraphy. A letter howevver
ov ſo ſmoodh and ſo ezy coaleſcence az dhe ſibbilant,
cood not paciently brook dhat her ſubſtitute (t),
ſquezed almoaſt into' notthing, ſhood ſtil ſtickel for an
imadginary right, hwich principals in dhe plennitude ov
power had been compelled to' abandon. Dhis ſhe inſtanced
widh indignation in dhe round ov caſtel, neſtel,
thiſtel, joſtel, and buſtel; briſtelling (or briſtling,) ettymolodgically
forſooth! in caſtle and fellow-monſters.
Caſtel exhibbits indeed dhe relacion to' caſtellum, in dhe
picture ov itſelf; hwile.dhe pent articculacion widh its febel
vowel neſceſſarily ſink,widhout dheaid ov dhe abov Enchantres.
So chattel reunites itſelf to' its parent châtel, peſtel
to' piſtillum; neſtel to' neſt; joſtel, to' dhe old jouſt, afterwards
juſt; from dhe French jouſte (now joûte) az
dhis from juſtum. But, hwence doo dhe reſt bring dheir
t? From dhe anallogy ov Falſificacion; or raddher, from
dhe falſificacion ov Anallogy dhus dherfore throſtel,
ruſtel, and buſtel; vulgarly ſeen throſtle, ruſtle, buſtle;
dho really herd throſſel, ruſſel, buſſel; from thruſh, ruſh,
and buz or pooſh. Epiſtel and apoſtel, ſo recconciled to'
rezon and to' dhemſelvs; ar not dhe les juſt to' épiſtre,
apoſtre (now épître, apôtre), or to' epiſtola and apoſtolus.

LIKE arraingement haz been tried, if not quite ſo ſuccesfoolly,
widh n. And ſurely faſten, liſten, gliſten, might
fool az natturally appear faſtne, liſtne, gliſtne; az luſter,
luſtre; or az hwiſtle, really hwiſſel, wood (in whiſtle)
fain proov propinquity to' fiſtula or fiſtulare, raddher dhan
to' ſiſſler, ſifflet or ſiffle; and much raddher dhan to' hwiz,
dhe undouted az obvious parent. Yet, dho gliſtre, glittre,
lettre, and even philtre, hav ſunk beneadh gliſter,
glitter, litter, letter, and filter; gliſtne may ſtil hope
to' extinguiſh gliſten, and even tne to' triumph over ten,
hwen Jno iz in ſo fair a way ov extinguiſhing at wonce
John and Jon. Dhat Jno iz in ſuch a way, may be
augured from two verry happy prognoſtics; won genneral,
dhe oddher peculiar. Dhe grait Odin ov dhe North,
braudened into' Wodin, and ſlendered into' Weden,
hwence Wedden; haz (by more dhan Scandinavian enchantment)
becom dhe Brittiſh Mercury, on hiz own
Wedneſday, and in hiz own Wedneſbury; hwich cood
onely by ſuch power picture Weddenſday and Weddenſberry:
onely indeed by dhe power, dhat makes Gentlemen
tantamount to' Gentelmen; dho far les can
tranſmute dhem togueddher into' Wenſday, Wenſberry,
and Gemmen. Dhe oddher no les vennerabel
corroboracion, iz dhe ſurname ſymbolizing Archdecon;
hwich notthing but a new Wedne cood evver
eliſcit from dhe Antediluvian Arcedeckne. If no
may dhus repprezent on, tne ten, az wel az dne den, or
tre ter; tle, not onely tel, but ſel; dle dherfore ezily
del; no Wil o' dhe wiſp (hweddher in Wedneſbury on
Wedneſday, or not) wil gliſtne (or gliſtre) dhe luſtre ov
Jno's little candle; ſince it muſt ſuffice to' ſhow — a
vowel at wonce final and medial, ſilent and audibel — a
conſonant az wel az a vowel, ſees in won place, and herd
in anoddher — ſyllabels red bacwards and forwards — incombinabels
combined; or, dhoze letters commencing togueddher,
dhat can onely be red in ſepparacion. Dhe
Greek τληπόλεμος,dhe Lattin Tlepolemus, and dhe Ingliſh
Tlepollemus, wood verrily becom a Τρισμέγεςος (Triſmegiſtos)
anoddher Thrice-graiteſt Wedne, Wodin, or Odin;
did hiz ſinguel authorrity ſuffice to' evince, dhat edher
combinacion, tl or dl, waz evver natturally practicabel; or
cood widhout violence, or widh joint effect, commence
a ſyllabel. If dhis dhey can no more medially dhan
finally (commencing finally being here firſt no contradiccion);
Rezon muſt aſſert her evvery tittel ov titel, nor be
idel and piddel. Nedher wil ſhe bluſh to' recall hwat ſhe
muſt bluſh to' hav rellegated, widh littel and middel, Littelton
and Middelton; dho lyttel and myddel be wel exploded.
Hwat wood Batavians think, or Swabians, ov
Ingliſh litterature, did edher ſee Middelburg or Mindelheim,
painted Middleburg or Mindleheim? Dhe ſame az
if dhey ſaw Gueldreland for Guelderland; dho Gueldre
or Gueldres be dhe Gallic name. If dhey did not joccularly
moddernize in quoting,
Mitto tibi metulas: cancros imitare legendo.
Carm. Proverb.
Vol. ym. vig. I: but, leſt dhe laffers blab;
Mark, dho dhey mayn't, dhe moovment ov dhe
dhey wood ſublimely exclaim widh Virgil, (Georg. I.
——— omnia fatis
In pejus ruere, ac retro ſublapſa referri.
Az faireſt flow'rs ar fated wonce to' fade,
E'n ſubtle Science dwindles retrograde.
No wonder Tickel waz proud to' prezerv hiz name, or
pittied hwat tickles moddern tranſpozzitors. By ſuch aid
ſhal we ſtil recovver our goods and chattels; by ſuch annimacion
ſhal we yet fight our battels, az widh new juſtnes,
widh renewed ſucces. Dhen wil battellous no more
arrain Milton, dhan amaze his Crittics, hoo wil umbly
It iz not Homer nods, but we dhat dream.
NOR can it be needfool to' ad, dhat turtel and fardel,
mantel and candel, by dhus prezenting dheir own identities;
retain fool az much likenes to' dheir parents, turtur
and tourtre or tourterelle, fardel and mantel (dho now
fardeau and manteau); and ſurely no les to' chandelle
or candela. Nedher haz it perhaps paſt unobzerved, dhat
dhe ſole argument for dhe idol dubbler ov s final here
drops. Les, widh evver ſo manny eſſes, wil nevver be
more; in, or out ov, compoziſcion. ar dhe ſymbols
az dhe ſounds and idea's, hwarevver dhe needels ar
DHAT formacion iz by Orthoggraphy promoted (not
impeded), we hav alreddy ſeen. Dho abel can be no
ſhorter, nor dred more dhan formerly from innocent
Abel; abeller and abelleſt contract dhemſelvs natturally
az evver, into' abler and ableſt: ſo dhe adverbs abelly,
abellier, abellieſt; into' ably, ablier, ablieſt. In like
manner dubbels formatives, dubbelly, dubbelling, dubbelled,
muſt currently ſhrink into' dubbly, dubbling,
dubbled, and dhe reſt, widh dheir fellows. But, hware
dhe combinacion, az tl and dl, iz impracticabel; dhe formatives
muſt edher continnue fool, or (az in oddher incombinabel
caſes) muſt prezerv conſiſtence and vocallity,
by marking dhe contraction widh dhe elider, known by
dhe Greek name Apoſtrophe, or dhe French Appoſtroph.
Dhus titel (wonce tytel) muſt ſhow at laſt dhe formations
it haz always really made: titelling, titelled, titeller;
or tit'ling, tit'led, tit'ler. Tittular iz a primmitive;
and intittuled, dhe formal preddeceſſor ov entitelled
or entit'led. So tittel, tittelling or titt'ling; dho
tiding and pidling be equally ſafe, hware dhe
combinacion iz impoſſibel. Simmilarly, idel, ideller,
idelleſt; or id'ler, id'leſt; widh idelly, idellier, idellieſt,
running into' id'ly, id'lier, id'lieſt. Az cradel, cradelling
or crad'ling; ſo ſaddel, ſaddelling, ſadd'ling; or
better, az ezier, ſadling; widh ſaddeller, ſadd'ler, and
dhe irreproachabel ſadler; like butler, cutler, and dhe
Inverſion ov dhe braud licquid aſpirate.
FINAL tranſpoziſcion, after graddual decay, dhus totally
gon; ſhal iniſcial tranſpoziſcion becom ſacred, to'
aught elſe dhan oblivvion? To' reccollect how it commenced,
can but raiz a new bluſh. Not to hint dhe ſucceſſive
tranſiſcion ov τίς and τί (tis and ti) into' dhe Dorian
ϰίς and ϰί, (kis and ki), hwence dhe Lattin homonnymous
cis and ci braudened into' quis and qui: an Eolianiſm,
hwich (dho French nevver wood) Ingliſh haz
adopted. — In days (howevver) hwen qu, after prooving
dhus introductory, became ſubſtitucional to' w; it waz
perceived, dhat h cood not articculate q. Yet boath appeared
indiſpenſabel: won, becauz it waz Lattin; dhe
oddher, aldho it waz Ingliſh. So boath muſt enter,
hware dhey can. Quis and quid wer proliffic parents:
quhich and quhat wer erly children; dhe former, doutles
guttural, are it melted and ſimplified into' quhilk.
Long did it reign in dhe (polliſhed) ſhape ov which, alike
parramount ov perſons and ov things. No wonder a rival
aroze: a rival indeed ov unexampelled ambiſcion.
Preddeceſſors and parragons maintained promiſcuous
ſway; til Quho ſtarted pale at dhe idea. I, quoth
QUHO, wil perſonate onely agents ov intelligence: let
QUHICH, or Scottiſh QUHILK, engroce irraſcional things.
Dhe diſtinguiſher ov perſons and things came at length
to' diſcern, dhat qu ſtil waz not w. But, conſcious
alſo ov aſpiracion in its only poſſibel place; dhat iz, herd
before dhe liquefaccion, dho ſeen after it; dhe poſſibillity
ov rendering dhe aſpiracion vizzibel, hware audibel,
did not occur widh dhe propriety ov chainging dhe licquefied
repprezentacion. Hence dhe prepoſterous which
and what, for hwich and hwat; who and where, now
hoo and hware; dho whence and whither, in hwence and
hwiddher, hav remained. So did quhich and which gennemte
quhether and whether; at length alſo ſeen az herd,
hwich and hweddher: ov no leſs butifool diſcriminacion,
dhan hware and hwiddher; dho Ignorance, or Inattenſion,
miſtake often dhe parents for dhe children.
Quando, or quand, produced ſimmilarly the Ingliſh
quhan, whan, when; at laſt hwen. Like cauz made
like ſhamefool ſubſtitucion and inverſion, in manny nouns
and verbs ov various orrigin; but, gennerally, ſo diſtinguiſhed
from oddhers widhout aſpiracion: whale, wheal,
wheel; while, whine, whin, whit, whiſt, whet: wonce
quhale, and ſo on; but now (az really always) hwale,
hweal, hweel, hwile, hwine, hwin, hwit, hwiſt, hwet;
dhus diſtinct to' eye az ear, from wale and dhe reſt.
HWICH, hwat, hware and hwen, ar no les happily ſevvered
from witch, Wat (littel Walter) ware and wen;
nay hweddher and hwiddher, from weddher and
widdher. But dhe licquefaccion ſinks in dhe aſpiracion
before O direct or depreſſive: in whole, whore;
who, and whoop; for hwole, hwore; hwoo, and hwoop;
hwich dherfore becom, by dhe abſorpcion ov affinity,
hole (diſtinguiſhingly hoal), hore, hoo, and hoop;
(The latter ſtil propperly hwoop, az longer dhan hoop, dhe
guirder. Oddhers arize from formation, domeſtic or
forrain: wheat, whiz, whir, wheedle, whim, whip,
white, whelm, whelp, wharf; truly, hweat,
hwir (hwor), hwedel, hwim, hwip, hwite, hwelm, hwelp,
hwarf; widh dheir few formatives and fellows. Nor can
it now ſurprize, dhat Liſtleſnes or Affectacion ſhood be
apt to' ſmoodh away a bredhing; hwich, hware herd,
ſpoke effort; and, hware ſeen, impracticabillity. Diſtinccion
howevver, dhat introduced, muſt prezerv it; and,
az no human language, more dhan aught elſe, evver
mooved at wonce bacward and forward; Anallogy,
hoo (cunningly) found dhe place ov iniſcial aſpiracion, az
wel az ov a final licquid; nedher can be embarraſſed nor
aſhamed to' ſhow it.
Ov dheir SERVILES.
IN aincient languages, vowels had length; intrinſic,
or from ſittuacion. Dhare, nattural length drew ennergy:
in ours, ennergy produces length; at leaſt, in a
certain degree. A ſtoppage ov vocallity, by cluſtering
conſonants; muſt retard, if it compres, dhe emiſſion ov
dhe vocallity. Combining vowels gard each oddher, and
propoarcionably increſe dhe vocal ſound. Hence aroze
on won hand, length, by dhe ſubſequence ov uncombining
articulacions; on dhe oddher, by dhe combinacion
ov vowels in a dipthong. But vowel's, in all diccions,
hav certain inherent quantity; more or les emphattic.
Nor doo dhe vowels, in dhe moddern, combine onely
dheir audibel powers: dhey ſerv each oddher equally in
ſilence. Ingliſh vowels, az open or ſhut, vary dhe eſſence,
no les dhan dhe quantity, ov dheir ſound. No
vowel iz more different from anoddher, dhan dhe ſame
vowel, open and ſhut reſpectively, from its ſeeming
ſelf: dhus a, an; me, men; I, in; O, on; u, un; az
in unit, under. U and oo, differing onely by dhe ſlender
licquefaccion, muſt ſhrink into' dhe ſame-ſhut vowel:
az tube, tub; ſo two-pence (too-pence), tuppence. Nor
here can we avoid perceiving, dhat i ſhut iz e ſhortened:
dhus three-pence becom thrippence, evil il. A vowel
dhen, varied by anny ſhutting conſonant; can gard itſelf
no way from ſuch variacion, but by aſſociating a
quiet frend, to' preclude dhe approach ov ſuch chainger.
Dhis aſſociate, gennerally (not always) a vowel, erns from
its office, dhe (no ignobel) name ov ſervile. Evvery
vowel, az needing aid, iz reddy to' guiv it: hweddher
in dhe end, againſt a comming formative; or, in dhe
middel, before a conſonant clozing dhe ſyllabel. Dhus
ar lay and day, ſee and ſea, ſloe and ſlow, hue and due;
prepared for remaining in lays and laid, lain and ſeen
(contractives indeed ov dhe old diſſyllabels layen and
ſeen); ſees and ſeas, ſloes and ſlowth; hues and dues.
Y, being itſelf a final figgure, can ſubjoin no oddher;
but, in medial ſhape and ſittuacion, aſſumes dhe genneral
ſervile: az ly, fly; lies, flies. In febel ſtate, dhe
ſervile iz no les neſceſſary, to' keep dhe ſibbilacion depreſſive:
az in dy, dies; ſo in lady, ladies: az in ally,
allies; ſo in rally, rallies. Hware Ettymollogy or
Diſtinccion (az in lay and ſlow) points no peculiar, e iz
dhe common ſervant. If idea, motto, or dhe like ſtrainger,
com and continnue ungarded; anny ſuch muſt,
for prezzervacion, call dhe final frend, or her proxy, dhe
moment a clozer appears. Hence dhe neceſſity ov ideaes,
mottoes; or idea's, motto's: for, hooevver can read, need
not be told, dhat ideas or mottos, ſhutting dhe final vowel,
renders dhe ſibbilacion direct; and ſo alters boath vowel
and conſonant. Dhe ſervile (or diſtinguiſher) ov A braud,
iz u; its final (dhence alſo medial) w, or dhe ſubſtitucionally
melted l, dhe prior ov two in dhe end:
Dhus, widh aw, laud dhe Author ov all.
E, dhe genneral gard ov dhe final open vowel, ſecures it,
even after an intervening articulation; by ſeeming ſtil to'
call dhis away: for e final waz oridginally effective, dho
febel, az in French; but, from conſtant febelnes, graddually
dwindelled into' abſolute ſilence nor dhare, we
find, ov ſmaller ſervice dhan in dhe oddher capaſcity.
Hence dhe contraſt, like dhe former, ov open and ſhut;
in bare and bar, mete and met, fine and fin, rode and rod,
uſe and us, uze and Uz. By dhe addiſcion ov e ſervile,
az to' dhe French Tyr, in Tyre; might dhus dhe
uncomattabel vowel, ov dhe ſacred proppers Job and
Ruth, be obviouſly aſcertained. Yet dhe latter wood
not compliment even Eve, az the did her own moddher--
in-law: for Job and Jeffe wood equally exhort her to'
maintain dhat innate unmoddernizabel dignity; hwich
Hercules, and oddher heroes ov hiz nacion and ending,
hav aſſerted widh us, ov keeping dhe primmitive long
vowel open; widhout anny vizzibel opener, hwich
aincient ſimplicity (not needing) cood not know. Widh
dhis doctrine (az Wit and Lerning hav kept alike innocent
ov it) Pope waz in no dainger ov interfering, hwen he
Dho oſt dhe ear dhe open vowels tire:
and thrice expozed in won line, dhe intergahp ov vowels,
for want ov intervening articulacion.
Servants, wanted, muſt attend; unwanted, muſt, widhdraw.
One haz chainged into' won: onely nevver
chainged. Equal dhe buty ov dhe chainge, and ov dhe
continnuance! Anallogy effected boath. Onely, belonging
nedher to' dhe numeral, but in dhe genneral (dho
unical) ſenſe ov manner; nor to' dhe indeffinite pronoun,
hwich boath varied into' won; kept invariabel in ſenſe
and ſound, hwile wons particcular adverb ov time accompanied
won in harmonious tranſmutacion. Coincidence
iz accidental and occazzional. One coincided widh own;
won coincides widh dhe pretterite ov win; edher unendaingering,
az unendaingered. However, ſince one
and once ar dhus becom won and wonce; muſt dhe former
figgures remain? Since onely nevver altered, can
only now repprezent it? Or doo we ſtil glory in dhe dubbel
power ov counteracting Truith, to' make our language
an inſolvabel riddel! dhat ov retaining dhe picture,
hware dhe oridginal iz chainged; and ov chainging dhe
picture, hware dhe oridginal iz unvaried? Shal we tel
even children (nor wil children, more dhan ſtraingers,
be over apt to' believ us) dhat one iz won, and dhat on
iz one; dhat dhe open iz dhe ſhut, and dhe ſhut dhe
open; dhe long dhe ſhort, and dhe ſhort dhe long? Dhe
latter fallacy iz indeed dhe more daingerous; for dhe former
onely inſults common-ſenſe, hwile it overturns eVvery
principel; but only for onely inſinnuates hwat nedher
old nor yong, not at London (hoo hav herd ov principel)
can dout dhat dhe o ov one ſhifts (or ſhuts) by ſittuacion
in only, az dhe i ov vine in vine yard; hwich (it muſt
be owned) haz widh like ſacred care, been (even til now)
kept a ſimmilar ſecret in vineyard. Trade, hoo taught
us to' onnor (in all ſenſes) a draft, exhibbits widh like integgrity,
dhe onneſt grocer, az he iz. Dealers doutles
en gros, raddher dhan en détail, hav held groſs, dhe condign
repprezentative ov groce. So muzic-mongers ov
old havving unfortunately fallen in widh baſſe or baſſo,
thought baſs a ſuffiſcient poarcion to' play dhe Ingliſh
baſe. Az dhe draft dhen, or Bas (dhe Solan-gooſe--
iland), or az won admits no ſervile, to' dhe vowel ſhut
and ſhort; ſo baſe, groce or nice, and draught drines, can
no more dhan onely, more, hware, or here; nor, more
dhan dheze, blacmore, elſewhare, or heretofore, forgo
dhe ſervile for rezons we know. But dhen, for rezons
we alſo know, boath genneral and particcular, no uſeles
(and ſo counterfeit) ſervile can pretend aguen to' enter
hwaraz, morover, or herafter. It muſt indeed be a
moddern annalyſt, an adept in dhe new philoſophy ov
letters; hoo diſcovvers, dhat dhe laſt excluder can be
decompounded her-aft-er, prefferably to' he-raf-ter. On
dhis principel it iz, dhat dhe ſervile ov ſpare, mire, fire,
wile, tide; ov ſee, agree, ſue, true, blue, due, finds no
place in ſparing, miry, firy, wily, tidy; ſeing, agreabel,
ſuing or ſueth, bluiſh or blunes, truly or duly; ſo
doutles enſue, enſuing; purſue, purſuant; nor les after
u febel, in reſcue, reſcuing; ague, aguiſh;
valluabel, and dhe reſt. Dhe oddher final ſervile
(w) muſt remain to' ſhow dhe root. Juſt dherfore az
hoe, hoing, muſt be ſow, ſowing: dhe braud vowel iz alſo
garded in ſaw, ſawing, ſawyer, and dhe like.
1. A braud, widh (and widhout) ſervile.
A braud, dhe prime vowel ov all oddher tungs, haz
no ſepparate ſymbol in Ingliſh picturage; nor even a ſepparate
name in our vocal ſyſtem. Being here dhen, but
a ſpecies, or expanſion ov A; A braud, muſt be known
by ſervile, by ſittuacion, or by proxy. A ſlenders two
ſounds being ſo diſtinct; A braud open, and A braud
ſhut, may wel be ſuppozed to' differ, like dhe open and
ſhut, or long and ſhort, vowels ov oddher tungs, onely
in quantity or degree (ov ſound). Dhus wall and wallet,
ſquall and ſquallid. But A braud cannot perform its
own ſhut (or ſhort) part, unles dhus articculated by dhe
braud vocal licquid (w or qu). Nor can A, ſo articculated,
continnue braud; if ſhut by a guttural (c, g), or
by dhe nazal combination: for it dhen becoms ſlender,
az elſehware: dhus in thwac or quac, wag or quag, wax
and wags, twang and ſwank; az in bac bacs, bag bags,
bang and bank. Hware A braud plays not its own ſhut
part; it ſubſtitutes O, hwich haz no ſhut duty ov its
own. Dherfore O ſhut iz A braud ſhut or ſhort, unles
hware A braud can play dhis its own part; and dhare O
diſengaged (dhat iz, articculated by w or qu, and ſhut by
anny conſonant but c, g, or ng) az faithfoolly perſonates
U ſhut. Perfet iz dhus dhe rime ov ward and cord,
word and curd; az ov bard and card, bird and ward,
quac and bac, wax and bacs, or dhe like. A dhen cannot
be known or ſecured, hwat it haz not ceſed (under
anny miſrepprezentacion) to' be, boath braud and open;
widhout recovvering or aſſuming its propper ſervile (u) in
wrauth, wauter, ſquadron, and vauz. So wil dhe concrete
wroth, intuitively az intrinſically, differ from its
abſtract (wrauth) onely in degree ov .vocallity. But before
l and a dental, dhe ſervile (u) wonce expreſſed in
hault, bauld, haulter, aulder, faulſe and faulſity; being
ſtil underſtood dho unſeen, in halt, bald, halter, alder,
falſe and falſity, or dhe like; dhe vowel remains inviolate.
Aſſault dherfore, in aſſalt, need no longer fear
to' ſeem dhe compound ov ſalt. Dhis vowels final ſervile
(w) continnues before l or n: dhus draw, drawl,
drawn; widh yawl, yawn, and dhe reſt. Proppers or
peculiars natturally retain dhe raddical and medial vowel.
Hence dhe different ſervile figgure ov Saul and ſhawl;
and dhe merely occular diſtinccion ov Faun and fawn,
Paul and pall, awl and all, cawl and call, or ſuch coincidents.

2. A ſlender, widh its ſervile,
A ſlenders (French and Ingliſh) ſervile iz i: az in dhe
auriccularly identical fain and fein, vain and vein; not
precluding dhe final ſervant in fane and vane. Nor iz
dhe attendant les required by Anallogy, hwa e Ettymollogy
cannot guiv won: az in jail or campain, from
geole and campagne. Geail might indeed hav borrowed
three, or geale even four letters (two ov dhem ſerviles),
from dhe parent. Scorning ſerviles, we wood hav effectives;
ov won ſort at leaſt, alreddy commemmorated;
ſuch az, a hardening vowel, to' ſoften a conſonant! and,
az littel fearing apparent coincidence az real impoſſibillity,
hav long (widh like rezon, if not widh like parſiallity)
admired gaol and goal, in profound contempt for dhe upſtart
jail. If a falſe ſervile waz formerly guivven to'
dhis vowel in aunge and aunger; or, if dhe braud ſound
hav ſince refined into' dhe ſlender; ſhal dhe true ſervile
be now grudged edher to' ainge, or to' ainger; az in rainge,
rainging, rainger, and dainger Nay, hware equally
due, to' aingel and aincient; to' chaimber, caimbric, and
Caimbridge? Yet idel wer it to' ad, dhat a ſhut vowel
ſeeks no opener; dhat dherfore no ſervile can find place in
angellic more dhan in anteek, antic, or Cam: camera
and chambre being forrain to' dhe queſtion, az to' dhe
language. Dhe propper Grainge and Grainger hav ſet
dhe brave exampel.
3. E, widh its ſerviles.
E, effectively (az in Europe and few) aſſociating u and
w; aſſumes evvery oddher vowel in dhe capaſcity ov a
ſervile: a, az in heal or meat; anoddher ſeeming ſelf,
az in heel and meet; boath dhus occularly clear: i, in
receiv and receit, widh dheir cognates (or cozzens); in
teil dhe tree, not entangling teal dhe fowl: in certain
Ingliſh ſurnames, identic widh oddhers, or widh common
appellations; az Keil widh keel, Leigh widh Lee,
and lea; in dhe Scotch names, Keir, Weir, Keith, Leith,
and dhe like: O, at leaſt in dhe Ingliſh town ov St.
Neots. Coincident proppers diſtinguiſh ſomtimes dheir
contry by dheir ſervile. Dhus differ, yet agree, Neil ov
Scotland, and Neal ov Ireland; Read ov Ingland, and
Reid ov Scotland.
4. O direct, widh its ſerviles.
O lovs a; az in boar, coat, coal; apparently diſtinct
from bore, cote, and Cole, dhe propper. Hoal, widhout
approaching hole, miſleads no more by dhe ſemblance ov
dhe braud (Eollic) hwole, dhan by dhat ov dhe impracticabel
(az diſtorted) whole; prooving equallv juſt to' itſelf,
and to' its true parent ο̃λος (holos). Hwat may not
mend? Whore haz but to' drop dhe falſe iniſcial, and
turn onneſt in (hore) dhe uncontamminating coincident ov
hoar. Neſceſſarily az dhe inſertive gards hoard, coach,
and coaſt; muſt it furbiſh up ſoard, dropping dhe ded licquefier
ov dhe long fatal ſword. Simmilarly muſt it ſecure
poart, ſpoart, foart, foard (and affoard); poark,
poarch, and foarge; foarce and divoarce; hoaſt goaſt,
poaſt, and moaſt (az leaſt). Nor can dheze keep unaccompanied
by impoart, impoartant and impoartance; poarter,
poartrait, poarcion, Poarcius and Poarcia, Poartugal,
Opoarto; widh dheir cognates. Yet ov oppozite
vowel, az ov oddher fammilies, ar ſportule and fortres,
fortify, comfort, and dhe like. Foarth, fair Bodotrie's
native name, can fear notthing from edher collider (or
conglider) dhe ordinal or dhe adverb.
Hail, Frith ov FOARTH! perennial ſoarce
Ov Scottiſh fame, and Brittiſh foarce!
Call foarth dhy own AUGUSTA'S ſmile,
And roll dhe glory ov dhe ILE.
Dho dhe ſimpel loath or lothe cannot remain in our language,
loth and lodhe being dhe adjective and verb;
loathſom, or lotheſom, continnues indiſpenſabel, and ſimmilarly
dhe ſervile in dhe compound propper Loathberry
or Lotheberry. Dhus, dho ambo, or oddher parent, admit
no ſervile; boath or bothe, to' be red, muſt require won.
So ſloath (not now firſt exhibbited) differs from ſloth,
(onely) az Truith from Truth. Yet ſlow may lend dhe
oddher ſilent frend to' ſlowth, az doz grow to' growth.
But u can be no more an Ingliſh ſervile to' O, leſt it
ſeem to' join dhe foregoing vowel in a domeſtic dipthong;
or open O depreſſive in dhe French, raddher
dhan O direct in dhe Ingliſh manner. No more can it
dherfore enter ſoul, four, court, gourd, courſe or ſource,
dhan mourn or bourn, ſo onneſtly and ſo ezilv mourn and
bourn. Foarm, dhe bench, wil not now fight its form;
or diſpute widh it perform, anny more dhan inform, reform,
or dhe reſt. In ſoll alone, can mans better part
be ſafe; and ſuch did ſhe diſcloze herſelf in ages les attentive
to' boddy. Foar, for like rezon, wil hencefoarth
be counted dhe fourth excepcionles numeral. Coarſe,
dhe race, wil no more joſtel widh coarce, dhe remnant ov
dhe runner, dhan widh coarſe dhe antipode ov fine.
Ingliſh diſcoarſe (dredding juſt az much from diſcours, az
from diſcurſus) cannot now fail to' bring a concoarſe; nay
to' charm hooevver ſhal hav recoarſe to' it, or dhe ſmalleſt
intercoarſe widh it. Ov dheze wil ſoarce be dhe
pure compannion; az court and goard, ov poart and
board. A courtier attends court; but curteous and curteſy,
ar (widh curtezan) out ov dhe queſtion. Flown,
dhe particippel ov fly, retaining dhe ſervile ov flow, like
own dhe formative ov ow, cannot be ſuppozed to' chime
widh dhe dipthongal frown or down. So bow, dhe
arch, widh its ofspring bowl, dhe gobblet or baſon, can
hav no oddher dhan occular coincidence widh bow bend,
and bowl dhe trundeller (or trundler); hwich aſſert dhe
dipthong. But roll (dhe child ov rolle, now rôle) being
no formative ov row, muſt proov ov az barbarous effect in
rowl, az contrall in controul; hwich iz az much more
perniſcious dhan comptroll; az dhis but kils dhe boddy,
dhat endaingers dhe ſoll. Hwile joll dhus exterminates
jowl, no jingler widh howl; poll ſeems at leaſt to' keep
clear ov pole; and boll, dhe ear or mezzure (ov corn),
rezembels no more dhe coincident bole and bowl dhan
dhe verry diſſonant bowl. In poultry, poultice, coulter,
and ſhoulder; now paltry, poltice, colter and ſholder;
dhe u waz az daingerous az formerly in coult and ould,
now ſafely (underſtanding dhe unſeen ſervile in) colt and
old. It muſt be owned dhat revolt often, and dhe propper
Boldero always, ſhuts dhe ſtrong vowel, like retort
and border; dhoze primmitives nevver havving had a
ſervile: but nedher had πόλτος (poltos) nor culter.
A braud, and O direct, dhus lovving dhe ſame ſerviles,
underſtood or expreſſed; az in bald and bold, ſuppozed
ſtil bauld and bould; widh like ſafety doo boath
employ l itſelf for dhe occular braudener or opener before
l or k final; az doz, in a few proppers, O before final n
or m. Dhus pall and poll, ball and boll, all foar diſtinctive:
ſo talk widh ſevveral, and folk widh ſcarce anny
compannions; in hwich latter prediccament waz holm,
wonce diſtinctive from home; dho now kindly accompanying,
raddher az a propper, Coln (widh Colney) and
Colm, Lincoln and Malcolm; in hwich laſt dhe prior l
iz alſo ſervile az dhat in walnut and chaldron, or in Holboarn,
hware it indeed iz ſuperfluous. Dhe ſtreet can
no more claim dhe l ov hole, dhan can hoboy, dhe
vowels ov dhe French hautbois; or dhe petty boe, dhoze
ov beau. L cannot be a final ſervile: nor can Affectacion
(dhe dubbler ov Ignorance) evver render l effective
in Briſtol. Dhe cappital ov Sommerſet muſt rize to'
Truith, widh dhe ſurname, in (all dhe buty ov) Briſtow.
Nay marl wood yield to' maul, in onnor ov ſuch a frend;
and ſhow herſelf onneſtly Maulburrough; but for fear
ov dhe lerned laffers ov London, hoo ſo duly decide in
difficult caſes. If we cannot now wonder at dhe conteſt
between faucon and falcon, Fawkener and Falconer or
Falconar; we may ezilv reconcile hawker and Halkerton.
L iz dhe more aincient, dhe oddher dhe ſafer ſervile.
Hwile almanac and almug boldly brauden
firſt vowel before l effective; dhe veſſel aum, and inſtrument
ſhawm, demand dhe vocal figure ov dhe ſilent
frend: for l wood unbrauden dhem, dho it might ſymbolize
dhe protraction ov dhe ſlender ſound, az it doz in
alms, palm, balm, pſalm, and calm; in Malmſey,
and in Malmſberry. Alms infer dhe almoner, hoo wood
gladly carry almonds along widh him. In qualm (hwich
dherfore cannot rime widh pſalm) it muſt prolong hwat
the licquefier braudens. Dhe l effective ſhuts az duly
dhe ſlender vowel in pſalmist and pſalmody, az it clozes
(not ſhuts) dhe braud, in pſalter or pſaltery: hwich ar
preciſely ſalmiſt, ſalmody, ſaulter and ſaultery.
ALIKE uſefool dhen ar dhe final ſerviles e and w: dhe
latter, to' dhe two cognate vowels we hav juſt ſeen; dhe
former (we remember) to' all. Hwile dhey dhus know
dheir (reſpective) places; and, far from joſtling, mutually
diſtinguiſh, az in toe and tow; hwat Anallogy or Ettymollogy,
or ſtil more cogent power, drives won ſervile
after anoddher? poor e final, az if dhe ſlave alſo ov her
ſiſter! Hwence dhen dhe awe we owe, or how ar we
awed dhus to' pay widhout owing, and to' hoom iz it paid,
owed or not? From equal acquaintance widh miſtres and
maid, widh ſervile and effective, doo we pay like regard
to' boath. If ſtore iz no ſore, two letters cannot be ſtore
for an Ingliſh noun or verb: ſo three at leaſt muſt be indiſpenſabel.
Dhat aw and ow hav an eſſencial vowel az
duly garded az awl or own, haz hiddherto' been a ſecret
(or a ſolleciſm) to' dhe Orrakels ov Ingliſh litterature.
Dhey hoo ſee no uſe ov two letters, but to' fil dhe eye,
hware won (alas!) fils dhe ear; muſt pronounce dhe word
more (nay, moaſt) perfect widh three. Since ax and
ox aught dherfore to' ſwel into' axe and oxe, ſhal dhe
eye be robb'd ov addice, bccauz dhe ear (forſooth!) owns
no more dhan adz? But let us compromize widh dhe
inſaciabel organ. Dho Anallogy cannot ad a ſervile,
hware won iz alreddy; ſhe muſt require dhe return ov an
effective, dhat haz been (by hwatevver agency or inagency)
ſpirritted from her: dhe febel vowel hwich, dho between
dhe licquids apt to' be abſorbed, muſt prezerv dhe
power ov dividing dhem; in eight particippels or particippials:
ſtolen, ſwolen, ſworen, woren, boren, toren,
ſhoren; and even forloren; dho loren (widh lear) be loſt,
and remain onely in dhe poettic noun lore. Seldom indeed
can dhe dillatacion be recquiſite; but it newer can
be rendered impoſſibel: nor, hwen dhe weak vowel
links, can it continnue to' aſcertain dhe opennes ov dhe
ſtrong, widhout leving dhe elider to' play dhat frendly
part; az in ſtol'n, bor'n, forlor'n; hware dhe ſervile iz
az neſceſſary az in bor'd or deplor'd, from bored and deplored.
In ſuch az ſpoken or chozen, dhe latter vowel iz
equally febel, dho in no dainger ov being ſwallowed
between incombinabels; but, in dhe oddhers, dhe proxy
muſt be dhe more wanted, dhat dhe principal can ſo rarely
proov effective.
5. O depreſſive, widh its ſervile.
O, direct and depreſſive, waz blended by promiſcuous
ſerviles; til Diſtinccion appointed o (formerly dhe direct)
dhe depreſſive attendant. Boord and coke no longer diſguized
board and cook. Boath powers (all powers) ar
longer or ſhorter, az ſtronger or weaker. Somhwat
ſhorter iz vocallity before a direct, dhan before a depreſſive
clozer: dhe direct proovs apter to' ſtop, dhe depreſſive
to' continnue dhe ſound. So verb, evver moddifying
opperacion; dhe ſame vowel wil be longer in verb,
dhan in anny oddher part ov ſpeech. Cloſe dhe noun,
and cloze dhe verb; fop and fob, proof and proov, exemplify.
By various cauz may dhe quantity ov dhe
ſame vowel be varied, even before dhe ſame conſonant.
Obviouſly accountabel iz dhe difference ov hoop and
hwoop, ſoon and ſwoon; ſtil onely in degree, or quantity,
ov dhe ſame depreſſive vowel. Feed lends length to'
food; longer dherfore, not onely dhan foot, but dhan
hood, good, or food. Wood, noun or verb, muſt be
ſhort hwen compared widh dhe contractive ov
wooed. So diſtinguiſhes and allitterates Milton:
Dhat wood be woo'd; and, not untaught, be won.
Dhe old verb woul, for wol (now wil), waz ſhort; ſhorter
indeed dhan dhe noun wool. Dhus ar now dhe ſound
and ſenſe contraſted in dhe quantity ov fool (ſhort), not
empty; and ov fool (long), not wize. Nor ar now firſt
dhe fooliſh, or dhe empty ov thought, found foolleſt ov
expreſſion. Yet, dho it wer ſevere to' pronounce anny
aſſembly fool ov fools; ſom aſſemblies muſt be owned
fooliſh ov dhe fooliſh.
Evvery verb in o depreſſive, haz dhe peculiar ſervile:
ſhal dhe vertual parent, and conſequent proxy, ov all active
verbs, be denied dhat attendant? Doo, dooning, dooeſt,
and dooeth, preclude not doſt, doth, or doz, more dhan
dhe now undilatabel don (duſt, duth, duz, dun). Doo
not, far from denying, affirms dhe equal integgrity ov
don't; by dhe direct and open vowel, dhe familliar
compannion ov won't, (wonce woul not, for wool not, now)
wit not. Hwile e and o wer interchaingeabel attendants
on o direct and depreſſive; dhe prime verb ov accion waz
fairly attended, in doe doeing; and ſhal it now be les ſo,
dhat dhe department ov evvery ſervile, az wel az ov evvery
effective, iz aſcertained?
OCCULAR diſtinccion iz a paltry plea for endaingering
won, at leaſt, ov words dhat coincide; and dhat won (if
poſſibel) more genneral, az more variouſly prepoziſcional,
dhan dhe oddher artikel. Boath ar in dheir nature (ov
artikels) queſtionles prepozzitive, elſe cood dhey not articculate;
and edher, being dhe exhibbitive or directive
organ ov an object, iz natturally les emphattic (az les impoartant)
dhan dhat object. Yet junctures ar, hwen artikel
muſt be enfoarced:
He waz dhe man indeed; and DHE MAN,
Dhat moaſt dezerv'd dhe name ov FREMAN.
Dhe caſe unclear'd, yoo poot me TO' it:
I am but going TO' purſue it.
Man nevver iz, but always TO' be, bleſt.
Strong ar booth directives in dhe old phraze to' and fro;
and to' in evvery ſuch elliptic iddiom, or compound ov
motion, az dhe aincient go to', dhe familliar com to' and
poot to', or dhc marritime ly to'. Dhe conjunction too
(alſo) and dhe numeral two, ar natturally ſtrong; dho,
comparratively, more or les ſo. Too, dhe chec ov quallity
or quantity in too bold, too boldly; too littel, too
much, or dhe like; iz by nature almoaſt az febel, az (to) dhe
verbal artikel or nomminal prepoziſcion. In dhe ſound ov
too (howevver) dhey all coincide. Dhe numeral, to' pleze
dhe eye, perhaps to ſecure dhe ſenſe, may ſtil be allowed
dhe ſubſtitucion ov dhe (cognate) vocal licquid for
dhe vowel; even at dhe riſk ov being uttered, az it now
nohware iz, dho' it wonce (perhaps) evverihware waz,
two; like dhe old quho, and its ſucceſſor who (meaning
hwo); hwich, havving no diſtinctive plea, runs no riſk (and
precludes anny) in hoo, widh hoom and hoos. Ettymollogy
herſelf wil becom hoos partizan; hwen ſhe deſcries
dhat, if hoo be les like quho or qui, it iz more like dhe
prior parent ο' (ho), free from Eolian grocenes. Poor
Anallogy ſeeks no better argument, dhan dhat hoo rezembels
(exactly repprezents) itſelf. Dhe moaſt febel too,
dhe verry artikel or prepoziſcion, waz bold enuf, centuries
ago, dhus to' appear widh (o) dhe ſole remaining
ſervile ov dhis vocal power; and propperly dhe ſervile ov
no oddher. But, now dhat dhe itch ov plezing dhe eye
haz grown ſo invetterate; even at dhe hazzard ov dhe ear,
dherfore ov dhe underſtanding; leſt dhe prepoziſcion
(to) be warped (az it muſt by dhe diſtant (from propriety)
into' coincidence widh dhe Greek artikel (τό), or dhe Ingliſh
words toe and tow; dhe elider may (dho firſt in
dhis work) diſtinguiſh to', for too; az its fellow-prepoziſcion
thro' haz long abbreviated throogh, or throo; hwich
can no more be ſafely feen through. Dhe elider alone
can be dhe ſervile in thro'out, or dhe guttural fantom
dhe divider, in throoghout; if three ſame ſemblances,
rarely poſſibel, nevver elligibel, be ſtil impracticabel in
ſucceſſion, az in throoout. Yet iz dhis foolly az refferabel
too too too too (alſo to' two too) juſt cauzes: zeal for orthograpphic
precizzion, and reſpect for dhe inquizzitive
reader. Too too too! (To' two alſo!) Too too (To'
two): hwich wil render it equally diſputeles dhat dhat,
dhat dhat chain ov diſtinct identities involvs, iz recconcilabel
to' intelligibillity. Thurrougb, truly thurrow, iz
no prepoziſcion; but an adjective dilated from it. A
thurrow ſcollar (or hooevver wiſhes to' be won), wil thurrowly
comprehend dhe hoal matter; nor les ezily annalyze
ſuch common compounds az thurrofare, thurroſtitch,
thurropaced, thurrobred; or ſuch proppers az Thurroton,
Thurrogood; even, if ſubſtitucionally Thorroton,
Thorrogood, or dhe like.
BETTER no ſervile, dhan a falſe. If door, floor, moor,
cannot now pretend to' paint dore, flore, and more, (dho
doar, floar, and moar might); dhe genneral attendant,
hwich did ainciently confound o direct and depreſſive,
muſt not continnue to' bely dhe latter, even in ſhoe or
canoe; far les, in imperial Rome; hware ſhoo and canoo,
az wel az Room, ſo ezily ſpeak dhe truith. Dhe cunning
eye cannot much dred dhe Citty's coincidence widh anny
common term, ov like ſound; but aught to' dred hwat
dhe innocent ear muſt hav had, and may hav, to' undergo
from dhe apparent identity ov Rome and roam. So
move, prove, behove, and loſe, wil no more delude; hwen
moov, proov, behoov, and looz (like proof and behove) remoov
dhe poſſibillity. Nor, widhout dhe peculiar ſervile,
can bomb, womb, tomb, or gold, be known ov different
vocallity from comb and cold; or ſecure dhemſelvs
in dhe verry cappital, hwat dhey ar: boomb, woomb,
toomb, and goold. So muſt woolf be ſevvered from gulf.
Dhe labial crowning dhe labial (in mb), iz in two ov dhe
dhree a mere abuttal: in dhe firſt it iz alfo diſtinctive.
Widh woomb or woom, muſt reappear woomman; or
hwat ſhal be held dhe dialect (and hwat dhe practiſcioners?)
hware evvery picture continnues to' blaſpheme

Dhe faireſt ov Creation! laſt and beſt
Ov all GODS Works!
Doz BRITTAIN boaſt her proggres in dhe Arts? Let her
paint at leaſt dhe name ſhe now exhibbits for dhe picture.

DHE French (az Greek) ou can repprezent dhe Ingliſh
o, no more in won power, dhan in dhe oddher. Ou
Ingliſh iz a dipthong, expreſſing clearly edher part. Az
o, direct or depreſſive, admits no ſubſtitute, but in dhe
diſtinctive two; o depreſſive knows but won ſervile: dhe
reppetiſcion ov its own ſemblance. Soupe, groupe, and
troupe, ar good French parents; but ſoop, groop, and
troop ar dhe Ingliſh children. So to' won language belong
tour, amour, and accoutre; to' dhe oddher, toor,
amoor, and accooter. Yooth iz dhe Ingliſh abſtract ov
yong: uncouth iz obviouſly a native compound. Yoo and
your, French or Dutch, can, az Brittains, hav no oddher
dhan dhe Brittiſh form. Goold, alſo Teutonnic, dho it
had long (in gould) dhe forrain ſervile, and haz long had
non; muſt no longer be denied its own, more dhan dhe
auxilliaries cood, ſhood, wood; hwich (in could, ſhould,
would) hugging dhe loſt licquid widh dhe old ſervile, hav
been les warped, dho much ſhortened, in dheir vocallity.
Nor ar dheze vouchers ov Truith quite new: wood haz
been long ſtealing upon us (deeming ſtelth, alas!
neſceſſary) in ſuch ingeniouſly ingennuous ſurnames az
Winwood, Witwood, and Atwood.
6. U, widh its ſervile.
U open, hwich doz but licquefy (or licquidly articculate)
o depreſſive (in yoo); becoms a ſimpel vowel, peculiarly
Ingliſh, dhe moment it iz ſhut (az it can onely be)
by a conſonant. A nattural (az gennealodgical) gard haz
it dherfore kept i, in ſuit, fruit, and bruit dhe rumor;
ſo protected from brute, dhe beaſt. Ruithles TRUITH
herſelf claims dhe ſame ſervile; reſtored, raddher dhan
7. Dhe ſervile conſonants.
NOR ar vocal pic-tures dhe onely ſerviles two or three
articculating figgures, called conſonants, even hware
(They doo not ſound; promote harmony no les by dheir
ſilence, dhan evver dhey cood by dheir audibillity. Dhe
raddical g, dhat gards dhe vowel ov ſign, condign, and
dheir few fellows; may equally gard dhat ov ſuch oddities
az impregn and impugn; did not impregnate (begging
MILTONS pardon) ſuperſede dhe won; and impuny,
hweddher dhe child ov impungo (az poſſibel a parent
az impugno), or dhe tranſpozzitive ov Nature, almoaſt
annul dhe oddher. Servile g pretends dhe ſame
duty in phlegm, figgurative, az a in dhe homonnymous
fleam; dho dhe litteral (and familliar) term finds no more
uſe for a ſervile in phlem, dhan doz appothem, dhe Ingliſh
remnant ov apophthegm.
DHE old guttural aſpirate dhat wonce ſhut, now opens,
dhe vowel ov ſuch az light or fight. From dhis littel
clas, hight can no more be excluded; dho, in height, it
long counterpoized weight; hware, az wel az in weigh,
ſtraight, high and haugh, dhe aſpirate fantom proovs
merely diſtinctive. Inveigh ſtil ſquints at its parent invehere,
or at its engrafted ofspring invective; hwile
convey, purvey, and ſurvey, pretend no ſuch connexions.
In taught, thaught, daughter; in fraight, az in fraught,
widh dheir fellows; we ſee hware an aspirate haz been.
In ſuch names az Armagh or Rannelagh, dhe aſpirate
acts preciſely az wood dhe mere aſpiracion. Dhis aſpirate
haz quitted not onely dhe appellative lee or lea; but
even propper compounds, like Harley or Dudley. Yet,
hwile manny proppers prefer dhe ezy Lee; Anticquity
retains, in oddhers, Leigh ſimpel; or compound, az in
Burleigh. Dho vowels dherfore be dhe more nattural aſſociates
ov vowels; next to' dhem ar dhe interchaingeabels
widh vowels; hweddher dhe gutturals we hav juſt
ſeen, dhe ſepparate aſpiracion, or dhe moaſt melting licquid;
az in calm, half, pappah, and fahdher; widh
dheir compannions we know.
Ov dhe dipthongs and LICQUEFACCIONS.
DHE vowels ov a dipthong, being boath effective,
lend mutual aid; and, needing no ſervile, admit non.
Each, like dhe genrous vine, ſuppoarted livs:
Dhe ſtrength ſhe gains, iz from dh' embrace
Dhis ty and toy, coy and cow, oil and owl, coit and gout.
Dhis accounts for dhe unſhut vowel, or open dipthong,
ov Chriſt (wonce Chryſte): alſo ov Wyche and Dyche.
Az dhe Ingliſh Hydhe or Hidhe, ſo dhe Scotch Forſydhe
or Forſidhe, and Kilſythe or Kilſithe, cannot now be
known widhout dhe ſervile. I dipthong did, but
in pint, precede. nt; az it univerſally doz nd and
ld. Like pint, wonce pyrite; mind and mild, wer mynde
and mylde. Bild, guild, and reſcind ſhut dhe vowel;
az doz wind (dhe blower) on familliar occazions; ſublimely
dho it opens elſehware. So wild and hind remain in
dheir immediate branches (dhe comparratives) wilder,
and hinder; dho dhe vowel duly ſhuts in dhe remoter
formatives (dhe verbs) wilder and hinder;
az doz, by penultimate ennergy, dhe vowel ov child
and kind, in children and kindred; nor les fairly open
in childles, kindnes, and kindly. By dhe ſame power
vanniſhes dhe dipthong ov Chriſt from Chriſtian, and
from Chriſtmas; ſo muſt from dhe Scottiſh names
Chryſtie or Chriſty, and Dryſdale or Driſdale, (unles
kept Dry's-dale), az from dhe Engliſh Twiſden. Dho
hwileſt and nineth ar diſſyllabels no more; dhe dipthong
cannot remain, or dhe vowel keep open, widhout a ſervile;
nor can anny remembrancer be ſo propper az dhe
elider itſelf, in hwil'ſt and nin'th. Eighteth indeed, and
eight'th, ar vizzibel az audibel: but eighth can repprezent
INVERTED dipthongs proov licquefaccions. Dhe former
vertually prefix a braud ſhorter or longer, to' e; in
i or y, oi or oy; to' oo or w, in ou or ow. Dhe licquefaccions,
on dhe contrary, prefix y or i, ſomtimes e,
for dhe ſlender; w or u, ſomtimes o, for dhe braud, to'
anny vowel. Exemplified az we hav fern, we may ſee,
dhe dipthongs in high and hy, hoy, hoiz and hoiſt; how,
houſe and houz: ſo dheir oppozites, yaw, ya, ye; yo,
yoo; wau, wa, we, wi, wo, woo.
Ye Lawyers, on dhe banks ov Yare;
Compannions ov dhe curteous fair!
Worth wil diſtinguiſh ſtil dhe wise:
'Tiz ecquity, dheir followers prize.
hware dhe vowel indeed ſeems to' ſubſtitute dhe ſervile,
or dhe direct o, to' be ſquezed into' dhe depreſſive licquefier;
followers, into' folwers. Hwile q dhus articculates
always dhe brand licquefaccion; ſo dhe depreſſive guttural
(g), not only in alguazil, Guadalquivir, and like Spanniſh
terms; but in dhe Ingliſh language, lingual and linguiſt;
in evvery primmitive guiſh, az anguiſh; in languiſh, languid,
and languor; in unguent, and in ſanguine: no rettoric
wil be ſweet enuf to' perſwade dhe Anallogiſt, even
an Ingliſh Swetonius, to' employ u for w elſehware.
After b? Impoſſibel. A buoy, for a bwoy, wer itſelf a
roc or a quicſand: for u containing, after b, az after s,
dhe ſlender; cannot alſo convey dhe braud licquefaccion.
Won ov dheze licquefaccions, dhe ſlender vocal licquid,
embracing or articculating o depreſſive, conſtitutes dhe
fifth vowel (u); ov hwich dherfore dhe pronoun (yoo)
iz but dhe rezzolucion. Ew, being an equivvalent combinacion,
wood ſuffice for dhe tree; did not bizzy Ettymollogy
prefix an id'ler in yew. Dhe female ſheep iz
a yow or yoe. Dhus ar diſtinct to' dhe eye, dhe coincident
due and dew; hew, hue, and Hugh; hware dhe aſpiracion
muſt, for obvious rezon, keep clear ov dhe licquefaccion.
Dhe e dhen, ov ſuch az pleuriſy and Europe,
iz purely a Grecian rellic. Lewd appears a collatteral
ov purlew and curlew; lew and lief being dhe Ingliſh
twin-ofspring ov lieu. Feud might ſeem a fair prodgeny
ov feu, did not Anallogy find it dhe dwarf (or
ſhrimp) ov fohood. Hence hav ſom monſtermongers
created tripthongs, nay triphthongs! prezenting beauty
to view, in lieu (in lew) ov buty to' vew. Few and vew ar
dhe equally butifool twins ov peu and veue, now vue.
Nor iz buty dhe les fair ſiſter ov duty, for being dhe
daughter ov beauté. A verry beau muſt exhibbit a tripthong,
dho ſcarce even a thing ov three letters! dhe
Ingliſh bo being a mere interjeccion, yet a verry oridginal;
and, but for dhe dainger ov plurallity (in boes), unentitelled
to a ſervile. Beau iz doutles dhe French
equivvalent ſound, not equivvalent ſenſe; but, in
Ingliſh, equivvocal nonſenſe:
For true no-meaning puzzels more dhan wit.
Beau, ſo butifool in dhe ſingular! becoms plurally, in
beaux, hwat prezzent Ingliſh cant calls a bore; az if making
a hole, and ſending notthing thro'. More intelligibly
might vappa ſupplant hiz ſon. dhe fop. Dhen
vappae (or moddernly, vappæ) wer indeed dhe dred rivals
to' beaux.
PROPPERS ar advancing to' (hear and ſee) Rezon.
Dhe Ingliſh Bewley iz now no more belied in Beaulieu,
dhan dhe French Beaulieu in Bewley. Beauchamp, az
an Ingliſh name, from being univerſally herd, wil com
to' be ſeen, Beecham; dhe beech-ham (holm or home)
being fool az nattural an Ingliſh compound az beauchamp,
ſo wel tranflated Fairfield. Hware bo iz herd,
it muſt be ſeen, if Ingliſh; our picturage allowing o
no ſubſtitute. Dherfore Beaufort, Beaumont, Beauclerc,
Beaufoie, or dhe like, muſt continnue aliens to' our litterary
conſtitucion; til dhey Brittiſhly appear Bofort,
Bomont, Boclark, Boſoy, and dhe reſt. Dhus dhe ſurname
we ſee Botham, for Bottam, may hav been Beautemps
(now alſo Ingliſh Fairweddher) far more probbably
dhan anny compound ov ham, or compannion ov
Chatham. So Boileau-Deſpréaux (like beau and bureau,
our boe and buroe) wood Ingliſhly appear Boiloe Deſpreoes,
wer he not transfuzed into' Drinkwauter Meddows.
Az in evvery language various vowels may not onely
be ſyllabels, but words; no wonder dhat various words
coincide widh dipthongs, az wel az widh ſimpel vowels.
To' aw we ow ſom remembrance; nor iz dhe artikel a
les noted dhan dhe interjeccions O! and Oh! Ay, dhe
old alway or evver, dho but a contraccion ov άεί (aei)
iz vertually no more dhan coincident widh dhe indeffinite
artikel (a), dhe latter part havving ſunk into' a ſervile.
But Ay, not being now (az it wonce waz) a ſubſtitute ov
dhe interjeccion Yes; cannot picture Oy, its prezzent
varriacion; and doutles dhe Miltonnic dipthong in dhe
ejacculacion Oy me, from dhe Greek οί μοί (oi moi) now
Ah me! for Nature in dhe tender (her favorite) part ov
language, haz but won ſet ov ſounds. Y, dhe repprezentative
ov I, in commencing licquefaccion az wel az
in concluding vocallity, dinds dhis vocallity articculated
by dhe braud licquefier (w) in its name; hwich it dherfore
haz in common widh dhe rivver, Wy. I, dhe pronoun
ov dhe first perſon, or identity ov dhe ſpeaker; iz
(or ſhood be) az wel known to' dhe ſaid ſpeaker, az dhe
dipthong or dhe vowel; ov hwich dhe coincident eye iz
but dhe oddher figgure; fenced, on edher ſide, by dhe
frendly ſervile; az ſingularly, az dhat organ by bones,
in dhe wondrous conformacion.
Ov ſerviles ſuperfluous to' open vowels.
HWILE open vowels hav ſuch need ov aſſociates, it
proovs not more expedient to' ſummon dhe uſefool, dhan
to' bid evvery oddher widhdraw. Dhe former clas completed,
dhe latter cannot be hard ov diſcuſſion. Uſeles,
conſequently intollerabel; nor les deſtructive ov Ettymollogy,
dhan ov Anallogy; wil gennerally be found, ſuch
falſifiers az dhe a ov ceaſe, leaſe, create; greaſe and
peace; ov pleaſe, teaze; feaze, eaſe, and pleaſe; ov
league (colleague), league, tweague, intreague, fateague:
hwich ar, and can be no more dhan ceſe, leſe,
greſe, pece; peze, teze, feze; eze, pleze; legue (collegue),
tegue, twegue, intrigue, fatigue. Pax and paix,
graiffe, aiſe, and plaiſe, ar arguments for Ingliſh
Truith. So e iz idel before dhe ſibbilacion, in
fleece, Greece, and geeſe; widh cheeſe, breeze, freeze,
ſqueeze, ſneeze, and wheeze: hwich ar (preciſely) flece,
Grece, gueſe; cheze, breze, freze, ſqueze,
ſneze. Dhe i or e final ov ſeize, muſt vanniſh in ſeiz or
ſeze. Dhe i ov niece (for nece) iz obviouſly ſuperfluous,
if not ſubſtitucionally indulgeabel to' Ettymollogy, for
e, az in dhe diſtinctive piece, friez, and lief; widh belief
and believ, relief and reliev, grief and griev, thief
and thiev, chief and atchiev; ſo miſchief and brief,
widh repriev and retriev. In receiv and receit, widh
dheir collatterals; e playing its own part, makes i dhe
ſervile: nor iz e final more neſceſſary after v, than after
f or t. Stil eav, ſleav, and greav keep diſtinct from eve,
ſleve (no more ſleeve), and griev. Dhe verbs reve and
leve form (better dhan cood reave and leave, or even reav
and leav) reft and left: won in ſmall dainger from reve
dhe inſpector or ſuperintendant, known chiefly in dhe
compound portreve; dhe oddher occularly parted from
leav, dhe verb ov leaf. Cleve, truly propper in Cleveland,
ſpurns az nobly anny a, az don heve and weve; ſo
more obviouſly connected widh dheir formatives hevvy,
weft, and cleft.
E, dhus diſembarraſſed in a monnoſyllabel, diſdains
alike tinny intruder in a preceding ſyllabel. A can dherfore
no more infeſt lever, bever, fever, or hedhen; nor
pretends it anny place widh dheir parents. But, hwarevver
its prezzence may be eſſencial, its abſence iz no
les neſceſſary in creture, feture, fezabel; decon, becon;
pecoc, mecoc; trekel, eguel, beguel; eguer, meguer;
ſezon, rezon, trezon; wezon or wezand; in mezel, az
in ezel, wezel, tezel; hwich follow eze, hweze, and
teze; in eric or erig (vulgarly braudened into' earwig)
from eruca; but no matter hwence. Nor muſt e, or
anny id'ler, encumber hwedel, bedel, febel, or bezom;
more dhan i, inveguel, edher, or nedher; or dhan dhe
no les perniſcious o, yeman, pepel, feral, and fedary;
dheze indeed almoaſt loſt in feudal and feudatary. Wil
popular or peuple, populace or poppulace, popularis or
poppular, diaconus or diacre, ratio or raiſon, or annithing
raſcional, proteſt; but againſt dhe continnuance
ov falſificacion, in cognate or deſcendant? Evvery won
ov dhoze, az evvery language (ſurely INGLISH not excepted)
loos dhe Truith, and ſpeaks it: in a land hware
foargery, ov all crimes, iz nevver venial; ſhal dhe language
(ov a ſenſibel, thinking, and lerned pepel) continnue,
in repprezentacion, an almoaſt conſtant foarger?
Hwile creator and creatura, créateur and créature, in
perfet pictures, expand reſpective diccion; ſhal creator
widh a effective, and creature widh a ineffective, keep
our language a parradox? Or, ſhal not creture, by dhus
becomming its own due repprezentative, becom alſo
eſſencially, if not apparently, liker (to') parents, dhat ar
DHE forrain i hurts not raizin, daizy or dairy, from
raiſin, dais, and laiterie; more dhan doz dhe domeſtic
ov daily, raiz and praiz, from day, rize and prize.
Dhe ſame ſervile may diſtinguiſh plaice dhe fiſh, hwich
might now appear ſafely plaſe: baize can urge no plea
for dhe dubbel ſervile, baiz or baze being equally ſafe.
Muſt u dherfore prefix i to' dhe ſibbilant in juce or ſluce,
more dhan in truce or ſpruce; in a nuſance, not in a
uſance; in bruze, not in Bruce; in cruſe or cruze, dhe
travverſe, not in cruſe dhe implement? No won wil diſpute
dhe raddical widh Sluys, dhe Flemmiſh poart,
hwich claims no oddher ſervile; yet depreſſes not dhe
ſibbilant. The old wear (now wair) remains in weary,
hwich wery wood preciſely repprezent. Drear, not
hawing undergon anny change, may wel remain in
dreary. Wer needel dhe child ov need, raddher dhan
ov knit; dhe formative ſervile wood ſtand: nedel might
ſuffice for dhe dextrous inſtrument.
UNDER Anallogy's approaching reign, proppers wil
vy widh appellatives, hoo ſhal ſooner join her ſtandard.
Cheyne wil be ſattisfied widh Cheyn or Chene. Madeira
(perhaps) dropping dhe i, az Eales, Ealing or Keating
dhe a, and Penrith her moddern briſtler; wil reaſſert,
or (nevver too late) affert dhemſelvs in Madera, Eles,
Eling, Keting, and Perith. Notthing wil dhen be too
much, too littel, or hwat it iz not; ſtil les, hwat it nevver
cood or can be. Dhe hoal polliſhed pepel ov
Grait-Brittain wil forguet, dhat evver Barbarrity waz
Ov ſerviles, infeſting ſhut vowels.
AZ vocal aſſemblage muſt dhus edher combine dhe
vowels effectively, ſuppoarting each oddher in a
dipthong; or keep an effective open, in hwatevver degree,
by dhe ſubjunccion ov a quieſcent; evvery member,
nedher ſuperior nor ſubſervient in dhe combination;
muſt proov, not onely ſuperfluous, but obſtructive. In
language, az in life:
Hwat doz no good, doz harm.
Letters becom redundant, from won ov two cauzes: by
falling into' uſeleſnes, in dhe proggres ov refinement; or
by remaining uſeles, az dhey wer impoarted. Dhe guttural
aſpirate, hwen exploded az an ennemy, left its fantom
dhe undouted frend ov harmony: az we perceived,
in right plight. Dhe vowel won had ſhut, dhe oddher
opened. Som vowels, on dhe contrary, dhat wonce
ſubjoined eſſence or uſefoolnes; ceſing to' doo edher,
hindered not dhe conſonant from ſhutting dhe dezerted
vowel; and yet hav been left apparently attendant, az
if ſtil on duty. If dhen no vowel can claim a ſervile,
but to' gard its opennes; ſhal ſhut vowels be belied by
pretended ſerviles? Ov dheze beliers indeed no vowel
haz ſuch cauz to' complain az e. Dhe ſame vocal figgures,
dhat gard it open, hav been ſuffered to' embarras
it boath open and ſhut; particcularly a.
E, overhwelmed by id'lers.
I. by A.
MOAST fallacious iz idel a in dhe primmitive
realm, earl, mearl, pearl; earn, yearn, learn
(from dhe old lear), earth, hearth, pearch, ſearch,
ſearce, hearſe; deaf; teat, ſweat, threat; head,
lead dhe mettal; ſtead, bread, thread, tread, ſpread,
dead, death, breath, breaſt — in dhe formative earſh,
dearth, breadth; wealth, health, ſtealth; dealt, meant,
leant, dreamt, leapt; dhe three pretterites eat, beat,
read; dhe pretterite alſo heard (wonce heared), widh dhe
formatives rehearſe and cleanſe: — in dhe diſſyllabels or
pollyſyllabels, ſimpel or compound, primmitive or formative,
cleanly, early,. earneſt; chearful, fearful, breakfaſt;
meadow, ready, heavy, zealous, jealous; peaſant,
pheaſant, pleaſant; pleaſure, meaſure, treaſure, treachery,
leachery widh leacher; weapon, weather, feather, leather,
leaven, heaven; endeavour, or endeavor. In dhis clas
indeed, from meadow down, a iz no idler; but unwittingly
attempting a duty, hwich no vowel cood evver
perform: dhat ov ſhutting anoddher vowel, ov ſhutting
dhe verry vowel it had juſt (az in mead) keptopen. Dho
a cood be dhus impoarted, onely from dhe fertile regions
ov Abſurdity; Ettymollogy, hoo makes manny
ſuch impoartacions; but ſees nothing ſo near, az en debvoir,
ov hwich dhe French haz loſt ſight almoaſt
centuries paſt; might hav ſtumbled on a ſimpel conſonant,
hwich Anallogy wood hav owned dhe fair dubbler
ov its aſpirate, nay ſeccond reviver ov debere. Dhus wood
endebvour hav prooved plauzibel in dhe next degree to'
endevvor; and u, if uſeles in dhe ofspring, appeared at
leaſt dhe proxy ov i, hwich waz eſſencial to' dhe
WER orrigin (az it cannot be) at all in queſtion; no a
iz in dhe Teutonnic roots ov erl or (lear and) learn, erth
or def; ov ſted, ſpred, tred, bred, bred; ov erneſt, weddher,
feddher, leddher, heaven; or in dhe French parents
ov tet, merl, perl, perch, ſerch, herſe; mezzure,
trezzure, tretchery, letchery and letcher, levven or endeavor.
No poſſibel uſe ov dhe vowel, in progennitors
forrain or domeſtic, cood atone for its miſchievous az
vain pretence ov ſervice to' relm, ern, yern, herth, ſwet,
thret, thred, hed, led dhe mettal, ded, deth, breth.
Nor can dhe a, howevver faithfool a ſervant in ear, dear,
weal, heal, ſteal, deal; mean, lean, dream, leap; and
howevver eſſencial an effective in brawl; be tollerated,
hware nedher won nor dhe oddher; in dhe old erſh,
more dhan in bredth, derth, welth, helth, ſtealth; delt,
ment, lent, drempt, lept. And ſurely, dhe ſervile ov
deal or leap can no more remain in delt or lept, dhan
dhe ſervile ov feel or keep in felt or kept. So dhe ſervile
to' dhe open vowel ov dhe prezzent eat, beat, read;
hear, can nevver attend dhe ſhut in dhe pretterites et,
bet; red, herd; more dhan dhe ſhut vowel ov better;
dhe beating (or foarcing) inſtrument; ov reddy, Redding;
or dhe like. No more can dhe ſervile ov hear, clean, or
are (ſeen ſucceſively, az doutles herd,. air, ear, ere)
continnue in reherſe, clenſe or clenze, clenly, or erly
dhan dhat ov chear, fear, braik (wonce break) in cherfool,
ferfool, or brecfaſt. Dhe falſifier dhus wil no longer
(under anny pretence) diſguize meddow, reddy, zellous,
jellous, or weppon. No rezon forbids, hware evvery rezon
commands, our dubbling dhe depreſſive labial aſpirate
and ſibbilacion (v and z) az wel az dhe direct (f and
s); or to' ſee, az wel az hear, hevvy, pezzant, fezzant,
plezzant, plezzure, widh dhe compannions we know:
for ſo we fearleſly hear and ſee dhe primmitives effort
and office; and dhe formatives, buzzing, buzzard; puzzel,
dazzel, or dhe like.
NOT onely hav we ſeen dhen dhat, wer dhe a really
raddical in evvery won it ſophiſticates, orrigin wood
proov light againſt eſſence; but dhat, in dhe majorrity ov
dhe primmitives, it belies dhe parents almoaſt az much
az dhe children; dhat, hware boath ar domeſtic, a ſervile
may be indiſpenſabel to' dhoze, yet inadmiſſibel to' dheze;
and dhat won ſemblance muſt az much confound eſſences
diſtinct; az oppozite ſemblances dhoze, hwich Nature
haz rendered coincident. Orthoggraphy dherfore (or
conſiſtent Picture) can no more involv read dhe prezzent,
and red dhe paſt, under won appearance (leſt dhe
latter ſhood be taken for dhe cullor) dhan led dhe mettal,
widh lead dhe prezzent ov dhe verb, ſo eſſencially
different; leſt dhe former ſhood rezembel led dhe paſt,
widh hwich it iz perſonally identic. Rezon wil always
ſuffiſciently diſtinguiſh idea's, hwich ſhe haz been plezed
to' clodhe widh won form. Nor need we be more at a
los to' diſcrimminate from dhe holy ſezon ov Lent, dhe
onely remaining pretterite ov lend, dhan dhe familliar.
pretterite ov lean: dhe latter prezerving, on more or
les attentive occazions, dhe uncontracted leaned, or its
firſt abbreviacion, lean'd. Equal wil be dhe confuzion
(dho no oddher) dhat clammor can create; if we poot
not aſunder, hwat Nature (ſo Natures Author) haz joined;
herd dhe pretterite ov hear, and a herd ov cattel; dhe
breſt ov man or aught elſe, and dhe poart ov Brittany.

STIL, ſhood coincidence artificial, hwich iz indeed
mans own work; pleze him better dhan coincidence
nattural, in hwich he had no hand; and ſhood dhe latter
continnue dhe more provoking, az not onely diſdaining
hiz interference, but defying hiz power: leſt he
wreak vengeance too far, by dhe means widhin hiz
reach; let him aſſwage hiz wrauth in dhe comfortabel aſſurance,
dhat human language iz in higher and happier
guidance; dhat each individdual haz but to' find and to'
follow dhat unerring Anallogy, ov hwich collective man
iz dhe unmeritorious (az unwitting) agent; but hwich
evvery man may, for himſelf at leaſt, and in propoarcion
to' hiz influence, deprave boath in eſſence and picture.
Rezon wil tel him, if Experience hav not (told.
him), dhat human diccion muſt be liabel to' coincidence;
az evvery dialect muſt hav her buty and her blemmiſh;
dho coincidence may conſtitute boath. Not to' mention
dhe numberles coincidences, neſceſſary or occazzional,
ov dhe Greek language; ſcarce fewer ar dhoze ov
dhe Lattin: az may be inſtanced in different parts ov
won verb, coincident widh each oddher, or widh oddher
words. Statuere, ſtatui, ſtatuam, ſtatuas,ſtatuis,
ſtatuit; ſtatueris, ſtatuerit, ſtatutum, ſtatuendum;
might ſuffiſciently exemplify, widhout volo, volam,
lego, legas; verres, verris, verri, verre; verſum,
verſus; decrevi, vincit, eſt, eſſe, and dhe reſt, Dhe
Lattin diſſyllabel ſuis, ſo various at home, falls in, by
proces ov time, widh dhe French monnoſyllabel ſuis;
hwich, no les dhan peignant and peigne, haz its own diverſity.
Infinite muſt be. in all tungs, ſuch meeting;
ov various words coincident, boath to' ear and eye, ſtil
more to' dhe latter; different ſounds, az different quantities
ov vocallity, being often conveyed in won ſhape.
Had dhis not alreddy appeared, it might in veni, venis
velis; lege, leges; legi, legis; or in ſuch az populus,
hwich (prezenting in won ſemblance diſtinct eſſences corporeal
and intellectual) ſends, not onely thro' peuple,
pepel; but, thro' peuplier, popplar.
DHO Concommitance or Anallogy prevent evvery
dainger ov confuzion, Ingliſh Orthography haz taken
peculiar pains, by ſerviles (hweddher ov Anallogy or ov
Ettymollogy) to' diſtinguiſh at leaſt to' dhe eye ſounds indiſtinguiſhabel
to' dhe ear; az in pain and pane, fain and
fane; ſee and ſea, feat and feet; rite, write, right and
wright; ſign and ſine; ſloe and ſlow; ſole, ſoal, and
ſoll; brute and bruit: by equivvalent and ſubſtitucional effectives,
in ſite and cite, too and two; hue and hew, foul and
fowl: or by boath; az in ſight and cite, raiz and rays, fane
and fein; widh dheir fellows we long hav known. Yet
numberles ar alſo dhe Ingliſh unavoidabel coincidences ov
diſtinct idea's in won ſound and form. Hwat variety in dhe
monnoſyllabel poaſt! So ſee and ſaw, nouns and verbs,
mutually unconnected, compound in dhe interjeccion ſee--
ſaw, dhe unchainged eſſence ov (dhe French) ci-ça. If
let couch, unconfounding, even oppozite ſenſes; wel
may cognates, or accruing aſſemblages, in dhe variety
ov formacion, pen unjarring ſolls in won boddy; az in
bent, rays, and crew.
VARIOUS vowel, or varied ſtres, may diſtinguiſh
dhe ear different words, dhat in won ſhape meet dhe eye.
Dhus ſow, edher verb (ſhied or ſtitch) widh dhe open
vowel; and ſow, dhe noun, widh dhe dipthong; bow,
dhe noun (arch, or twanger) widh dhe garded vowel;
and bow, dhe verb, claiming dhe dipthong: widh hwich
(its accion) dhe bend ov revverence, az wel az bough,
dhe branch, conſtituent ov bower, natturally coincides.
So, widh dhe open vowel, ſhower dhat ſhows; and, widh
dhe dipthong, ſhower dhat ſhowers. Strong az iz on dhe
latter, dhe verb convert, or object; on dhe former, dhe
noun convert, or object; ſo, ſtrong on dhe firſt, dhe
primmitive acccptabel, or commendabel, claims (az due)
to' dhe ſubject acceptance or commendacion: and,
ſtrong on dhe ſecond, dhe Ingliſh formative acceptabel,
or commendabel, ſpeaks dhe bare poſſibillity ov beſtowing
it. Dhis howevver iz dhe litteral, dhat dhe figgurative;
dhis dhe immediately neſceſſary, dhat dhe conſequencially
morral acceptacion.
ORTHOGGRAPHY dhus opening her way, ſempſter and
ſempſtres proov dhemſelves dhe lawfool ofspring ov ſeam;
to' dhe juſt ejeccion ov ſeamſter and ſeamſtreſs; dhat
firſt plauzibly preceded, and dhen pretended to' exclude
dhem. So ſteadfaſt and even ſteddy, now fammilliar,
cannot but announce dheir parent (ſted); nay dheir collateral
reddy, bevvy, cherfool, and dhe reſt; eſpeſcially,
az thred and ſpred ar alreddy vouched by unexcepcionabel
authorrities; wer indeed authorrity ov anny weight,
but az dhe voucher ov Truith. Dhe ſame attentive dealers,
hoo firſt prezented a draft; hwen dhey hear ov
net proffit, like alſo to' ſee it; nor find it incompattibel
widh anny thing neat. Hwen dhe ſailors talk ov neptide,
dhey ar too onneſt to' write it neap-tide: nor can
chronollogers, if alſo orthoggraphers, bely lep-year in
leap-year. If merchants and marriners, affecting no
dark art, carry dhe torch ov Truith, hwile dhey ſteer by
her compas; proppers becom dubbly propper, hwen
dhey dezire alſo dhe luſter ov ſuch a guide. Hollingſhed
and Feddherſtone dhus invite and introduce dheir ſimpels
hed and feddher. So Serl, Hern, Herd, Derd; Kerſley,

Hethcote; Redding, Emmonſon, and dhe reſt; can
continnue no longer ſhrouded in Searl, Hearne, Reading,
Eamonſon, or ſuch fallacious fantoms.
2. E shut, falſified by dhe attendance ov E, I, and 0.
NOT a alone falſifies e ſhut: dhe ſame hav hiddherto'
attempted e, i, and o, reſpectively, in breech and breeches,
heifer, leiſure; Leoſtof, Leominſter, Leonard, and
Theobald; leopard, jeopard and jeopardy; widh feoffee,
infeof and infeofment: for bretch, bretches; heffer, lezure;
Leſtof, Lemminſter, Lennard, Tebbald; leppard,
jeppard and jeppardy, fefffee widh enfef and enfefment.
I, wonce dhe due aſſociate ov e open, in freind
(firſt perhaps freende); inſted ov vanniſhing from dhe
vowel it cood no longer gard, haz infeſted dhe oddher
ſide in dhe prepoſterous friend, evver ſince dhe word
became frend.
A ſhut, endaingered by E and U.
1. By E preceding.
ODDHER ſhut vowels hav hiddherto' ſuffered from ſimmilar
embarraſſers, hoom Anallogy procedes to' expel.
Like dhe i to' e, in frend; dhe e ov heart, equally perniſcious
on edher ſide dhe ſhut vowel; urges, in an unſcrupulous
age, dhe plea ov convenience, for falſificacion.
Dhis ſpeſcial pleader, no more in dhe cauz ov
Grammar, dhan ov God; doz but moddeſtly, az expediently,
diſtinguiſh dhe dear heart ov man, oddher annimal,
or aught elſe; from dhe unfalſifying hart, dhe
deer. How perrillous dhe coincidence, to' hwat it waz
centuries ago! how innocent dhe prevencion, hwich
violates notthing but Anallogy and Truith! Yet certain
(truly) proppers ſee yet nedher dhe perril, nor dhe innocence.
Dhe Scotch Lockhart and Wiſhart (Wiſshart)
ſpeak az much propriety ov evvery kind, az doo dhe
Ingliſh Hartley or Hartſhorn. Wiſhart wood alſo hav
avoided dhe aſpirating ov dhe ſibbilacion; had not Wiſſart
been in dainger ov deſcending into' Wizzard. Wilfoolly
muſt dhe eyes be ſhut, dhat confes not: Falſehood
can doo nottbing but evil. She evver counteracts her own
purpoſe. Pretending to' ſecure, hware all wood be ſafe
(at leaſt les endaingered) widhout her; ſhe certainly miſleads,
in a road elſe obvious. Dhus iz (evveryhware)
Cunning dhe antipode ov Wizdom: and dhus completed
heart dhe quaternion, with either, neither, and yeoman;
ov hwich dhe three laſt tempted dhe untaught in Ingland,
az dhe firſt dhoze ov dhe ſame clan in Scotland,
to' open dhe ſubjunctive vowel, by a preceding ſervile:
an inverſion ov all litterary law, precluded (widhout dainger)
by hart, yeman, edher and nedher.
2. By U following.
U merritoriouſly diſtinguiſhes aunt, dhe parent's ſiſter,
from ant dhe emmet; and guivs A ſlender ſhut, dhe
ſervile ov A braud open. Yet, widhout pretence ov ſo
daingerous, or ov anny, coincidence; in defiance ov
boath fiſters, haz aunt had power to retain dhe company
ov jaunt, haunt, vaunt, taunt, daunt, gaunt, gauntlet;
in all ov hwich u doz preciſely dhe ſame duty, it formerly
did in chaunt, graunt, maund, and commaund; in
ſaunter, and Saunder; az we1 az in braunch, haunch,
paunch, launch, ſtaunch; all now juſtly az gennealodgically,
chant, grant, mand (dhe old baſket), command,
ſanter, Sander; branch, hanch, panch, lanch, ſtanch.
Jaundice alone pleaded u raddical; and yet waz found
mere jandice. So, widh ant, muſt return to Truith and
Ettymollogy (hoo doo not always join iſſue) jant, hant,
vant, tant, dant, pant, gantlet; and even dhe vennerabel
Mandy-Thurſday, widh her mand (or baſket) in
her hand. She had indeed almoaſt left dhe language,
dho Aſtrea had not left dhe land, hwen Anallogy (or
Harmony) enacted: A braud (AU) ſhal not, in Inglish
precede N, followed edher by a dry dental, or by a ſibbilacion:
dhat iz, Au ſhal not be followed by nt, nd, nce,
nch, or nge. No ſuch ſounds being ſufferabel in dhe Ingliſh
ſyſtem, az aunt, aund, aunce, aunch, or aunge; dhare
ſhal be no ſuch ſemblances. Alike ar dherfore indiſpenſabel
chant and jam, hand and mand, chance and lance, branch
and lanch, banter and ſanter, Sander and hiz fool ſelf
Alexander. In all ſuch a, far from braud and open, iz
ſlender and ſhut; yet hardly ſhorter dhan if dhe ſilent
aſpiracion interpozed in ahnt, ſahnter, lahnce, lahnch
and dhe reſt. Before nge, indeed, a iz alſo ſlender, but
open: not ab, but a; garded dherfore by its own (i) ſervile
(az we ſaw in its place), againſt evvery dainger ov
chainge. Faun and fawn remain doutles in Fauns
and fawns, unaltered by dhe aſcitiſcious depreſſive ſibbilant.

U ſhut, variouſly encumbered and endaingered.
DHE chainge, ov dhe open vowels into' dhe ſhut, waz
exhibbited widh dhe chainge ov dhe guttural into' dhe labial
aſpirate; or, dhat ov laugh, cough, rough, into'
laf, cof, ruf, and dhe reſt. But dhe French form can
no more clodhe dhan doz dhe French power (ov o depreſſive)
annimate dhe Ingliſh tutch, ſcurge, cuppel, dubbel,
widh cupplet and dubblet; or trubbel, widh trubblous,
and dhe oddher formatives. Dhe ſuppel culprit
made an erly eſcape from dhe ſouple coulpe-prit. Curteſy
, almoaſt az littel ſeen az herd courteſy; and
curteous, independant ov dhe old court (now onneſtly
coart), forbid us to' fear aguen dhe touch ov anny ſcourge,
dhe double trouble ov a faithles couple; or dhe unavailing
toils ov journey and journal, widh adjourn and fojourn;
more dhan dhe fallacy ov nouriſh, and flouriſh,
courage, courier, country, and couſin: ov hwich dhe two
laſt may az plauzibly compliment Orrigin, in prezenting
by o, dhe u ſhut; az haz long don attorney (wonce doutles
atourney), dho turnament haz turned into' dhe way ov
Truith. So dherfore notthing forbids contry, or cozzen,
more dhan condit or dozzen; dhan conjure and conjurer,
coz and doz. Birth haz dhen all her luſter, and dhen
receivs raddher dhan guivs it, hwen ſhe irradiates merrit.
Dhe French immediate parents, and two at leaſt ov
dhe Lattin, wil be beſt repprezented, hwen dhe children
ar ſo; in jurney, jurnal, adjurn, ſodjurn, az wel az
flurriſh, nurriſh, currage, and currier. Dhey hoo boggel
at Coincidence, cannot hope to' ſee Orthoggraphy;
til dhe happy time, dhat Juſtice ſhal ſtand in need ov Injury;
and Light, ov Darknes; not alternate, but concommitant.
Corrage wood ſoon warp into' rime widh
forrage. Burrough, alreddy ſeen in dhe propper, may dhus
keep clear (if recquizite) ov burrow; but muſt not joſtel
widh borrow. Thurrough proovs an ettymolodgical compannion,
dho dhe perfet picture can fear notthing (but dhe
los ov hwat iz loſt) from thurrow, more divan from dhe prepoziſcion
throo or thro'; hwich nevver more can appear
through. Proppers claiming, in all human language,
dheir ſhare ov like harmony widh appellatives; Nurſe
muſt (unendaingered and undebaſed) perſonate edher; dho
(y declining in our picturage to' articculate dhe figgure ov u,
even ſhut, hwich vertually involvs it, hwen open) Yong may,
widh Anallogy's fool conſent, pleze her ſiſter in perſonating
Yung; hwile Young ſeeming to' blend dhe alliance ov
Holland widh France (boath members ov Gaul) muſt evver
be an alien in Ingland. No more can boath vowels
repprezent won in Stourton and Courton, for Sturton and
Curton, dhan in Burton from bourg and burrough; or in
curtain, from courtine. So wil Dugglas deem it az
nobel to' join Dugdale in aſſerting Ingliſh, az Dooglas
did (in Douglas) to' vindicate Gaelic Truith.
A NAME diſtinguiſhes its owner; Orthoggraphy, diſtinguiſhing,
prezervs dhe name. Iz not a miſnomer
propperly dhat repprezentacion, by hwich dhe
name cannot be aſcertained? Man, havving hiz name in
evvery language, from ſom carracteriſtic; names natturally
hiz Maker, from an attribute: in the firſt ov
Lungs, Eternity; in German, dhence in Ingliſh, Goodnes;
in Celtic (or Gaelic) and Greek, hwence in Lattin,
Spanniſh and French; Opperacion, Prezzence,
Provvidence. But evvery tung, howevver deſcended,
adapts dhe ſound to' her own harmony; and evvery pen,
delinneating Truith, adapts dhe ſymbol to' dhe ſound.
Dhe Greek and Lattin Jupiter compounded, widh dhe
Hebrew idea, Paternity; dhe Saxon Thor or Tor exhibbited
hiz Dominnion. If evver name demanded continnuance
ov ſymbol, widh chainge ov ſound; Thorſday
muſt hav precluded dhe appearance ov Thurſday. Yet
Truith, hoo conſtellates dhe attributes ov her Author,
cood not hav had her perfet work, had ſhe not chainged
dhe ſemblance widh dhe ſubſtance ov dhe name. Mor,
or Maur, differed but in a letter, nor much more in idea,
from Tor or Taur. Dhe former, in perhaps evvery primmitive
diccion, implying Grait; in won herd and ſeen
more, in anoddher mare (not to' mencion deſcendant varriacions)
figgured dhe main, dhe vaſt (expanſe) not onely
ov wauter, but ov erth, air, or fire. Dho common Ettymollogy
wood bring mare, widh amarus, in ſpite ov
dheir oppozite quantity, from הדוכ (marah) bitter; an
idea dhe aincients figgurativelv interchainged widh;
and More or Moar, from dhe murky hue, dhe mere accident
ov ſittuacion; nedher wil extinguiſh dhe orrigin ov
dhe Gaulic or Brittiſh mor, or maur, obviouſly dhe ſame
in dhe ſimpel Ingliſh more or moar, extended heath; and
in dhe More or Moar (alſo formerly seen Moor) ov Mauritania,
hware iz now Morocco: dhe immenſe region,
hwich contained Mount Atlas, and lent Poetry her ezy
fabel, conſtituting dhat lofty Sovverain intimate widh hiz
neighbors dhe Stars; and hiz unwearied ſholders, dhe
ſuppoarters ov dhe Hevvens. Mor dhen or Maur, cood
hav no rival but Tor or Taur, in dhe aincient (Eaſtern,
Grecian, or Roman) world. Dhe Andes wer yet unknown.
If Mor and Tor differed ſo littel, Tor and dhe
Perſian or Grecian Cyr (or Kyr), hwence Cyrus, ſire,
and ſir, varied dhe mute, but like dhe Dorians in τότε
and τόϰα (tote and toca). Nor verry diſtant from Tor or
Thor, waz dhe Egypcian Tot or Thoth; widh or widhout
thrice-graiteſt (like moaſt-higheſt), az dhus dhey named
dheir Mercury. Nay, ſetting aſide (at leaſt for a
moment) all oddher ettymollogies ov dhis name; might
it not compound boath Mor and Cyr (or Tor), dhe grait
(or expanſive) Power or Lord; and ſo juſtify dhe interpretacion
ov Mercury's pooting out dhe eyes ov Argus, and
taking dhe care ov Io; az dhe ſun extinguiſhes dhe ſtars,
and ſuccedes to' dhe ſuperintendance ov dhe erth? If Mor
or Maur might dhus compound won name ov Mercury;
certain it iz dhat Tor or Taur, widh or widhout terminacion,
came to' ſignify Bacchus, or anny Lord; from
dhe Lord ov dhe univerſe, evvery erthly Lord; even
dhe jellous Lord Taurus, hoo commanded Aſia, az did
Atlas or Maurus Affric; down (in Gaullic, Greek, Lattin,
French, and fellow-diccions) to' dhe fearles az potent
Lord ov dhe herd. Hence dhe butifool, dho ſeemingly
groteſk picture, not onely ov Paſipphae, hoo beamed
her light on all, by to conſpiccuouſly lovving her
Bool, her Lord Minos, and producing dhe proddigy ov
dhe Minnotaur; but dhat, ſtil ſuperior, ov JUPITER and
EUROPA. Fancy had but to' fein Tor or Taur (dhe
Lord ov Crete, az ov dhe World) aſſuming dhe ſhape ov
a Bool, dhe higheſt dhat ov dhe loweſt Lord; in order
to' bring from Pheniſcia (nearly dhe center, nor far from
dhe ſoarce ov human light) Europa, wide Proſpect, or
Intellectual Expanſion; dhe wel-conceived ſiſter ov Cadmus,
hoo (doutles by dhe aid ov hiz confort Harmonia)
braught Letters to' dhe Weſtern Hemmiſphere. Happy
children ov dhe happy King AGENOR! hoo might be
emminently ſtiled much a man; a Man much beyond
oddher men, in guivving ſuch improovers to mankind.
Hooevver fancies Orthoggraphy to' hav loſt herſelf, wil
charritably bring her bac; but hooevver wants more ov
Mount Taurus, may find an extenſive Proluzion; in dhe
Inveſtigators Comment on Marſial; hware Mercury, dhe
Ammazons, and oddher myttholodgical carracters, ar
treated (for dhe ſame cauz, dhat here delinneates Orthoggraphy)
in a ſimmilarly oridginal manner.
Ov dhe endings OUS and OUR.
To' two febel endings, dhat hav occazioned ſtrong
conteſt; Orthoggraphy muſt at length opperate
juſtice, from dhe fair compromize ov Orrigin widh
Anallogy. Ous, terminating an adjective; hweddher
abſolutely febel, az in porous; by coaliſcion, az
in curious; or but ſeccondarily ſtrong, az in gennerous;
and aguen abſolutely febel, in genn'rous (or
genrous), emits preciſely dhe ſound ov us. Ingenious
differs vertually from genius, but by (in) dhe prepoziſcion.
Dhe French vowel dhen paints dhe Ingliſh vocal;
hwile dhe Lattin o, widhout adding to' dhe eſſence ov dhe
concrete, begs leve to' connect its picture widh its abſtract;
porous widh poroſſity, curious widh curioſſity, gennerous
widh genneroſſity; and dhe like. But dhe ending
our, dho boaſting in like manner boath deſcents; being
far oftener abſolutely weak, finds edher vowel ſuffiſcient
to' repprezent dhe ſhut and ſhort ſound; hwich, ſinking
ſo febly in dhe ſonorous licquid, cannot be auriccularly
aſcertaincd. Boath vowels not needed, az in dhe oddher
terminacion, and edher ſufficing to' dhe indefinite ſound;
o turns dhe ſcale in dhe eye ov Anallogy; hoo revives.
dhus dhe oridginal, alike abſtracts and agents; and
perfetly connects dhem widh dheir formatives and
LONG did Ettymollogy (unſattisfied even widh Lattin
ſemblance) ſtickel, nay ſtruggel, for our; hwich in dhe
agents az we1 az abſtracts, had been conveyed to' Ingliſh
from dhe Lattin or, thro' dhe French eur.
Two raddicals ar always better dhan won; dho dhis
ſhood be at wonce an aincient and a moddern effective;
and dhat a mere moddern incompattibel fantom. O, ſaid
ſhe, in our, az in ous, iz Lattin; u may be French:
dherfore dhey boath, in edher ending, muſt be Ingliſh.
To ſuch reziſtles lodgic, Brittiſh writers ſubmitted for
centuries nevver dreaming, dhat dhe ſame Anallogy
(or Truith) ov ſound, dhat braught dhe o into' won picturage,
and dhe u into' anoddher; waz to' be conſulted,
before boath (or edher) cood enter, or ſettel in a third
Orthoggraphy; diſtinct, az dhe ſyſtem it painted, from
dhat ov edher parent-language. Dhe compettitors made
dheir way in conjunction, under dhe happy auſpices ov
dhat vennerabel judge; hoo knows notthing ov edher
party in competiſcion, but from dhe pictures ov dheir
parents. Hence appeared creatour, authour, doctour,
profeſſour, ſenatour; and dheir fellow-agents; nay ſaviour,
governour, tailour, and oddhers, boaſting
no anceſtors in or; ſom, non even in eur; az jailour,
better known in dhe truly terrific (aſpect ov) gaolour
or goalour (hoom geolier might hav ſoftened into'
jailer, if not gealer); nay ſom, ov nedher Lattin nor
French extraction, like nailour and ſailour. Dheze wer
joined by certain inannimate agents; hwich, az dhe
three laſt claſſes deduced not o, claimed no u heredditary:
raſour, mirrour, parlour, manour, and (their reſpectabel
fellows. Widh dhe agents deſcended ſociably dhe abſtracts,
honour, favour, labour, vigour, and dhe reſt;
hoom endeavour bringing no more u dhan a from
abraud; and demeanour widh behaviour, homeborn; wer
alike proud to' emmulate. Dhe few indefinite comparratives,
like ſuperiour and inferiour, big widh Ettymollogy's
foolblown powers, pompouſly joined dhe dubbel
aſſembly ov wel-vouched claimants; hoo wanted, indeed,
notthing but Edducacion. Dhis non but Anallogy cood
guiv; hoo, claiming no erthly deſcent, reggulates and
refines all things below; az dhe daughter and dellegate
ov Hevven. By her benign opperacion, evvery ear
opened, and men herd no more widh dheir eyes.
IN dhe terminacion our, ov agents, abſtracts, or comparratives;
o waz found dhe authentic and gennuine
vowel; u merely a moddern raddical, and often no raddical
at all. Dhe agents and dheir comparratives hailed
dhe power ov Anallogy; hoo bade dhem alert dhemſelvs,
in creator, author, doctor, profeſſor, ſennator;
ſavior, pavior, govvernor, tailor, jailor, nailor, ſailor;
razor, mirror, parlor, manner; widh dhe reſt, annimate
and inannimate; joined natturally by ſuperior, inferior,
and dhe like, in adjective or ſubſtantive capaſcity.
Nor cood dhe jolly ſailor be jellous ov hiz ſhip; but in
ſo far az he maintained her, dhe beſt ſailer on dhe ſea.
Ettymollogy, alarmed at ſo genneral a deſeccion, offerred
(widh tears in her eyes) to' compromize dhe matter;
to' rezign dhe agents, and dheir adherents, hoom ſhe
found herſelf unabel to' retain; and, in the prezzent unhappy
juncture, to' content herſelf widh her own dear
abſtracts, ov hoom notthing called humannity cood deprive
her. Hweddher humannity, or aught ſtil more
forcibel widh habittuated man, felt for poor Ettymollogy;
certain it iz dhat a conſidderabel time ſhe did prezerv
dhe dear abſtracts, for hoom ſhe ſo moovingly pleaded;
nay, dhat ſhe ſtil may boaſt a formidabel party, hoo revverence
dheir old frend, even in her dotage; for want ov
being introduced to' Anallogy, hoo iz herſelf dhe moaſt
powerfool aſſerter, hware poſſibel, ov her ſiſters rights;
dho ſhe nevver wil countenance a claim, dhat ſhe cannot
fairly defend.
DHE enlightened Agents, howevver, remonſtrating
to' ANALLOGY, dhat dheir exampel, hwich had led dheir
ſiſters aſtray, aught to' proov ov no les influence towards
dheir refformacion; dhat, ſince dhey wer all ov
won fammily, and differred onely in ſex; dhe eye, hwich
wonce boaſted dhe uniformity ov Falſehood, cood no longer
be denied dhe fool enjoyment ov Truith; and dhat, in
ſhort, unles her Madjeſty wood command dhe uniform
appearance ov all equally concerned, in dhe field ov ORTHOGGRAPHY;
dhare waz ground to' ſuſpect edher a
ſhrewd combination ov dhe ours, to' render (wer it practicabel)
boath vowels effective; or a revolt ov dhe ors to'
dhe oridginal ſtandard ov dhe ours; widh hoom, az
dhey wer born, dhey wer rezolved to' dy.
ANALLOGY cood not be def to' ſo cogent a plea. ETTYMOLLOGY
cood hope no longer indulgence. Error,
terror, and horror, firſt quitted her banner. No wonder
if onnor and favor, labor and viggor, widh dheir
frends, emmulouſly followed; or if endevvor, behavior,
and demeanor accompanied, widh purer dhan former
plezzure. Onnorabel and favorabel, laborious and viggorous,
now iſſue togueddher from Natures fool ſoarce;
and here ANALLOGY dubbels her own joy, by promoting
alſo dhat ov her ſiſter.
Ov E final (or medial) belying ſhut vowels.
IMPOARTANT az ar ſerviles, in dheir place; propoarcionably
ar dhey perniſcious, out ov it. E final we ſaw
(if we herd not) ſo ſummoning its apparent articulacion,
az to' prevent dhat conſonants affecting dhe vowel before
it, and opperating preciſely dhe ſame effect, az if it had
got between dhe vowel and dhe conſonant. Iz it poſſibel
dhat ſuch e final ſhal alſo attend a final conſonant
ſhutting dhe vowel? Such ſeeming poſſibillity haz hiddherto'
belied eight monnoſyllabels, ſhut by licquids:
ar, wer; gon, ſhon; dhe oddher four ſubſtituting o for
u ſhut; don, non, ſom, com: all ſeen vulgarly, dhence
often herd viſciouſly; are, and dhe like. So long az
we believed, in ſpite ov our ſenſes, dhat, becauz dhe depreſſive
labial aſpirate ſhut no ſyllabel in oddher tungs,
it cood ſhut non in ours; ſo long did dhat aſpirate claim
e final, even after a ſhut vowel; az if to' moc, by turns,
dhe writer and dhe reader. Dhus did dhe bizzy id'ler
counteract alike dhe ſubſtitucion and quantity ov dhe
vowel, in dhe apparent love, glove, dove, cove (hole)
ſhove, and above; for lov, glov, dov, cov; ſhov, abov;
vertually luv, and dhe reſt. Hware hove, drove, throve,
ſtrove, or Shrove-Tueſday, familliarly ſhut in like manner
dhe vowel; no e final can take place: but hwen (az
propperly) dhe o keeps open, and unchainged; dhe ſervile
iz recquizite, az elſehware. So dhe open ſtrong vowel
ov behave demands it; dhe ſhut vowel ov hav diſdains
it: az doo guiv and liv; hwile, in live and gives or
gyves, it iz indiſpenſabel. In ſieve, for ſiv, dhe e iz
twice a liar. Hware, after v, e final affects not dhe
ſound; az in conceive, believe, and ſhelve; for conceiv,
believ, and ſhelv; obviouſly iz it ov no more uſe, dhan it
wood be to' conceit, belief, or ſhelf. E final, far from
belying, aſcertains dhe ſhut or ſhort dipthong, az wel az
dhe direct ſibbilant, ov ſuch as houſe: for hous wood appear
formative, like dhe dubbly dhous; and ſo
wood ſeem equivvalent (not opposite) to' houz, hware
dhe vowel is open and long. Simmilarly doo we remark
its diſtinguiſhing, in ſibbilacion, elſe, purſe, tenſe, from
els, purs, tens, widh dhe like; and dhe ettymolodgic
ſaves Charles from claſſing, dho it cannot from
chiming, widh ſnarls. But hwat ſhal be ſaid for dhe ded
e, dhat proppers ar ſo proud to' evoke; in Hawke,
Hawkes, Willes, and dhe like? Dhe ſame az for dhe
ded i, ov ſuch az Foulis, Charteris, Amisfield, and Saliſbury:
dhat Fouls, Charters, Amsfield, (if not Ampſfield)
and Salſberry, muſt fearleſly follow, lead, or accompany,
Hawk, Hawks, Wils, and dhe reſt; into' dhe
ſole ſafe path, and picturage ov Truith. So Glammis
is now no more dhan Glams; but Wemys muſt chainge
dhe y into' e ſervile, on edher ſide dhe m: elſe dhe
name cannot be known in dhe picture. Manny Ingliſh
names hav indeed ſecured dhemſelvs in time. Widh
dhe old vowel dhey hav prezerved its eſſence, dhat iz,
its ſound; az in Willis, Blackiſton, Oſbaldiſton; hwich
preclude, no more dhan Wils, dhe oddher names Blacſtone,
or Oſwaldſton a term at leaſt in poſſibillity.
Ov oddher ſerviles dooing ſo.
HWAREVVER dhen an open vowel wood ſeem ſhut by
dhe following conſonant; dhe gard, called a ſervile,
muſt attend, on won ſide or dhe oddher ov dhat conſonant;
to' drive, or to' call it away. Hware dhe vowel
iz certainly ſhut, ſuch an attendant can onely miſlead,
by making it ſtil appear open. Anallogy, az all Harmony,
iz at wonce reggular and varied: to' illuminate, and
to' pleze. Dhe ſame Anallogy dherfore, dhat conſtitutes
a vowel open; and ſo demands dhe ſervile in a primmitive
or ſimpel monnoſyllabel; retains dhat vowel ennergettic
in dhe formative or compound; but ſhuts dhare (by
dhe verry ennergy) dhe vowel transferred, hweddher to'
dhe penultimate or antepenultimate place. To' ad,
dhat dhe ſame Orthoggraphy, hoo gave dhe gard to' dhe
open vowel, widhdraws it from dhe ſhut, wer now to offer
an indignity to' dhe reader. Dhus ſhake, chear,
vine, know, and ſpoon becom ſhut and gardles, in Shakſpear
(az himſelf wrote it), cherfool, vinyard, knollege
(or nollege) and ſponfool, vertually ſpunfool. But dhe
indignity wil vanniſh in dhe candid eyes dhat hav been
hiddherto' inſulted (nor onely dhe eyes) widh Shakeſpear,
cheerful, vineyard, knowledge (or knowlege) and ſpoonful.
But, ſhal Tweed form Tweedmouth (like Tine Tinmouth,
or Yare Yarmouth) in Ingland, and not az fairly
form Tweddale in Scotland? Formatives doo not always
encreaſe dhe ſyllabels, hwen dhey leſſen dhe vocal quantity.
Moon forms month, wonce indeed moneth; and
clean clenz, az wel az clenly. Like moneth, cleanſe and
cleanly wil, from being no more ſeen, com to' be nohware
herd. Wel may a ſervile vanniſh, if ſo doo edher
partner ov a dipthong: az clown, clumſy (dhat iz, clumzy);
ſouth, ſoddhern, and Sodhwel; like houſe, huſband,
and huſwife (huzband, huzwife or huzzif). Dhus
doo two pence, three pence, five pence, run into' dhe compounds
tuppence, thrippence, fippence. Half, on dhe
contrary, opens its vowel in hapence, az in hapenny.
A VOWEL dhen, ſhutting, cannot retain dhe ſervile:
a vowel, keeping open, doz not always continnue to'
need; and, not needing, doz not admit it. Dhus ſhake,
chainging dhe vowel, drops dhe ſervile in Shakſpear; retaining
dhe vowel, drops dhe ſervile in ſhaking and ſhaken.
So dhe ſilent vowel, ſeeming to' claim dhe conſonant,
ſaves dhe a ov ake dhe monnoſyllabel; and dhe
effective vowel, following, claims really its articulacion,
in aking, dhe diffyllabel; leving doutles dhe preceding
vowel, equally unchainged. U, not being ſo apt to'
chainge az oddher vowels, widh ſittuacion; hweddher
by penultimate or antepenultimate power; dhe vowel
remains open in cube, cubic, and cubical; but ſhuts in
type, typpic, and typpical; trope, troppic, and troppical.
So, he hoo labors for pure language, iz a puriſt and,
promoting, partakes dhe joys ov purity; az doo dhe ſincere
and ſublime dhoze ov ſincerrity and ſublimmity.
AFTER dhis manner doz dhe vowel keep open in dhe
immediate and litteral fammily; hwile, widh ſo butifool
diſtinccion it ſhuts, in dhe diſtant and figgurative ofſpring.
Widh dhe diſtincteſt, and moaſt obvious propriety,
doo chear and clean prezerv dhe vowel and ſervile in
chearles and cleaniſh, az wel az chearing, cleaner, and
dhe reſt; nor widh les demonſtrative rezon, ſhutting dhe
vowel, diſmis dhe ſervile from cherfool, clenly, and dhe
like. Dheze ar ſettelled, dhoze occazzional, formatives.
So dhe old break, now braik, compounds intelligibly, dhe
needfool brecfaſt, and dhe braik-prommiſt, hoo doz not
dezerv won. Dhus Nature, or Anallogy, iz not more
demonstratively traceabel in fine, finer, and fineſt; finely,
finelier and finelieſt; finiſh and finiſhly, finery and
finary, final and finally; dhan hware ſhe ſhuts dhe
vowel, in dhe primmitive finniſh, or dhe figgurative
finnic, finnical, and dhe reſt. Shal dhe Lattin finire,
dhe French finir, or dhe Ingliſh fine deny it?
No rule being ſo littel known in theory, dho non
more conſtant in practice; it iz no grait wonder dhat
roots and ſimpels hav remained ſeemingly unchainged, in
dheir ſo really varied branches and compounds; dhat
ſtraingers hav been always, and natives often miſled, to'
continnue dhe power in the continnuing picture; and
dhat dherfore Orthoggraphy inſiſts at laſt on her right ov
repprezenting boath open and ſhut vowels, az dhey ar.
Dhe ſame propriety dhen dhat writes plaint, brace, bare,
fare, dhare and hware (wonce there and where, for dhere,
hwere) cheze and pleze, vine and ſpike, oat and fore, az
wel az know; muſt write, hwat muſt be red, plantif, braſſlet,
barfoot, farwel, dherfore and hwerfore, chezcake and
plezzant widh plezzure, vinyard and ſpicnard, otmeal
no les dhan Otley, forhed and knollege, if nollege doo
not ſuffice. Saint ſhuts dhe i, not dhe a, in dhe Scottiſh
ſurname Sinclair; az wil dhe Ingliſh Sinjon, hwen ſimmilarly
onnoring its components, in the diſplay ov
Truith. For domeſtic proppers, being compozed az oddher
words, muſt own widh dhem won grait Anallogy.
Sure dhen az Shakeſpeare and ſheephearde, wiſedome
and courteous, Broomtoune and Southtoune, Southwarke
and Moondaie, hav com into' Shakſpear and ſhepherd,
wiſdom (or wizdom) and curteous, Brompton and Sutton,
Sodhwark (really Soddhark, dhat iz, Sudhdhark) and
Monday; ſhal we ſoon ſee, if we mean dhe world evver,
or even ourſelvs long, to' ſay; not onely plantif, chezcake,
vinyard, forhed, and dhe reſt; but Hwitbred and
Redhed, Hwitfield and Grenfield,Grenwich (for Grennich)
and Shorditch; widh dhe like, az we hear dhem; nor
longer expoze our language, our contry, our cappital,
to' inacceſſibillity or contempt, by continnuing to' ſet
foarth az Ingliſh names, dhe miſnomers Whitebread or
even Whitbread, Greenwich, Shoreditch, and dheir fellows.
But, if dhe preazence ov hwat ſhood be abſent,
muſt proov ſo perniſcious; dhe abſence ov hwat ſhood be
prezzent, can but contraſt dhe conſequence: Shal a
vowel dhat keeps open, more dhan a vowel dhat
ſhuts, not ſhow reſpective Truith? Shal innocent and
uſefool Ettymollogy be ſaccrificed, dhat evvery Anallogy
(except dhat ov Falſificacion) may be ſo? Plymouth can
no more be known to' be Plymmouth, than Tweedale to'
be Tweddale, or Shoreditch Shorditch: can Morton or Colman
be known for Moreton or Coleman? Can Holbourn,
or Cockburn be ſuppozed Hoboarn or Coburn; more
dhan Colquhoun Cohoon?
QUIESCENTS hav becom ſuch by various cauzes; ov
hwich dhe chief muſt be concommitance and febelnes,
dhe latter dependant on dhe former. Conſonants may
ſink by dhe coincidence ov affinnity: az dhe aſpirate ov
Griffiths and cloadhs or clodhes, in dhe ſibbilacion. So
pent may dhey be between oddhers, az nedher to' as
nor eſcape. In ſuch caſe howevver dhey ſhood be ſet at
libberty, no detainer being lodged againſt dhem. Dhus
dhe labial aſpirate ov twelfth, twelvpence, twelvmonth;
or dhe dental between fellow-licquids in govvernment,
being equally an innocent prizzoner, ſhood be alike diſmiſſed.
Wood twelth, twelpence, twelmonth, or govverment,
ſuffer anny-thing, but riddance? Better cauz doz
ly for dhe detencion ov dhe mute in ſuch az arctic, aſkt,
or Tompſon.
RAPIDDITY, no frend to' Precizzion, doz aſſiſt- Affinnity
to' ſwallow a febel ſyllabel; hwich dhe delibberacion
ov ſolemnity, or dhe ſolemnity ov delibberacion, wood
emit complete. Hence hav Glouceſter or Gloceſter
(Gloſceſter), Worceſter, Leiceiſter (Leſceſter), Cirenceſter
(Cirrenceſter), Agmondeſham, Cholmondeley, Abergavenny
(Abbergavenny), Haverford (Havverfoard), widh dhe
Scottiſh Aberbrothoc (Abberbroddhoc) Ballancrief, Ballandalloch,
and ſo on, run into' Gloſter, Woſter, Leſter;
Ciſceſter, Ammerſham, Chomley (Chumley), Abberganny,
Hatfoard; Arbroadh, Bancrief, Bandalloch, and
dhe like. From ſimmilar cauz Ritchardſon, Robbertſon,
Robbinſon, Rolandſon, Weſtminſter, drop dhe clozer ov
dhe febel ſyllabel, dho even dhe ſhutter ov dhe vowel, in
dhe colloquial Ritchaſon, Robbeſon, Robbiſon, Rolaſons
Weſtmiſter; and ſuch.
IF febel conſonants make ſo ezy an eſcape, we need
not wonder dhat febel vowels elude us in like manner.
Nor can dhe moaſt ſollemn emiſſion ov triſſyllabels, acting
by antepenultimate ennergy, prezerv dheir weak medial
vowel, for want ov a partiſcion on hwich to' reſt it.
Diſſyllabels proov dherfore Iſaac, Iſrael; Aaron, Pharaoh;
Naaman, Balaam, Canaan: for dhey emit no'
more dhan Iſ'ac, Iſr'el; A'ron, Phar'oh; Na'man,
Bal'am, Can'an. Dho febel a ſinks, az we ſee, not ſo
anny oddher weak vowel; az in Jezreel, Mirriam,
Silloam, Phannuel. Poetry can doutles render evvery
won ov dheze diſſyllabbic, hweddher by contraction, or
by coaliſcion widh dhe next natturally effective: az in
Jezr'el, Silwam, Mirryam, Phannyel: for e (like a)
febel may be elided; o febel can condenſe into' notthing
ſo near az dhe braud licquefier (w), hwich doz but emboddy
o depreſſive: dhe third (no more making ir ur,
dhan doz mirror or mirrakel) ſquezes ezily dhe weak
into' dhe ſlender licquefier; az in lawyer, Caius, or
Iſaiah; and Phannuel, vertually Phan-yooel, drops onely
dhe weak vowel (oo) retaining dhe vocal licquid (y) to'
articculate or compres dhe next (now abſolutely weak)
vowel in Phannyel, dhat iz Phan-yel. Danniel haz
notthing to' drop hwen he becoms a diſſyllabel, more
dhan ſpanniel, Spanniard, or pannier. But boaſt we
not ov dropping, hwat we nevver held. Far from dropping,
hwat pains took Swift, to' incorporate i in dhe
Ingliſh draper! littel dreaming dhat dhis cood no more
be made a drapier, dhan a Brittiſh barber can be hiz
own French parent barbier. If a verry nécromancier
cood not be alſo a necromancer; doo we fancy dhat dhe
modiſh financier can evver becom an Ingliſh financer;
eſpeſcially az dhe latter finds likewize hiz parent (finance)
at home? Wil a financier guet dhe ear ov Anallogy,
more dextrouſly dhan cood a necromancier; or even
dhan a drapier or a barbier? Hence we may at leaſt perceiv,
dhat mans device can no more ad won jot or won
tittel to' a word, (than a hairſbredth to' hiz ſtatture; and
dhat, az he cannot diminniſh dhe won but according
to' dhe laws ov Nature; ſo can he not dhe oddher,
but by dhoze ov Anallogy.
YET ov ſevveral oddher French terms hav we blindly
(raddher defly) impoarted, and fondly retained dhe
vowels, widhout turning all to' Ingliſh account; az if
we ſtil delighted to' ſtare at hwat we ſaw uſefool in dhe
native contry, dho ov no ſignifficance in dhis. Such
ſeems dhe truly febel a ov marriage and carriage. Widh
bold propriety (or grait good-fortune) hav we dubbled
dhe r, in ſpite ov Orrigin: we hav but to' write (like porridge
and partridge) marridge and carridge, to' perfet
dhe repprezentacion ov dhe two Ingliſh words. A third,
ov like deſcent, demands dhe more attentive connizance,
dhat attempts hav been made (hweddher lawfool or not)
to' opperate ſeeming juſtice. Ingland haz univerſally
named dhe vehikel ſhe impoarted from France correſpondent
to' dhe French cut-coach, a charret. Som Improovers,
howevver, diſcovvering dhat dhe French named dhe
races ov dhe Aincients courſes de chariots; dhat dhe ſaid
Aincients armed alſo for war dhoze tremendous carridges;
thaught Refinement concerned to' defy univerſallity
ov practice, and clandeſtinely to' warp (ſince ſhe
cood not openly chainge) dhe Ingliſh charret into' a charriot;
but avowedly to' paint it chariot. Dhey may not
hav been aware dhat, wer parrentage anny-thing to' dhe
purpoſe, chariot iz but a waggon, if charrette be a cart;
and dhat dhe French carroſſe-coupé nevver took edher
Two impoartant children ov dhe ſame proliffic parent
hav hugged an a, ſtil les vindicabel dhan dhe id'ler ov
carriage and marriage: for won ſeduced even a Milton
(not unimmitated) to' realize dhe non-entity:
Widh frontiſpice ov diamond and goold.
Dhe French diamant evver had three ſyllabels; but dhe
Ingliſh dimond nevver more dhan two. Hwen parlement
had transferred its verry ſelf to' Brittain, a Brittiſh parliament
ſtarting inſtantaneous, rezolved to' create a Lattin,
raddher dhan acnollege a Gallic anceſtor. Dhus
did parliament engender its parent parliamentum: but
parlement or parliment cood not, widh all its powers, ad
a ſyllabel to' itſelf. Parlement and parliment ar abſolutely
coincident, az complement and compliment, hwich
vary dhe idea, dho not dhe ſound; or az dhe weak le
and li ov ellement and alliment. Febel vowels not ſo
natturally near, nor indeed evver equivvalent, prooved
ſomtimes interchaingeabel in perhaps dhe moaſt polliſhed
diction dhe world haz cultivated, and hwich haz dherfore
becom immortal by Orthoggraphy. Hence dhe diſpute
between elegans and eligans; decided in favor ov
dhe former; dho Roman ears wer in no dainger ov confounding
protenus and protinus. But dhey hav nedher
Roman ears nor Roman eyes, hoo can employ feaſible,
tenible, indiſpenſible; aſſidious, inviduous;
controvert and contraverſy; for fezabel, tenaba, inconteſtabel,
indiſpenſabel; aſſidduous, inviddious; controvert
and controverſy; or dhe like. Az prellate forms
prellacy, and primate primmacy; abbat, if not ablate,
(eſpeſcially from abbas) might hay been expected to' ſuperintend
hiz abbacy: long eſtabbliſhment wood not
ſupport an abbot, wer he not clodhed widh integgrity.
Dhe Itallian abbate may hav been ſtudiouſly avoided.
Ruban and diamant hav produced dhe rich ribbon and
dimond. Abbot dhus, for dhe varied vowel, fel not
out widh hiz Abbacy, more dhan widh hiz Abbey.
No vowel can be ideller, dherfore non more perniſcious,
dhan dhe medial intruder ov medicine, veniſon and
buſineſs. Dhe firſt haz been carefoolly engrafted by old
Ettymollogy, hoo knew notthing ov dhe parent médecine.
Hooevver haz ears to' hear, muſt reccognize her in dhe
ofspring medcine. If we hav made mediſcinal, we cannot
alſo make meddicine, ſtil les medicine. Venſon haz no
more to' doo widh venaiſon: but dhat it ſhood not ſeem
dhe ſon ov Ven, venzon wood enſure. Even from bizzines,
biznes iz totally diſtinct dhe former iz dhe abſtract;
dhe latter, ſhortened by a ſyllabel, dhe occupation
or concern. Mark dhe bizzines ov dhe ideller, or
bizzy-boddy. He nevver minds hiz own biznes. Widh
him, dherfore, dhe duly bizzied haz no biznes at all.
HWARE ſounds ar, by febelnes, hardly diſcrimminabel;
Anallogy, nay ſomtimes Ettymollogy, may guide
lier and beggar, az genneral; liar and beggar, particcular
agents. Dennizen joins cittizen, and beckon reckon.
But dhe def tyrant, hoo looks always at Lattin, and
knows notthing later, ceſes not to' approve attendant,
dependent, widh attendance and dependence; nay, belligerent,
and ſo on; for attendant, dependant, bellidgerant,
and ſo foarth. Boath Poetry and Law, howevver,
hav preferred dhe Lattin Ettymollogy ov dependency and
dependencies; hware dhe oddher vowel haz hardly tried
to' enter.
DHE Greek prepoziſcion en, and the Lattin in her
daughter; dhe former, dhe favorite ov dhe French; dhe
latter, ov dhe Ingliſh; hav occazioned in dhe laſt-named
language, hware dhoze febel vowels differ ſo littel, ſom
variety, dhence dainger, in dhe picturage. Yet muſt it
be owned, hware all improovment wil be gratefoolly (not
to' ſay gladly) owned; dhat few now write intire, inquire,
imploy; intreat, intruſt, indear; imbattle, imbitter,
imbolden; for entire, enquire, employ; entreat,
entruſt, endear; embattel, embitter, embolden, or dhe
like; dho ſom ſpeciouſly prefer intrench, impriſon,
impannel, impower, impoveriſh; to' enliſt, entrench, emprizzon,
empannel, empower, empovveriſh; and ſo on.
Inviolate iz integgrity az integer, inquiziſcion az inqueſt,
hwich regards Truith more than enquête. Dhe varriacion
ov febel cognates muſt be les conſequencial, az les obvious,
dhan dhat ov dhe ſtrong. But varriacion by dhe
eye iz always daingerous, and needles varriacion iz always
folly: a prediccament, in hwich certain facetious
Crittics wil kindly include dhe hoal ov dhe prezzent labor.
Dhey dhat refine (like dhoze dhat judge) widhout
thought, ar remembered, but in order to' be forgotten:
for, dho all improovment be innovation, all innovacion
iz not improovment. Som ſuch refiners had
lately dhe misfortune to' ſee dépêche; perhaps indeed
dhe graiter misfortune to' hav rummaged up, or ſtumbled
on, deſpeſche. Gennerouſly, az judiſciouſly, did they
haſten to' rectify diſpatch into' deſpatch. Dhe rectificacion
vanniſhed: for Anallogy eyed it widh diſdain.
Ov dhe eliding ſervile, named APOSTROPHE or
WON figgure, no raddical, edher ov vowel or conſonant,
may be dhe ſervant and ſubſtitute ov
boath; may officiate az a ſervile, or mark dhe abſence
ov an effective. Dhe verry idea ov comma, ſpeaks dhe
propriety ov its picturing dhe elider; known by dhe oddher
Greek name apoſtrophe, ſhortened (thro' dhe French)
into' appoſtroph. It iz onely indeed to' pleze dhe eye,
hwich, next to Ettymollogy, Ingliſh picturage haz hiddherto'
been fondeſt to' pleze; dhat won inaudibel ſymbol
can repprezent anoddher. O ſervile diſtinctively
ſubſtitutes Appoſtroph, in dhe preppoziſcions to' and
thro'; and may in dhe ſeccond numeral, two': dhus abbreviating
throogh, az diſtinguiſhing dhe coincident too
and twoo. E ſervile and dhe eliding mark, ar interchaingeabel
before s final; but dhat dhe latter iz held
dhe diſtinctive ov appropriacion. Reppetiſcions ov a or
o, ar aes or oes; a's or o's: an a's or o's propperties prefer
dhe elder. Widhout edher, wer dhey as and os;
dhe vowel ſhut by dhe direct, inſted ov (keeping) open
before dhe depreſſive, ſibbilant. Dhe eye dhus
to' ſee apt mottoes (or motto's), ſomtimes owns a motto's
aptnes; az candor, hoping for excellent ideaes (or idea's),
iz dhe apter to' perceiv an idea's excellence. So dhe
ear, dredding loud huzzaes or huzza's, iz prezzently
deffened widh a huzza's loudnes. Yet iz hoozahs perhaps
juſter dhan edher.
AFTER a ſibbilacion or ſibbilating aſpirate, dhe elider
can lop a ſibbilating ſyllabel; az in our fahdhers' days,
and Moſes' law; for fahdherſes and Moſeſes: familliarly
and ſublimely (by dhe coincidence ov oppozites) equivvalent
to' dhe days ov our fahdhers, dhe law ov Moles. Like
dhe latter, Norwich' cathedral, Carthage' towers; for
Norwiches cathedral, Carthages towers; dhe cathedral
ov Norwich, dhe towers ov Carthage: ſo in anny ſingular
ſibbilating appropriacion, hware dhe formative ending
ſinks by febelnes and affinnity. Hence (arizes) dhe
corrollary, dhat, in a fahdhers care, a moddhers lov,
or dhe like appropriacion to' an individdual; no elizzion
taking place, no elider can be employed; and dhat, in
Ingliſh noun, dhe ſibbilating plurallity and appropriation
ar indiſpenſably, yet unconfoundedly, dhe ſame.
BETWEEN a ſervile and ſibbilacion, appoſtroph wer
obviouſlv redundant, az a ſeccond ſervile. Dhis appears
from a foes confeſſion, or a bows elaſtiſcity; in Cattilines
conſpirracy, if not in Rooms delivverance; in a plays
dho not in a wits play. Before anny oddher final
formative, dhe slider alone can elide; unles after e effective,
hwich dhare may ſink into e ſervile. Dhus dhe
triſſyllabels huzzaed or huzzahed) mottoed, followed, becom
diiſyllabels in huzza'd (or hoozah'd), motto'd, follow'd.
In follo'd, dhat wood ſuffice to' dhe ſound, dhe
root or theme cood not be known. Seen, or been, can
ſubſtitute no appoſtroph; becauz dhoze particippels can
no more be dilated, beyond monnoſyllabels; and won
ov dhem haz, for its auxilliary kindnes, been often
ſquezed into' a bin; ſomtimes foarced to' joſtel with
Ben. But in ſeer, agreer; az in ſeeſt agreeſt; or in
dhe pretterites feed, agreed; hware boath e's ar propperly
effective; dhe elizzion, hwen recquizite, can be
fixed onely by dhe elider; in ſe'r, agre'r; ſe'ſt, agre'ſt;
fe'd, agre'd; or dhe reader muſt be left to' gues: a frequent,
if unthanked, compliment. So raced and raged
may drop a ſyllabel, in rac't and rag'd; dho races and
rages can be no ſhorter. After won elider, anoddher
cannot appear. Dhe ſame appoſtroph, dhat elides an
articulacion, elides dhe weak vowel articculated. Dhus
even, over, hwen contracted into' monnoſyllabels, can
be no more dhan, e'n, or o'r. But dhe ſervile, dhat
opens, cannot alſo ſhut a vowel: evver haz no raſcional
means ov prezerving dhe ſtrong vowel in contraccion,
but by dropping dhe ſimpel labial ov dhe aſpirate (hwich
iz vertually bh), and leving dhe aſpiracion to' gard or
protract (az it wel can dhe ſhut vowel in ehr; no hommonymy
(or coincident) ov are, dhe lawfool eir ov dhe
ſucceſſive air, ear, and ere. Elſehware appoſtroph alone
can elide: az in guivv'n, if not guivn (or dhe verry familliar
guin) for guivven; ſo in barb'rous, id'ler, from
barbarous ideller, and dhe like. If it be alledged, dhat
barbrous requires ſtrictly no more appoſtroph, dhan remembrance,
monſtrous, or wondrous; it may be aſſerted,
dhat rememberance can hardly be remembered, or dhat
remembrance iz immediately French, howevver old;
and dhat wonderous iz wondrous now. Gennerous travveller
may indeed be contracted widhout apparent elider;
fool az wel in genrous travler, az in genn'rous travv'ler.
In dhe vulgar elizzion dhe gen'rous trav'ler belies at
wonce himſelf and hiz quallifier: for dhis picture opens
in boath dhe ſtrong vowel, hwich in boath iz ſhut.
ALREDDY hav we ſeen dhe impoſſibillity, ſomtimes
bluntly named Abſurdity (in morral caſes a gentel term)
ov exhibbitting an elider, hware notthing iz elided: alike
dhen in a huſbands ſiſter, and a ſiſters huſband; a wifes
broddher, and a broddhers wife; in huſbands, wives,
broddhers and ſiſters. If dhus it be impoſſibel to' retain
a ſervile, hware no end iz ſerved; a ſubſtitute,
hware notthing iz repprezented; or an elider, dhat makes
no elizzion: hwat ſhal be ſaid for a ſymbol, dhat declares
a vowel abſent, hwich iz indiſpenſably prezzent, az conſtituting
dhe ſoll ov a living ſyllabel? In St. James's
church, pallace, propperty hwatevver; Jameſes iz dhe ſame
diſſyllabel, az in ſevveral Jameſes. Can a diſſyllabel hav
but won effective vowel? or can anny effective vowel
be repprezented by dhat, hwich repprezents onely inaudibility?
Jameſes may doutles be contracted into' won ſyllabel,
az Moſeſes into' two. London haz booth St. Jameſes--
ſtreet, and James-ſtreet. So equal propriety authorizes,
In JAMES' bleſt pages, and in JONS we find,
Hwatehr enlights, or ellevates dhe mind.
In JAMESES page, ſublime az JONS, we find,
All dhat can light and ellevate mankind.
SIMMILAR indeed iz prince's for princes; two ſilent
ſymbols for won effective, two ſhaddows for a ſubſtance:
and hwy? To' falſify, hwat no princes
power, hwat not all dhe princes ov dhe erth, can alter:
dhe decree ov ANALLOGY, pronouncing Ingliſh appropriacion
and plurallity coincident. But dhe poet waz a
verry propphet (a Lattin vates), hoo ſaid:
Som, widhout rime or rezon, rule or chec;
Braik Priſcians hed, and Peggaſuffes nec.
Cood propriety write Priſcian's, or poſſibillity Pegaſus's?
a picturage widhout parrallel in dhe litterary
world; unles from ſuch Genius's, as already ſhew the
promiſing progreſs of Britiſh learning thus:
YOUNG GENTLEMEN (and, elſehware; perhaps in
dhe ſame place, YOUNG LADYS) BOARD'D and EDUCAT'D,
ſtil to' be admired on Pedia's own enſigns, in
dhe center ov Ingliſh purity! To' ſay dhat boarded and
edducated ar not more neſceſſary dhan Jameſes or geniuſſes;
wer onely to' repeat (dhe humilliating hint), dhat
dhe ſame ſymbol cannot at wonce ſpeak prezzence and
abſence. Ov dhe young gentlemen and ladys, dhe running
reader may judge. Yet, dho Ladies be now almoaſt
evverihware; Yong Gentelmen wil for ſom time be
announced onely by dhoze chozen Spirrits, to' hoom
Anallogy ſhal hav graciouſly imparted dhe ellements ov
UNLES dherfore between dentals, Apoſtrophe haz dhe
happy power ov eliding dhe vowel before dhe final formative
dental, d or t; at wonce to' gard dhe opennes
ov dhe foregoing vowel, and ſhorten dhe word by a ſyllabel.
Being ſtil dhe proxy ov e ſervile, it keeps alſo e
and g, az it found dhem. In trac't dhus and rag'd, dhe
appoſtroph not onely elides a vowel; but gards boath a
vowel and a conſonant. In ſuch az fil'd, bar'd, plan'd,
ſham'd, rob'd, plagu'd, it elides and garde;
in fail'd, pair'd, plain'd, aim'd, praiz'd, flow'd, follow'd,
or dhe like; it haz but to' elide: nor can doo
more, in fill'd, barr'd, plann'd, ſhamm'd, robb'd,
hwizz' d, buzz'd, bragg'd, and ſimmilar. Widh direct
articulation, t alone can combine. Dherfore hoped and
hopped, chafed and laffed, paced and paſſed, baked and
backed, joked, locked and looked; waſhed, watched, waxed,
coaxed and boxed; muſt, in contraction, be hop't,
hopt; chaſ't, laſt; pac't, paſt; bak't, bact; jok't, loct,
and lookt; waſht, watcht, waxt; coaxt, and boxt: hwich
can no longer be affraid to' appear dhus dhemſelvs; az
Orthoggraphy nevver did, or wil, prezent hop'd, hopp' d,
or dhe like incongruous combinations. If articculating
oppozites cannot combine, Appoſtrophs interpozal, hware
uſeles alike to' vocallity and articculacion; wood, between
direct and direct, but forbid a nattural and neſceſſary
aſſemblage. It muſt not pas unobzerved, dhat dhe
(direct) o ov don't and won't, iz duly opened and prolonged;
dhat dhe (ſhut) vowel ov can and ſhal, iz continnued
into' protraction in can't and ſhan't; hwich ar indeed
cahnt and ſhahnt; and dhat dhe (reſpective) vowel ov
am or ar, iz and waz, remains alike protracted in an't,
in't, wan't; really ahn't, ihn't, waun't: all familliar.

IN dhe beguinning ov dhe prezzent century, our language
waz moddeſtly (nor dhe les viggorouſly) advancing
to' her ſtandard; az Genius (raddher judgement) waz
graddually eliſciting principal from dhe practice ov unconſcious
Ellegance, hweddher in ſpeech or writing.
Among (oddher) ſubſervient pictures, Apoſtrophe appeared
in moddern, az in aincient, ſubſtitucion; in proze,
az wel az in verſe. Thaught, exactly painted, acquired
in boath inſtantaneous ennergy; Elizzion became evverihware
dhe ſervant ov Brevvity, and Rezon paſt into'
Rage. Won unqueſtionabel Crittic (for ſom ſtil wer)
proteſted againſt dhe indignities offered to' Apoſtrophe,
and dhe fammiliarrities uzed widh ſo dellicate a carracter.
Dhe Orrakel waz herd widh venneracion; but, like oddher
Orrakels, littel underſtood. Dhat Apostrophe
not be abuzed, ſhe waz annihhilated. Elizzion waz indiſcrimminately
exploded, az ſign-painting haz been
ſince; left, on edher hand, dhe obzerver ſhood be hurt
by ſuperfluous indication; or good wine ſeem adulterated,
by hanging out a booſh. Apoſtrophe, being dhe ſhaddow,
left dhe ſubſtance her ſubſtitute, dhe real prezzence to'
ſpeak dhe real abſence; but ſign-painting ſublimed into'
Iconoggraphy: dhe art ov writing, inſted ov drawing, a
picture. Dhe name ov dhe obnoxious immage more
dhan ſufficed to' dhe pious az polittical Iconnoclaſt; hoo
perhaps knew dhat (for ſom few ſubſtancial rezons) not
evvery hand cood paint after dhe life, nor evvery eye reccognize
intuitively (widh Juvenals) however like, dhe
blac-ſwan, or dhe green-draggon, dhe griffin, dhe
ſphinx, or dhe mermaid; dhe bel-ſavvage, or dhe bool--
and-mouth; dho dhe ſaid Iconoclaſt was very ſenſible
that (in dhis enlightened age and litterate land) every one
of whatever denomination (Briton, foreigner, cockney,
country-girl) could, without great ſcholarſhip, gueſs the
riddles: Black-Swan, Green-Dragon, Bell-Savage, Bull--
and-Mouth, with the others; as well as that the very
groſſeſt poſt-delineator, leſs familiar doubtleſs with creatures,
that never honoured this thence modeſtly
dreading to delineate, could have little heſitation to ſpell
them. This beautiful ænigmatic improvement of Learning,
has come early enough (however) to balance the whole
iniquity of Apoſtroph's abolition. Similar are the ſeveral
beauties of the preſent Britiſh preſs.
A WRITER formerly thought himſelf obleged, az wet
az entitled, to' number hiz verry ſyllabels, in hwatevver
ſtile. He need not now take dhe trubbel, even in verſe.
Printer (now) and Player, alike regardles, not onely
ov dhe author, but ov dhe reader or hearer; yet complimenting,
az trying, dhe attention ov edher; wil ſepparate
frends, dhe moaſt natturally apoitrophiz'd; and
wil dilate verſe (alas! often needleſly) into' indiſcrimminacion
from proze. So hear we and ſo ſee we, Par.
Loſt, B. vi. 135.
— Fool! not to think how vain,
Againſt the Omnipotent to riſe in arms!
— 878.
Diſburthened heaven rejoiced, and ſoon repaired
Her mural breach, returning whence ſhe rolled.
Par. Loſt, B. viii. 263.
And liquid lapſe of murmuring ſtreams: by theſe,
Creatures that lived, and moved; and walked, or flew.
— Fool! not to' think, how vain
Againſt dh' Omnipotent to' rize in arms!
Diſburden'd hevv'n, rejoic't, and ſoon repair'd
Her mural breach; returning hwence ſhe roll'd.
And licquid lapſe ov murm'ring ſtreams: by dheze,
Cretures, dhat livv'd, and moov'd; and walkt, or flew.
Dhe ſame pattent warrants dillatacion and contraction. If
a prezzent vowel may ſpeak its own abſence, dhe elider
can alone ſpeak its prezzence. No wonder exampels hav
alreddy occurred. Conſiſtence dherfore demands (Par.
Loſt, v. 846.)
The incens'd Father, and the incens'd Son.
Dh' incenſed Fahdher, and dh' incenſed Son.
Widh like fredom and eze may oddher works he reſtored
or reformed. Dhus, Popes:
Man, like the generous vine, ſupported lives
The ſtrength he gains, is from the embrace he gives.
To enjoy is to obey.
So modern apothecaries, taught the art,
By doctours' bills, to play the doctour's part.
or Gays:
Pudding the parſon eats, the eſquire loves hare;
But whitepot thick is my Buxoma's fare.
Pope and Ken may be contraſted, in reformation:
Ariſe, crowned with light; imperial Salem, ariſe!
Exalt thy towering head, and pierce the ſkies.
Wake, my ſoul! and with the ſun,
Thy daily ſtage of duty run.
Dhe innocent authors ment:
Man, like dhe genrous vine, ſuppoarted livs:
Dhe ſtrength he gains, iz from dh' embrace he guivs.
T' enjoy iz to' obey.
So moddern 'pottecaries, taught dhe art,
By doctos' bils, to' play dhe doctors part.
Poodding dhe parſon eats, dhe ſquire lovs hare;
But hwite-pot thic iz ny Buxoma's fare.
Rize, crown'd widh light; imperial Salem, rite!
Exalt dhy tow'ring hed, and pierce dhe ſkies.
Awake, my Soll! and, widh dhe Sun,
Dhy daily ſtage ov duty run.
Hwile dhe poet dhus alone can paint hiz own numbers;
it were devoutly to' be wiſhed (wer not dhiz
phraze hacneyed into' proffanacion) dhat pubblic ſpeakers
in proze, eſpeſcially divines, wood attend to' dhe
advice, hwich, dho peculiarly deſigned for dhem, dhey
hav ſo much neglected, and oddhers hav ſo littel underſtood:
not to' mutilate dhe moaſt ſollemn endings,
or to' enervate by rapiddity dheir higheſt ellocucion;
foolnes being alike neſceſſary to' ſpeak attenſion, and to'
command it: no more dherfore to' ſhrink pardoned
and adſolved, into' pardon'd and abſolv'd; dhan pardoneth
and abſolveth into' pardons and abſolvs. Among
dhoze hoo, to' avoid dhis neggligence, hav run into'
dhe oppozite extreme, ov continnuing dhe ſollemn into'
dhe familliar; appears to' hav been even dhe maſterly
SWIFT, hoo choze to' deny hiz dellicate ear dhe plezzure
ov enjoying, at leaſt in proze, dhe butifool tranſiſcion
ov dhe ſollemn aſpirate into' dhe cognate familliar ſibbilacion.
No wonder if inferior philollogers hav blindly
az defly (in order to' ſeem Grammattic) uzed invariably
hath and doth (not onely for havveth and dooeth, but) for
haz and doz.
Ov dhe compounding and decompounding ſervile, or
carracter, named HYPHEN or DIVIZZION.
HYPHEN iz dhat link or bar, hwich draws ſevveral
words into' won; and rezolvs anny word, ov
more fyllabels dhan won, into' its conſtittuent (but unſevverred)
parts. A ſyllabel muſt conſiſt ov vocallity and
articculacion, or ov vocallity pure. A word muſt dherfore
hav ſo manny ſepparabel members, called ſyllabels,
az it haz diſtinct emiſſions ov vocallity pure or articculated;
ſo manny ſyllabels, az ſepparate vowels effective,
or complete vocal ſounds. Words, uttered by like organs,
muſt be made in won manner, ov dhe ſame
materials; and ſubject to' dhe ſame laws ov articulation
or emiſſion, in all human language. A vowel dhen may
act pure (from all articculacion or organ): az A, indivizzibel;
Ai, ſvllabbicated A-i; Io, I--o; Eea, E-e-a.
A vowel may be articculated, or acted upon, by a ſimpel,
or by a compound, articulation; won, or combined
conſonants; az my, bleſt, frend. A conſonant, or an aſſemblage
ov conſonants; dhus ſmoodhly iniſcial, articculates;
or, ſmoodhly final, ſhuts; dhe vowel, and dhe ſyllabel.
I. A ſinguel conſonant, or an iniſcial aſſemblage between
vowels, articculates dhe latter; dhat iz, articculates
dhe vowel following, and ſo haz no connexion widh
dhe vowel before it. Dhus filing, Philo; later, Cato;
ableſt, Afra; fi-ling, Phi-lo; la-ter, Ca-to; a-bleſt,
Letters, dhat doo not neſceſſarily join, muſt be parted.
Such letters ar ov two kinds: dhoze dhat cannot join,
and dhoze dhat may. Ov dhe former ſort ar letters repeated.
Anallogy, Conſiſtence, Rezon (hwatevver dhe
name) doz northing in vain, doz northing dherfore by
more, dhat can be don by les; nevver typpifies (conſequently)
by two ſame ſymbols hwat can be expreſt by
won. No ſymbol dhen, az no ſound; can be dubbel in
dhe ſame ſyllabel: for hware ſimpliſcity ſuffices, duplication
wood ad but abſurdity. Dherfore
II. A dubbel conſonant muſt be divided: dhus filling,
Phillip; latter, battel; babbled, Affric and Africa
(alike independant ov dhe French Afrique, and ov dhe
Lattin Africa) widh afraid, az affray and afright; fil--
ling, Phil-lip; lat-ter, bat-tel; Af-fric, af--
fray, and ſo on. Ableſt and babbleſt ar now known to'
be contractives ov a-bel-leſt, and bab-bel-leſt. Irreffragabel
hav we long ſeen dhis eſtabbliſhment. In like
manner doutles oddher incombinabels: az pratler, ſadler;
prat-ler, ſad-ler; hwich ar but contractives ov
pratteller, ſaddeller; ſo partner and limner, az if ov
partener and limmener: widh; hymniſt,
hym-niſt; az limning, lim-ning; hymning, hym-ning,
and dhe reſt.
III. Conſonants, dhat may part, muſt part: it being
more nattural for a conſonant to' articculate or impel,
dhan merely to' ſhut or cloze a ſyllabel. Dhus tender,
number, and remembrance; hweddher primmitives (tranſplants
ov dhe French tendre, nombre, and remembrance)
or formatives ov dhe Ingliſh tend, numb, and remember;
muſt be divided ten-der, num-ber, and re-mem-brance
to' ſay, not tend-er, or dhe like, wer to' repeat. From
dhis doctrine may be drawn its inverſion:
IV. Vowels, natturally joined, cannot be parted: a
dipthong, a licquefaccion, a vowel and her ſervile. A
dipthong iz dhe union ov vocal ſounds; alike in I and
Oy (dhe old Yes) in line and loin, az in ile, oil, and
owl; in by, boy, and bwoy. But w, or its ſubſtitute
compreſſed) iz oo emboddied into' licquefaccion, or vocal
articculacion; dhat iz, a vowel, grocened into' a conſonant;
az in wall, quallity, lingual. So dhe oddher licquefaccion
combines dhe i and o ov ſtallion, az dhe
And o in yon. Notthing, on dhe contrary, joins dhe
vowels ov lion: hwich dherfore exemplifies dhe antiſcipated
Rule —
V. Vowels, not neſceſſarily joined, muſt be parted. Az
dhe Orthoggraphy ov aincient languages (except perhaps
dhat ov dhe Greek, and ov dhe Maſorettic Hebrew)
required no ſerviles, and evvery language haz its
own few vocal combinacions; vowels, meeting in aincient
names or terms, ar now, az formerly, to' be parted:
dhus Lais, Briſeis, Lois, Ackelous, Mennelaus,Ptollemais
and Ptollemaic, Judaic, Judaize and Judaiſm
ar La-is, and dhe reſt. So doutles laic and laity: dho
layman, lay-broddher, or dhe like, admit dhe Ingliſh
ſervile. Eneas iz followed by Eneid or Enneid (az differently
ſtreſſed); ſo Coos by Coan: nor doz dhe junccion
ov dhe vowels in dhe Ingliſh coin, cooper or boots,
preclude dheir ſepparacion in coincide, coopperate or
Bootes. Dhus differ loam and Silloam: Ardea and
Guinea, hwich haz hiddherto' paſt for dhe Ingliſh Guinny,
if not Guinnea, a propper compannion for cocoa.
But Guinea iz no more Guinnea or Guinny, dhan cacao
iz cocoa. Conſiſtently widh dhe preceding laws,
VI. Branches and Compounds prezerv dheir roots and
ſimpels. Dhus not onely codling dhe littel cod, and contractive
ov dhe coddelling appel; but haply, hwich doz
not indeed ſo obvious juſtice az wood happly, edher to'
itſelf or to' its parent (hap); or, az doz reply (in re-ply),
at wonce to' its conſtittuents and to' itſelf. So from
play, draw, and law; playing, drawer, lawyer; playing,
draw-er, law-yer: and ſo ar away, awry; a-way,
a-wry. Clear az hav kept dhe ſounds, muſt keep dhe
ſyllabels ov ſhepherd, goatherd, graſhopper; Clephan,
Clap-ham, Chatham, Bathurſt; Greſham, Peterſham,
Colehil: ſhep-herd, goat-herd, graſ-hop-per; Clep-han,
Clap-ham, Chat-ham, Bat-hurſt; Greſ-ham, Pe-terſham,
Coleſ-hil. Dhus dhe helples maltſter iz not dhe
hel-ples maltſ-ter; but dhe help-les malt-ſter, by dhe
ſame equal law. So, by prepozzitive or preppoziſcional
guidance, uphold; entruſt, inſpire, inſtil, inſtruct,
unſtiffen, unſtabel, unſtrung; eſtrainge; ſurprize, ſubſtitute,
deſtroy, diſtrain, diſtract, diſplay, diſpart, diſpoart,
diſtain, ſuſtain, abſtain; abſent, abſorb, abrogate,
abrupt; abridge; aſcend, deſcend, tranſcend,
tranſpire, tranſpoart, tranſact, tranſiſcion, tranſitory,
tranſom; exemplary exampels: up-hold, en-truſt, inſpire,
in-ſtil; in-ſtruct, un-ſta-bel; un-ſtrung,
e-ſtrainge; ſur-prize, ſub-ſti-tute, de-ſtroy, di-ſtrain,
diſ-tract, diſ-play, diſ-part, di-ſpoart, di-ſtain, ſuſ-tain,
abſ-tain, ab-ſent, ab-ſorb, ab-ro-gate, abrupt; a-bridge;
aſ-cend, de-ſcend, tran-ſcend, tran-ſpire, trans-poart,
tranſ-act, tranſ-iſ-cion, tranſ-i-to-ry, tran-ſom: ex-empla-ry
ex-am-pels. Nay, diſpenſing widh dhe firſt
law; upon; enabel, unabel, inabillity, diſabel, diſtintereſted,
diſeze, peradventure; counteract; ſuperintend,
ſurantler, ſubalmoner, ſubaltern, ſubordinate, ſuburb;
aberracion: widh ſuch (hwarevver compounded) propper,
az Abberyſtwith, Invereſk, Overyſſel: up-on, en-a-bel,
un-a-bel, in-a-bil-li-ty; diſ-a-bel, diſ-in-ter-eſ-ted,
(or diſ-in-te-reſt-ed); diſ-eze, per-ad-ven-ture, coun--
ter-act, ſu-per-in-tend, ſur-ant-ler, ſub-al-mo-ner,
ſub-al-tern, ſub-or-di-nate, ſub-urb; ab-er-ra-cion;
widh Ab-ber-yſt-with, In-ver-eſk, O-ver-yſ-ſel, and
dhe like. Centuries ago uppon appeared; hwich might
now ſeem to' transfer dhe ſtres, from dhe latter to dhe
former ſyllabel. Nor wood perruze for dhe prezzent
peruze (per-uze) prevent vulgar Indolence or Bluntnes,
from ſinking dhe licquefaccion to' per-ooz, az ſhe often
doz dhat ov rule to' rool: at hwich we can dhe les
wonder, if ſhe be ſo apt to' drop it even after a dental;
az hwen ſhe ſays, Noo toons ar doo from Soo; for New
tunes ar due from Sue.
NOT merely by dhis licence (ov duplication) hwich
haz its plauzibillity; but by a hoally new ſyſtem, haz
dhe late ingenuity ov Brittiſh ſyllabicacion exploded evvery
law ov human ſpeech. Dhe fundamental principel
proovs alike ſubverſive ov vocallity and ov articulacion

A formative ſyllabel (az) ing, ed, eth, es, er; ant,
al, ic, ive; ize, iſt; or anny ſeemingly complete raddical
part, muſt be ſevverred from dhe boddy ov dhe word.
A ſoarce! hwence iſſue dhe following limpid ſtreams:
1. A ſyllabel, nay an aſpirate, may be divided.
2. A conſonant between vowels may belong to' dhe
3. An open vowel may be conſtituted ſhut.
4. A ſoftened conſonant may continnue bard.
5. A dubbel conſonant may cloze a ſyllabel.
6. An iniſcial aſſemblage may alſo be final.
7. Articculacion iz not bound to' articculate.
8. We ar to' ſpeak, az we ſpel; not ſpel, az we
9. We ar howevver to' ſpel on, az no won evver did,
ſhood, or cood ſpeak.
A PEEP OV prezzent litterature, in compartments;
wil ſhow hwat may be produced in a field ſo wautered.
One deſ-cries with wond-er, ſome read-ers ſmil-ing;
where they ſhould rath-er prove ad-mir-ers. They come
well pre-par-ed, who hav al-read-y taſt-ed preſ-ent voc--
al-it-y abſ-ent, when the e-lid-er pleaſ-es; abſ-ent
voc-al-it-y preſ-ent, as mod-ern typ-o-graph-y fac--
il-it-ates verſ-if-ic-at-i-on. This nov-el ſyſt-em will
grat-if-y the ſtud-ent of lib-er-al op-in-i-ons; partic-ul-ar-ly
of lit-er-ar-y phil-o-ſoph-y. Noth-ing is
there meant farth-er than diſt-rib-ut-ive juſt-ice; than
laud-a-ble lic-ence, than the an-at-om-iſ-ing of form--
at-ive aſſ-embl-ag-es, aft-er the moſt ap-prov-ed
pract-ice of Brit-iſh ſyl-lab-ic-at-i-on. The divid--
ing ſcheme, of former ſchol-ars; dign-it-ar-ies, in--
fer-i-our clerg-y; judg-es, law-y-ers; auth-ors, tran--
ſlat-ors, writ-ers, crit-icks; has diff-uſeed in-vinc-i--
ble ſpells ov-er an-y poſſ-ib-il-it-y of ſpell-ing. De--
cyph-er-ers on-ly are cap-a-ble of di-ſpell-ing them;
ex-orc-iſts al-one of e-xorc-iſ-ing them. Pro-ceed--
ings thus deſ-truct-ive of lit-er-at-ure, of what-ev-er
is nam-ed rat-i-on-al ex-preſſ-i-on; are con-triv-anc--
es un-doubt-ed-ly di-a-bol-ic; are ſhack-les un-worth-y
the fav-our-ites, though deſ-piſ-ers, of nat-ure: thoſe
not-a-ble ge-ni-uſ-'s, whom the ig-nor-ant im-ag-ine
damn-a-ble dunc-es; who have in-veſt-ig-at-ed, il--
luſtr-at-ed, per-fect-ed, Engl-iſh phil-o-log-y: riv--
all-ing there-fore none oth-er than the learned pro-feſſ--
ors of Call-i-graph y, per-ad-vent-ure, the mag-ic-i--
ans of Ic-on-o-graph-y; un-it-ed-ly in-tit-ul-ed, the
tri-part-ite fat-al-i-ties of Con-un-drum: that bleſſ--
ed art-if-ice of mak-ing the per-uſ-er beſt-ow in--
tel-lect-u-al, rath-er than in-tu-it-ive, e-xert-i-ons;
where the mar-vel-ous, when poſſ-i-ble, un-rav-ell-ing
comes forth, the ver-y an-tip-ode of ev-er-y ORTH-O,
ev-er-y GRAPH-Y; as well as of ORTH-O-GRAPH-Y.
Ov dhis parragraph, entirely modiſh; evvery word
being miſdivided, miſrepprczented, or boath; dhe reverſe
may be az dezirabel, az dhe reverſal ov dhe principels,
on hwich it aroze. Dheze muſt fall at dhe revival
ov Natures laws, az Dagon before dhe Ark; ov
dhoze laws, irreverſibel az dheir Author; dhoze laws
we herd repromulged, az if reproductive ov dheir violacion;
yet. may ſee reviving dhus:
Won de-ſcries widb won-der, ſom rea-ders ſmi-ling,
hware dhey ſhood rad-dher proov ad-mi-rers. Dhey
com wel pre-pa-red, hoo hav al-red-dy ta-ſted prez--
zent vo-cal-li-ty ab-ſent, hwen dhe e-li-der ple-zes;
ab-ſent vo-cal-li-ty prez-zent, az mod-dern ty-pog--
gra-phy fa-cil-li-tates ver-ſi-fi-ca-cion. Dhis nov--
vel ſyſ-tem wil grat-ti-fy dhe ſtu-dent ov lib-be-ral
o-pin-nions; par-tic-cu-lar-ly, ov lit-te-ra-ry phi--
loſ-ſo-phy. Not-thing iz dhare ment far-dher dhan
diſ-trib-bu-tive juſ-tice, dhan lau-da-bel li-cence; dhan
dhe a-nat-to-mi-zing ov for-ma-tive aſ-ſem-bla-ges,
af-ter dhe moaſt ap-proo-ved prac-tice ov Brit-tiſh ſyl--
la-bi-ca-cion. Dhe di-vi-ding ſkeme, ov for-mer
ſcol-lars, dig-ni-ta-ries, in-fe-ri-or (or, by coaliſcion,
in-fe-rior); cler-gy, jud-ges, law-yers, au-thors, tranſ--
la-tors, wri-ters, crit-tics; haz dif-fu-zed (contractedly
dif-fuz'd) in-vin-ci-bel ſpels o-ver an-ny
poſ-ſi-bil-li-ty ov ſpel-ling. De-cy-phe-rers one-l ary
ca-pa-bel ov diſ-pel-ling dhem; ex-or-ciſts a-lone ov
ex-or-ci-zing dhem. Pro-ce-dings dhus de-ſtruc-tive
ov lit-te-ra-ture, ov hwat-ev-ver iz named raſ-cio--
nal ex-preſ-ſion; ar con-tri-van-ces un-dou-ted-ly di--
a-bol-lic; ar ſhac-kels un-wor-dhy dhe fa-vo-rites, dho
de-ſpi-zers, ov na-ture: dhoze not-ta-bel ge-ni-uſ-ſes
(or ge-niuſ-ſes), hoom dhe ig-no-rant i-mad-gine dam--
na-bel dun-ces; hoo hav in-veſ-ti-ga-ted, il-luſ-tra--
ted, per-fet-ted, Ing-liſh phi-lol-lo-gy: ri-val-ling
dher-fore non od-dher, dhan dhe ler-ned pro-feſ-ſors
ov Cal-lig-gra- phy; per-ad-ven-ture, dhe ma-giſ--
cians ov I-co-nog-gra-phy; u-ni-ted-ly en-ti-tel-led dhe
bi-partite fa-tal-li-ties ov Co-nun-drum: dhat bleſ--
ſed ar-ti-fice ov ma-king dhe per-u-zer be-ſtow in-tel--
lec-tu-al (coaleſcingly in-tel-lec-tual) rad-dher dhan
in-tu-i-tive, ex-er-cions; hware dhe mar-vel-lous,
hwen poſ-ſi-bel,un-ravvel-ling coms foarth dhe ver--
ry an-ti-pode ov ev-ve-ry OR-THO, ev-very GRAP-PHY,
az wel az ov OR-THOG-GRA-PHY.
Hyphen iz indiſpenſabel, equally to' ſenſe and ſound.
Like Apoſtrophe, it gards dhe vowel; like dhe ſibbilacion,
it ſubjoins propperty. Boath by elliptic tranſpoziſcion,
prefix dhe proprietor or ſpeſcifier: dhe ſibbilacion, deffinitely;
dhe link, indeffinitely. Dhus differ a mottoes
(or motto's) wit, and' motto-wit; Londons trade, and
London-trade; dhe Eddinburrough-Mercury, and dhe
Aberdeens Jurnal. Hwen dhe components, ceſing to'
be occazzional, ſettel in a ſtated compound; Hyphen
proovs uſeles, az Apoſtrophe: in draftſman and penman,
ſeedſman and oilman, or dhe like. In dhis clas iz
townſman, hwile town-man (dhe man much in town, or
for dhe town, or ov dhe town), town-clark, town-talk, ar
immediate or occazzional, and ſo hyphenned, compounds.
Nay, gownſman and gownman ar ſimmilarly
related and diſtinct. Dialects, joint az contries, ar oppozite
in like manner. Scotch ſays, dhe morrows (familliarly,
dhe morns) morning, Sundays night; hart-born,
hair-bredth (if not, az formerly, hair-bread), ſtone-caſt;
or harthorn, and ſo on; Ingliſh, to'-morrow-morning,
Sunday-night; hartſhorn, hairſbredth, ſtoneſcaſt. So
near, yet ſo diſtant, ar Peterſburg, and Peterburrough,
Kingſton and Queenburrough: nor les differ Queenſberry
and Queensferry, or dhe Queens-ferry (for ſibbilacion
and Hyphen ar not quite incompattibel) from dhe occazzional
King-ſtreet, Queen-ſtrreet, Princes-ſtreet, or dhe
like. Dhus dhe Iriſh Kings-county, Phillipſtown;
Queens-county, Mary-burrough. Dhe ſame bond, dhat
prefixes, may ſubjoin dhe ſpeſcifier; az in a poot-of, or
pootting-of; in dhe bringing-up dhe bringer-up, or dhe
bringers-up ov children, a fasſhion (if not faſcion), or
hwatevver elſe. But dhe action (or noun) alone requires
dhe link: for dhe verb (to' poot of, to' bring up) admits
not a fetter, dhat wood preclude dhe (poſſibel) tranſpoziſcion;
nor muſt we be denied dhe power, howevver
dellicate muſt be dhe practice ov (dhe familliar) of to'
poot, up to' bring, or dhe like. And ſo to' com in keeps
open, hwile dhe incom iz fixed; dhe verb (being) an iddiom,
dhe noun a compound.
Hyphen, dhus dhe link ov ſpeſcificacion, iz no les dhat
ov appoziſcion; az dhe moddher-wit, in dhe moddher-tung;
dhe queen-moddher, dhe lord-mayor, dhe warrior-ſteed,
or dhe flint-ſtone. Widhout dhis preſcious ty, wer loft
a tranſpozzitive and compozzitive buty, peculiar (perhaps)
to' ours among moddern languages; and in hwich
dhe Ingliſh rizes az much nearer to' dhe Greek, az doz
dhe French in oddher particculars. Yet if, according
to' dhe new, free, and ezy mode ov not merely decompounding,
but diſſolving our picturage; we may ſee and
ſhow a tea table, at a tea dealer's; a wine glaſs, at a
wine merchant's; a writing maſter, and writing paper;
a regiſter office, and a lord regiſter; a nurſe child, and
a man child; home conſumption, and a home thruſt; for,
a tea-tabel, at a tea-dealers; a wine-glas, at a wine-merchants;
a writing-maſter, and writing-paper; a redgiſter-office,
and a lord-redgiſter; a nurſe-child, and a
man-child; home-conſumpcion, and a home-thruſt; we
muſt receiv and return breaſt high, bomb proof, ſoul
thrilling, wide waſting, all deſtroying; breeze ſhaken,
tempeſt beaten, lightning ſtruck, hair hung, ſelf taught;
(all ov oddher, hware ov anny, impoart) for breſt-high,
boomb-proof, ſoll-thrilling; wide-waſting, all-deſtoy--

ing, breze-ſhaken, tempeſt-beaten, lightning-ſtruc,
hair-hung, ſelf-taught, and dhe like. But, dho dhe
ſtanding Orrakels ov lngliſh Philollogy hav hiddherto'
ſhown dhemſelvs ignorant, ov a principel
demonſtrated manny years ago by dhe ſame inveſtigator;
dhat, in our free diccion, Evvery verb may becom
noun, evvery noun a verb; nay, dhat, by dhe exempcion
ov Ingliſh parts ov ſpeech from anny fixt endings, Evvery
word, or aſſemblage ov words, may be held edher
noun or verb; dhey muſt hay been ſenſibel, dhat ſuch
combinacions az watch tower, or ſtuddy dore, ſeem raddher
direct iddioms, dhan inverted compounds, for watchtower
or ſtuddy-dore,
And, hwen up ten ſteep ſteps yoo'v drag'd yoor
Juſt at dhe ſtuddy-dore he'l bles yoor eyes.
Yet, dhoze hoo hold now evvery reggular or diſtinctive
ty ſuperfluous; nay, banniſh evvery appoſtroph, or elizzion,
but hware idel or worſe; wil not over-tamely admit
a hyphen, to' join a ſubſtantive and its adjective,
ſuppoſed alreddy inſepparabel; merely to' link dhem
cloſer in a peculiar (perhaps primmitive) ſenſe: to' ſhow
forſooth! (hwat not all optics ar quallified to' diſcern)
dhat freſh-butter may happen, not to' be freſh butter;
common-ſenſe, not to' be common ſenſe; or evvery
poor-ſcollar, (to be) a poor ſcollar, more dhan evvery
homme pauvre (to' be) a pauvre homme (hware
omme in edher caſe iz dhe word); dhat ſimmilarly ar
diſtinct a captain-genneral, and a genneral captain; dhe
boddy-pollitic, and dhe pollitic (or even dhe polittic) boddy.
Much les can indulgence be expected for ſuch ſeeminglv-tautolodgic
or capriſcious compounds az ſelf-ſame,
or true-blue; hwich unlinkt hav a different meaning, or
no meaning at all.
IF dhus DHE divizzion (az dhe Printers natturally name
a carracter, hwich in its oddher capaſcity dhey ſeem les
willing to' own) be ſo dellicately recquizite for annalyzing
a word, ſimpel or compound; no les iz dhe hyphen impoartant
for joining words togueddher, and aſcertaining
in ſuch aſſemblage dhe happieſt power ov Ingliſh diccion;
hweddher in dhe tranſpozal or appoziſcion ov ſpeſcifiers;
hwich ſomtimes run in a ſeries, each ſubſequent ſpeſcifier
conſtituting part ov dhe object to' dhe preceding.
Not to' multiply exampels, hwich evverihware occur;
dhe Evening-Poaſt, dhe London-Evening-Poaſt; dhe
Daily-Advertizer, dhe New-Daily-Advertizer, much
more dhan ſuffice. But ſuch ſpeſcificacion, ſo natturally
ſucceſſive, cannot alſo be collatteral: hyphen admits
no oddher coppulative. Dhus a ſign-painter,
a ſignpoaſt-painter, a coach-painter, a houſe-painter,
ar fair and clear exhibiſcions: but a houſe and coach-painter
ſpeak two objects; dhe houſe, and dhe inhabbitant:
az a boot and ſhoomaker convey onely dhe
uncooth combination ov a boot, and dhe maker ov a
ſhoo. Yet, how far beyond dhis unindulgeabel licence,
iz dhe far-newer libberty, dhat diſdains all ty; dhat often
hacking unmercifoolly, az we ſaw, a hoal into' pieces,
abhors evvery union ov component parts; nor onely ſo
mangling dhe diffected members, but precluding dhe annimated
and entire from coaleſcing into' raſcional life.
Hwile dhus dhe writ-ing, paper and maker ar all dilac-er-at-ed
togueddh-er; in dhe writing paper maker,
iz prezented an aſſemblage ov incoherent, if unmutilated,
nonſenſe; merely for want ov dhe links indiſpenſabel to'
dhe writing-paper-maker. Widh like humannity dhen
doo we treat our words, and our horſes; diſmemberring
and diſſociating dhem, on a plan entirely our own; a
plan! equally calculated to' improov dhe buty and dhe
DHE redundance and defiſcience hiddherto' diſgracing
az darkening dhe picturage ov Ingliſh vocallity,
being now pretty equally exhibbited; Orthoggraphy (to'
complete her plan) haz onely to' rectify dhe miſrepprezentacion
intrinſic: dhat, hwich iz independant ov quantity
or concommitance. Five open vowels, and az manny
ſhut, proteſt againſt dhe continnuance ov dheir repprezentatives.
Dhe former: A ſlender, and A braud;
E, ever ſlender; O direct, and O depreſſive: dhe latter;
A ſlender, E, I, U, and OO.
1. A ſlender, open.
BY E iz A ſlender belied in elevven: tear, bear,
wear, ſwear; pear; great; break, ſteak; ere, where,
and there: in evvery won ov hwich A can ſafely (az ezily)
play its own part, widh a no les nattural ſervile. Unexcepcionabel
alike, and indiſpenſabel, dhus ar: tair,
bair, wair, ſwair; braik, ſtaik, and grait; nay, widhout
chainge ov ſervile, are, hware, dhare. If pair be
alreddy a cuppel; peir from poire, joining eir from oir
(vulgarly ſtil ſeen heir and hoir) wil equally own relacion
to' perry; its apparent ofspring, dho really dhat ov
poiré. So beir, dhe annimal, ſafe az innocent in coincidence
widh bair dhe verb, and bare dhe adjective; wil
ſave at wonce appearances and reallities in dhe (Cerberus-like)
accompaniment ov peir, pair, and pare. Nor
wil won ov dhe elevven clas anny more, even in ſemblance,
widh here, hear, ſpeak, or neat. Dho Anallogy
indulge dhe ſubſtitucion ov e for a widh i ſervile, in a
dozzen oddher diſtinctives, and a few ettymolodgicals;
nedher the nor her ſiſter can longer permit heinous, ſo
hainouſly to' falſify dhe Ingliſh hainous, more dhan dhe
French haineux. Veil wood raddher ſhow, dhan covver,
boath parental and perſonal merrit; but, not havving won
compannion, to' keep her (dres) in countenance; vail,
widh manny offices, and not dhe fewer frends, iz not
dhe les likely to' prevail; unrivalled in identity, but by
dhe umbel vale, dhe dignified valley.
2. A braud, open.
GROCE haz been dhe decepcion ov anoddher elevven;
hware O haz long (dho not always) falſified A braud:
ought, nought, bought, fought, ſought, thought, wrought,
brought, drought: dheze nine for aught, naught, baught,
faught, ſaught, thaught, wraught, braught, draught:
now really and truly aut, rout, and dhe reſt. Hwat,
dho aught be ſtil dhe morral pretterite ov ow, and dhe
ellegant (az old) equivvalent ov annithing? Hwat, dho
naught (widhout violence) unite notthing and naughtines?
If draft, ov evvery kind, be now onneſt; ſhal
draught (or draut) drines, be les ſo? Ov dhe oddher
two ſallacious oddities, hwatevver hav kept groat dhe
verry current grout; dhe Greek ϐραδύς, (bradys) fool az
nattural a parent ov braud az ov tardus, haz exerted but
a ſluggiſh authorrity, in ſuffering ſo long its Brittiſh ofſpring
edher to' be ſeen or herd broad. Be dhe parents
hoo dhey may; dhey muſt diſown ſuch children, az know
not even how to' look like dhemſelvs.
3. E open.
FOARTEEN at leaſt ar dhe falſifiers ov E. Twelv hav
ſtrennuoully maintained dhe French repprezentative; inſiſting,
dhat children born in won contry muſt hav, not
onely dhe ſelf-ſame boddy, but dhe identic ſoll widh
parents dhe natives ov anoddher. Az dhe French chagrin
chagrine, haz fairly tranſmitted our ſhagreen, hwich
might az wel ſhagrene; no les aſſuredly and indiſpenſably
muſt marin, marine; magaſin, machine, cantine,
police, and caprice; widh friſe, pique, antique, intrigue,
and fatigue; abov all, obliger and oblige; expect our
dooing like juſtice to' dheir az legittimate prodgeny:
mareen or marine, maggazeen or maggazene, maſheen,
or meſhene, canteen or cantene; and, if ſtil preferred
to' pollity, polece dhe condign compannion ov caprece;
az dheze ov freze, widh friez (perhaps) diſtinctive
elſehware dhan in Friezland. So, from peak
may be ſeemingly ſevvered peek, or peke; dho
dhey be joined neſceſſarily by anteek or anteke, intregue,
fategue, and oblege; ſevveral ov hwich hav dared
alreddy to' confes dhe truith. If ſhagreen confes now
no oddher; breeze, freeze, and league hav long ſet a far
from uneddifying exampel. Intreague and fateague
ſhowed dheir onneſt face in an onneſter dhan dhe hiddherto'
eighteenth century; in hwich dhey hav been
compelled to' rezume a falſe won, becauz it waz dhe
true face ov dheir parents. Reddily wil dhey dherfore
return to' dhat Leader they ſo reluctantly left; proud
wonce more to' fight under her banner, in her ſimpleſt
uniform; dhat ov breze, freze; legue, intregue and fategue;
rejoicing peculiarly in dhe recovery ov oblege,
ſo long, ſo egregiouſly perverted; dho obligatory and obligacion,
vocally nevver gon aſtray, can hav no
need ov return. Won word, ov different orrigin, and
more ainciently, az more natturally Ingliſh, haz made
dhe ſame falſe ſubſtitucion. We ſay ſhere, and ſee ſherrif:
by hwat cauz doo we write ſhire? I might primmitively
and univerſally picture, hwat it ſtil doz hwen
ſhut or febel, dhe prezzent Ingliſh ſound ov e. But
dhis it cannot hwen ſtrong. Yorkſhire might repprezent
Yorkſhere; but knight ov dhe ſhire can on no Ingliſh
principel be elected knight ov dhe ſhere. Dhe juſt
picture dhen ov dhe ſhere or county, denies him nedher
to' ſhear hiz ſheep, nor to' deal hiz ſheer wit to' dhe
ſhearers. Meat, or mete, iz not more meet; but nevver
wil be mite. Shal we improov dhen by halvs? Shal
we be dellicately attentive to' evvery ſort ov ſhear; and
evverithing ſheer; and ſhal we ſuffer evvery ſhere ov dhe
kingdom to' remain miſrepprezented? Or, ſhal we continnue
to' paint cede, widh ſom ov its compounds fairly;
and, by dhe inverted ſervile (in ceed) ſtrike oddhers out
ov dhe fammily? Can won precede, and anoddher proceed;
won accede, and anoddher ſucceed In dhe Weſtern-Brittiſh
contries, hware e ſo gennerally opens into'
a, we need not wonder if key (at London herd kee) be
even affected cay, hwen ſo countenanced by dhe parent
quay or quai (for cai). But, if dhe hwarf or key ov
dhe ſhore, may be ſo warpt; clef or clé may, widh
equal rezon, ſay I am dhe key ov dhe dore. But dhe
vowel waz before ſecured, widh its articculacion.
4. O direct, open.
O's falſe ſubſtitutes ar (perhaps) reducibel to' nine;
in fix ov hwich e haz hiddherto' ſtickelled to' keep dhe
place the wonce lawfoolly pozeſſed. But, az dhis ſhe
can no more, dhe licquefier ov dhe firſt, havving left dhe
oddher five, muſt prefix dhe ſepparate form. Dhus ar
now varied ew, ſew, ſhew, ſtrew, and Shrewſbury, dho
dhe ſhrew hav kept unchainged. Dhe citty howevver iz
becom Shrowſberry; widh yow, ſow, ſhow and ſtrow;
hwile dhe vocal-licquid haz ezily paſt into' dhe aſpiracion
in ſewer, now ſhower, contracted ſhow'r; coincident
widh dhe agent ov ſhow, and ſomtimes confounded in
ſemblance (az identic in ſound) widh ſhore. Beau and
beaux may in boa and boas appear ſtil exottics, widh proa
and cocoa; but onely in boe and boes, can dhey commence
Ingliſhly raſcional az dheir ccozzens flamboe (or
flambow) and buroe. Manteau, not Manitua, havving
guivven titel to' dhe ſilk; dhe maker ov mantoes (or
mantows) wil hav dhe onnor ov leading dhe faſhions at
dhe coart of Truith, hwen under ſo glorious pattronage
ſhe announces herſelf a Mantoemaker (or Mantowmaker):
Paduaſoy iz a ſimmilar falſificacion ov Podeſoy, dhe Ingliſh
ofspring ov dhe French Poudeſoie. Dhe Itallian cittics
ar much obleged to' Affectacion, for havving ſo long
complimented dhem at her own expence. Guided by
Ettymollogy, ſhe had no biznes widh dhe ſound; and a
ſtrainger to' Anallogy waz not likely to' know, dhat a
mantel, mantoe, or cloke, waz probbably dhe firſt ſilken
taſk ov dhe Ingliſh Mantoemaker.
5. O depreſſive (OO), open.
Dhe O ov dhe ſucceſſive barbarians quho and who, and
even ov two, waz long direct; az merely articculated by
dhe embracing depreſſive. Dhis brand licquefier howevver
melted, not unnatturally, into' dhe depreſſive vowel:
or raddher, came to' ſink in dhe o it natturally depreſſed;
ſo rendering dhe word really twoo or two'; az much
more ſafely attended by dhe ſervile or its proxy, az too or
to' iz exacter dhan to; or az hwoo or hoo, dhan hwo.
Yet, az dhe numeral iz now ſeldom, and dhe pronoun
often, in dhe old guize, provincially uttered in dhe
old (direct) manner; dhe latter iz here ſecured in hoo,
and dhe former continnued even widhout dhe ſervile.
1. A ſlender, ſhut.
DHE ſhut ſound ov A ſlender, iz affected by E in
clerk; hoo haz not clergy enuf to' know, dhat clerk iz
eſſencially nearer to' dhe immediate parent clerc, even
to' hiz parent clericus or clerus: a truith, hwich dhe onneſt
oldfaſhioned ſurname haz rezzolutely maintained.
Shal Hertfordſhire perſiſt in falſifying evvery part ov dhe
butifool Hartfoardſhere; and ſhal dhe injured Hart not
venture to complain; or can dhe hart, not inhuman,
continnue dhe cauz?
2. E ſhut.
Ov dhe ſhut vowels, E iz not dhe leaſt impoartantly
endaingered; dho, like a, perhaps onely by r. Dhis
ruf licquid, ſhutting dhe moaſt dellicate vowel, may
ezily coarſen it into' dhe cognate u ſhut: a ſound, az peculiarly
Ingliſh, peculiarly indulged in dhis ſittuacion.
Hence dhe truly vulgar confuzion ov her and Hur, verſe
and vurſe, or even worſe; berth (bairing) ov a ſhip, and
birth (vertually berth) nativvity or ofspring. No wonder
we ſee and hear ſuch combinacions az erth and
worth, verſe and curſe, from ſom ſuppozed happy verſifiers.
Dhus haz vertue herſelf been viſciated, widhin dhe
prezzent century, into' virtue, dhat iz vurtue; by ſuch
ſpeakers, az, perceiving no difference, took virtus to'
be dhe parent, for want ov knowing vertu; dho equally
unacquainted widh dhe native ſound ov edher, had
edher French or Lattin been annithing to' dhe purpoſe.
Hwile dhus nedher virgo nor vierge, but domeſtic dellicacy
alone, can fix dhe former vowel ov virgin; dhat
vowel haz evver alſo. expreſſively had a finer and coarſer
emiſſion. Dhis iz particcularly obzervabel in a joccular
line of Niccolas Rowley, az quoted by hiz fiend Bisſhop
Si pulchra eſt, virgo; ſin turpis, vurgo vocetur.
hwich may be moddernized by dhe aid ov a far more cellebrated
Sweet VIRGIN can alone dhe Fair expres,
Fine by degrees, and butifoolly les:
But, let dhe hoiden, homely, ruf-hewn VURGIN,
Engroce dhe ommage ov a Major-STURGEON.
Like Learning, hawing ſeen perhaps burgum, if
nevver bourg; and found dhat burgh, or borough,
might (with beautiful diſtiinction!) repprezent burrow;
cood ſee no rezon hwy bury ſhood not (by equally nice
diſtinccion) repprezent berry, if indeed dhe coincidence
waz deſcried. But, now dhat we beguin to' hear, az
wel az to' ſee; and to' diffinguiſh widh dhe eye ov dhe
mind, no les dhan widh dhe eye ov dhe boddy; we ſhal
no more dout our ears, dhan our eyes, hwen dhey equally
tel us, dhat widh berry dhe fruit, dhe town and dhe
verb (boath uſurping hiddherto' dhe ſemblance ov bury)
may and muſt widhout collizzion coincide. Berry dhus
reſtored to' her evvery pozeſſion, encroaches no more
on Bury, or Bewry, dhe propper. Lerning ſeems not
howevver to' hav been lerned enuf, hwen ſhe wrote, and
red, and rim'd, again az a compound ov gain. Cood
ſhe hav herd dhe real (az ſhe now may) aguen; ſhe wood
hav thought άγαν (agan) excedingly or exceſſively, dhe
fool az nattural parent, az ναί (nai) ov dhe Lattin nae;
or az γαρ (gar), ov dhe French car. Hwen it coms to'
be divined (and digeſted) dhat Mr. dhe abbreviacion ov
iz no diminnutive ov Maſter, but a mere varriacion
ov dhe old French Meſſer; an Ingliſh company ov
Gentelmen wil ſcarce affect dhe titel Meſſieurs, til a ſimmilar
French aſſemblage beguin to' aſſume dhe name,
ſtile, and titel ov Meſters: hwich muſt happen, dhe
moment dhey catch an equal facculty ov diſcerning dhat
an Ingliſh word iz better French dhan a French won.
3. I ſhut.
I ſhut iz ſcandalized onely by men, hoo ar too profound
to' ſuffer wimmen to' tel dhus dhe truith? az it
waz told in former ages (for inſtance, by dhe Nutbrown
Maid), and az it iz aguen in a fair way ov
being exhibbited by evvery won hoo feels not dhe
foarce ov dhe argument: Becauz WOOMMAN haz
been long repprezented WOMAN; dherfore WIMMEN
muſt continnue to be repprezented by dhe (verry) reggular
picture WOMEN! Dhoze deep (az deſ) grammarians,
hoo ſo argue, ar alone quallified to' proov dhat buſy may
typpify bizzy; conſequently buſines boath bizzines dhe
abſtract, and biznes dhe occupacion; nay indeed, dhat
dhey can repprezent even buzzy and buzzines or buznes;
howevver more ſpeciouſly dhey may in remote corners
hav gennerated, dho nohware widhout pain, ſuch buzzers.
But, ov all dhe repprezentacions, non iz half ſo
ſtrainge, if non ov equal ſtanding, az dhat hwich ſpeaks
a kingdom, hoo haz been a thouzand years dhe rival ov
dhe moaſt polliſhed kingdom on erth, a ſtrainger to'
her own verry name, or determined dhat oddher nacions
ſhal remain ſtraingers to' it; conſequencially, to' dhe
verry name ov her language in dhe (now) higheſt pitch
ov refinement. But can INGLAND and INGLISH (by
hwatevver cauz) pas on, edher at home or abraud, in dhe
ſemblance ov England and Engliſh; hwen Spain and
Ittaly hav ſo long diſcovvered, nay divulged, dhe truith
in Inglaterra and Inghilterra? Shal Spanniſh and Itallian,
in vocallity az wel az articculacion, continnue dhe
onely dantles moddern frends ov litterary Truith? Angleterre
iz howevver az natturally dhe French, az Anglia
can be dhe Lattin name. Anceſtral Anguels gennerated
boath. Angland dherfore and Angliſh, obviouſly annalodgic,
ar quite az faithfool pictures az England and
Engliſh; dho' dhe cunning Antiquary may wel ſettel
prezzent picturage, by producing Engelonde az Engeliſche,
from dhe delectabel poeſy ov dhe middel ages.
4. U ſhut.
REPPETISCION ſpoils paſt, Anticipacion future plezzure.
Yet here it may be hinted, dhat U ſhut haz indiſputabel
az indiſpenſabel proxies in a hwirling world.
If we know dhen dhat ir iz vertually ur, unles dhe r be
repeated by ſuch an irrevvocabel ſpirrit az Pyrrhus (Pyrrus);
or by ſuch a mirrakel az Myrrha (Myrra); we
need not now be told dhat O haz gennerouſly forgon evvery
ſhut power ov its own, in order to perform A braud
ſhut, hware dhe latter cannot itſelf; and u ſhut, hware
braud aſks no ſubſtitute. But, dho dhe figgure o perſonates
u ſhut often before dhe licquids; it cannot in tongue for
tung, or in dhe penultimate ov colour, color; not even
ov collor, hwich wood inevvitably claſh, or raddher coincide
widh collar; az wood tongue widh tong. Couleur
iz queſtionles dhe parent: but hwat iz dhe child? Cullor.
Non wil object to' dhe neſceſſary u ov dhe ſtrong
ſyllabel, but dhoze hoo wood hug dhe ideller in dhe
weak. Dhe ſame o depreſſive dhat ſhifted from couleur,
into u ſhut in cullor; haz varied in length ov time from
dhe wonce Ingliſh boozom, ſoot, blood, and flood, into'
dhe ſelf-ſame u ſhut, in dhe prezzent buzzom, ſut, blud,
and flud; hwich can nedher cheat nor chainge anny
5. OO ſhut.
Hoo wood imadgine, dhat O ſhut, havving no oddher
direct employment, dhan dhat ov dooing duty for frends;
ſhood find won ov dhe two ſo ungratefool, az to' uzurp
dhe place ſhe cool not fil, ov dhe ſaid O ſhut in depreſſion;
dhat iz ov OO ſhut or ſhort; in eighteen heds ov
Ingliſh fammilies; to' dhe equal dettriment ov dhat gennerous
vowel, and deluzion ov dhe ingennuous reader?
Yet dhis haz u found means to' perpetrate, almoaſt evver
ſince dhe ſound ov ou French (hwich iz oo Ingliſh) waz
impoarted; in dhe inſiddious ſemblance ov pull, pully,
pullet, pulp, pulpit; bull (widh bully az wel az bulloc)
bullet and bulwark; full (widh its evvery branch and
compound, az fuller and Fulham); butcher, put, pudding;
puſs; puſh, buſh, ambuſh, buſhel, and cuſhion.
CAN it be douted, or denied, dhat dheze falſifiers hav
beguiled all Scotland, grait part ov Ireland, no ſmall
poarcion ov Ingland; put and butcher at leaſt, eſpeſcially
dhe former, thouzands in dhe verry cappital ov dhe
united kingdoms? No les howevver iz it certain, dhat
even dhe ignorant and dhe artles; perhaps, chiefly dhoze
two claſſes, in dhe Metroppolis and her circumjacencies;
hav, by dint ov hearing, and not ſeing, or not minding;
prezerved evvery member ov dhis belied clas, in a purity,
hwich (dho unimadginabel) cannot continnue, far
les extend, widhout dhe propper picture: pool, poolly,
poollet; poolp, poolpit; bool (boolloc, boolly), boollet, boolwark;
fool (widh fooller, Foolham, and dhe reſt); bootcher,
poot, poodding; pooſe (like gooſe); pooſh, booſh,
ambooſh, booſhel, and coosſhon. If dhe orrigin ov pool,
bool; or pooſe, wer found not French; and boulevart (or
boulevard) dhe child or collatteral, not parent, ov boolwark;
ſuch diſcovvery wood not affect dhe prezzent doctrine;
ov hwich dhe object iz not orrigin, but identity.
Dhis oo, ſhut and ſhort, muſt queſtionles, hware
poſſibel, appear ſo. Senſe wil ſecure dhe ſhort
pool and fool from dhe long: poolling and fooling, like
pootting and footting, wil ſecure dhemſelvs. Dhus
woomman and human can no more chime dhan footting
and hooting, or foot and hoot; dho (the vowels differ
but in degree. Dhe ſhort fool iz obvious in Foolham,
now ſtrikingly oppozite (to') Putney; hware may be dhe
contry-put, and hiz coinciding game.
Dipthongs and licquefaccions miſrepprezented.
DHE dipthongs ar ſeldom diſguized but in dhe interjeccion
Ay for Oy, in edher capaſcitv; and in cucumber, long fruitleſly
to' rezembel cucumer; az knowing no more
its real parent coucombre, dhan itſelf dhe coucumber. Dhe
vocal licquids, hwich ar nedher vowels nor conſonants, dho
boath, hav not eſcaped (az hwat carracter or clas ſhal hope
to' eſcape?) miſrepprezentacion. Centuries ago dhe ſlender
licquefier (y) by hwatevver cauz or nattural varriacion, zigzagged
itſelf, particcularly in Scotland, into' coincidence
with Z. Yule waz pictured Zuil. Year, yet, and yeſter, appeared
zeir, zet, (or zit) and Zeſter. Dhe dale ov Yel,
and dhe ſon ov Kenyie, (unlicquefied Kenny) littel Kennet
(not Kenneth; being but a varriacion ov Cannute, az Ken
ov Can) compounded dhe ſurnames Dalzel and Mackenzie.
A retwiſt ov dhe z into' y, wood ſave dhe names
Dalyel, Mackenyie, or dhe like; az Yule, Yeſter, and
oddhers hav been ſaved. We ſaw hware dhe brand licquefier
(oo emboddied into w) muſt or may be proxied
by u in equallity ov language. After b it waz ſhown
impracticabel even in dhe ſinguel buoy; hwich, for dhe
onely poſſibel bwoy, ſurely dhe French parent bois nevver
cood ſeem to' countenance.
LATTIN had no licquefying ſymbols: i and u wer
ezily emboddied. Dhus did abiete, ariete, looz a ſyllabel,
hwen ſquezed into' abjete, arjete, and dhe like.
Quâ linguâ ſuadeo! French adopted y, nomminally, az
raddicallv, Greek; but coincident widh her own, az widh
Greek and Lattin i. Y became dhus (az in yeux) her
inizſcial licquefier; and before n, y varied into' g, waz
conjured into' dhe licquefier after it; in dhe French campagne,
az in dhe Itallian campagna; Greek and French
ar too harmonious, to' admit dhe braud liquefaccion after
a pallatal. Ingliſh followed Lattin in her linguel
quallity. Not dhus braudened Greek, even after dhe
ſibbilacion. Dhe Lattin perſuadere ſeduced (at leaſt
induced) dhe French perſuader, and its fellows, into'
dhe ſinguel deviacion from dhat revival, hwich French
alone haz made ov Grecian mellody. But Ingliſh haz
required (and acquired) dhe Teutonnic w; in wade,
wage, wag, ſwag, ſwage, Swede, Swis, and dhe reſt.
Shal we dhen be perſuaded into' annv aſſwagement ov
ſorrow, for havving (latterly) affected to' relinquiſh (in
perſuade, aſſuage, or dhe like) dhe advancements ov
our Litterature expanding to' Anallogy? If aught perſuade
us to' rejoin Suede and Suiſſe, we muſt uade dhe
Suale and dhe Suin; inſted ov wading dhe Swale and
dhe Swin. Suavity muſt be joined by ſueetneſs, if not
ſweetnes by ſwavvity. Lattin, ezily az indiſpenſably,
licquefied Suetonius: Ingliſh, finding in u after s, dhe
ſlender licquid prezented, cannot dream ov attempting
dhe braud, in army oddher dhan Swetonius.
DHE vowels cood not be rectified, unles dheir ſerviles
wer ſo. Secured waz dhus: 1. A braud in
braud itſelf and grant; 2. A ſlender open, in grait,
wair; peir, beir; and dhe reſt: 3. A ſlender--
ſhut prolonged in ſahce, and ſahſage, better ſahceage:
4. O direct in ſoll, roll, and controll;
dore, flore, and more; or doar, floar, moar: in foar,
foarteen, ſoarce, coart, gourd; coarſe, coarce; moarn,
boarn, foarm: 5. O depreſſive, in doo, ſhoo, canoo,
Room; moov, proov, behoov, looz; yoo, yooth, uncooth,
goold; in toor, amoor, accooter; and in dhe ſhut or ſhort
ſoop, groop; cood, ſhood, wood; widh pool, poot, and
dhe reſt: dhus e no more attending dhe depreſſive, o
dhe direct, or u edher emiſſion.
Dhe ſubſtitucion ov conſonants.
PRECLUZION authorizes dhe unprecluded;
conſequently, evvery ſubſtitucion, dhat haz not been
ſhown erroneous. Dho ſound can now no more appropriate
ſymbol, dhan ſymbol ſound; nedher uſeles nor
unplezing, wil be a ſuccinct vew ov dhe ſubſtitucional
indulgences, hwich Ingliſh Orthoggraphy may continnue
hweddher to' Ettymollogy or Diſtinccion. No articculating
power haz two pictures, but dhe ſibbilacion, boath
direct and depreſſive (s and z). Ov dhis dhe diſcrimminating
eye boaſts (the twofold convenience in ſeed and
cede, ſeal and ciel; ſean, ſeen, and ſcene; Sion and
ſcion or cion, ſite and cite, ſit and cit, ſignetd and cygnet,
conſort and concert; in ſeſſion and ceſſion, az in ſupererſede
and intercede. If evvery licduid, dho inclining to' dhe
depreſſive, melts into' dhe power ov its concommitant
(preceding or following) articculacion; dhe ſibbilant challenging
dhis facculty beyond anny ov dhe (oddher) four
(l, r, n, m) dhat pozes each but won figgure, begs leve,
hweddher after an open vowel in final formative capaſcity;
or widh a depreſſive conſonant, to' retain dhe direct
form clodhing dhe depreſſive power: az in lays, ideaes
or idea's, lies, joys, and vows; ſo in Piſgah, Pegſy
from Pegs; in Fans and Fanſy; ſtil more endearing dhan
Peg or Peggy, Fan or Fanny. Dhis dellicate az diminnutive
ending (y or ey) haz like depreſſive effect in primmitives
or formatives; az in flimſy, clumſy, linſey-wool--
ſey, kerſey; ſo in palſy, panſy, frenſy, Jerſey: vertually
(ſomtimes vizzibly) flimzy, frenzy; nor widh les rezon
dhe reſt. Not ſo (howevver) controverſy or purſy;
hwich accompany verſe and purſe (az wel az controverſia,
controverſe and pouſſif); unchangeabel dherfore az dhe
oppozite perſon and Curzon, ranſac and Dantzic. No
more can dhe Ingliſh dammaſcene, dhan dhe French
cramoiſi, forbid dhe appearance ov damzen or crimzen;
dho damoiſelle (now demoiſelle) ſhood proov a ſtil more
ſpecious preſcedent for dhe damſel, les obviouſly inviolabel
dhan damzel. Venaiſon makes up an ezy titel to'
veniſon, widh Ettymollogy; hoo, knowing juſt az much
ov venzen az ov venzon; and ſo no more ſuſpecting
won dhan dhe oddher (to' be) dhe real word; ſtil thinks
dhat venatio, dhe more vennerabel parent, might more
authenticate venation. Out ov her connizance, and ſo
out ov apprehenſion (from her kindnes), ar equally ſuch
compounds as Benſon and Simpſon, Belſon and Polſon, or
Pearſon widh hiz Gaulic ofspring Macpherſon; az Jobſon,
Hodgeſon or Hudſon: widh Anſon, Anſel handſel,
handſom, gameſom, hoalſom, tireſom; and ſuch ſimpels
as penſile, penſive, compulſive, deterſive, az Anſelm, ranſom,
and dhe reſt.
Two pictures indeed haz dhe aſpirate, az wel as dhe
ſimpel ſibbilant. No powers being ſo cognate (dhat iz,
ſo near a-kin) as aſpiracion and licquefaccion; dhe latter
muſt proov dhe nattural ſubſtitute ov dhe former. Dhus
ar naſhon and nacion, nasſhional and naſcional; condisſhon,
and condiſcion, condisſhonal and condiſcional, reſpectively
equivvalent. On equivvalents Ettymollogy decides; ſo
in-favor ov dhe latter, in dhe abov: nacion and naſcional,
condiſcion and condiſcional. Ov Baaſha and Aſpaſia ſhe
equally approovs; littel dreaming dhat dheir terminacions ar
coincident. Hware ch, by ſittuacion, drops dhe unſeen prepozzitive
(t), no more can remain dhan ſh: az in fetch,
bench, filch; herd, fetch, benſh, filſh. Dho ſtommac hav
dropt dhe old aſpiracion, ſtommacher has adopted dhe
moddern aſpirate; but ſtomachique can nevver make
ſtomachic (to') repprezent ſtomattic; more dhan piſtache
(or anny more pompous parent) can make piſtachio paint
piſtacho, or pincettes render pincers pinchers. Dho dhe
old guttural aſpirate retain dhe direct ſoarce and form in
dhe Scottiſh loch, and dhe depreſſive form (at leaſt) in
dhe Iriſh (az wonce Ingliſh) lough; hwile French and
Ingliſh muſt hav recoarſe to' lac and lake; dhe Ingliſh
yacht might, but for complaizance to' Dutch or Gaulic
navvigators, drop entirely dhe guttural picture; az not
even our fondnes for Greek haz been abel to' ſave it in
dram: hwich waz certainly ſeen (if nevver herd) drachm.
Licquefaccion and aſpiracion being ſo nearly allied, we
cannot now wonder at dhe (truly) vulgar interchainge we
hear ov Indian and engine; more dhan at dhe groce
emiſſion ov crecher and verger, for creture and verdure;
or ov ſoljer and granjer for ſoldier and grandeur: nay
dhe onneſt (unpolliſhed) ſolger haz bluſt it in a ballad.
But nedher hav we now to' lern, dhat dhe depreſſive ſoftſibbilating
aſpirate haz in Ingliſh no oddher picture dhan
dhat ov dhe depreſſive ſibbilating licquefaccion. Dhus
ar occazion and occazzional our ſole repprezentatives ov
occazhon and occazzhonal. Dhe compound (or hard)
depreſſive ſibbilating aſpirate derives in our picturage two
diſtinct figgures, hwich we hav ſeen in dainger ov joſtling;
dho won (hoo knew no better) wood think dhat
ſuch collizzion cood onely take place, like dhat ov s and
c, before dhe ſofteners (e, i, or y). So near ſtil iz aſpiracion
to' licquefaccion, dhat hwat waz iniſcial licquefaccion
in primmitive language, haz becom in Italian and
Ingliſh (dho differently repprezented) dhe depreſſive
dental-ſibbilating aſpirate. Dhe Hebrew JEHOVAH, and
dhe Lattin Julius, wer dhen reſpectively herd Yehovah
and Yulius; for dhis by contraccion but emboddied dhe
iniſcial vowel ov Iulus, hwich dhey ammicably demonſtrate
in won line,
JULIUS, à magno demiſſum nomen IULO.
az if written for dhe purpoſe:
JULIUS, IULUS' eir imperial, hail!
If Itallian, to' prezerv hware poſſibel dhe recipprocal
unity ov ſymbol and ſound, write Giulio, not Julio;
Ingliſh lovs at leaſt to' ſee Julius, dho ſhe name him
Itallianly Giulius (Dzhulius). French dellicacy, not
brooking dhe prepozzitive dental, admits no more dhan
Jules (Zhules). Dhe ſaving name Ιησόυς, Ieſus, dhus in
Greek and Lattin triſſyllabbic (az Iulus) melted dhe iniſcial
vowel into' reſpectively ſibbilating-aſpirate coaliſcion
widh dhe next vowel; depreſſing alſo dhe medial ſibbilant,
in dhe French diſſyllabel Jéſus; ſimmilarly in
Jezus, hoom dhus alone can Ingliſh Truith inviolably
confes. To' Itallian indeed, raddher dhan to' French,
doo we ow dhe hard ſibbilant-aſpirate; but, from dhe
more ettymolodgic (dho ſofter) French, hav we borrowed
dhe dubbel ſymbol ov J, and G (before e and for
dhe depreſſively hard-ſibbilating aſpirate. Hence, widh
won articulation and different aſpect az orrigin, Jon and
George, madjeſty and madgiſtrate: jeſt joke, and geſt
feat; Jin littel Jane, and gin hwatevver elſe.
HERE, az evverihware, we ſee dhat a ſimpel, preceding,
dubbels an aſpirate. Nor can it ſurprize, dhat
edher dhe aſpiracion or dhe brand licquefier, ſhood melt
into' dhe dubbler ov a preceding licquid; dho dhe eye
be ſtil indulged widh dhe diſtinct components: az in
Foolham, Durham, Denham, Bramham; Dulwich,
Grenwich, Bromwith, Harwich; Berwic, Fenwic. In
like manner iz a ſtrong mute vertually dubbled by a following
febel aſpiracion, in ſuch compounds az ſhepherd,
Clephan, Clapham, Chatham, Bathurſt, Midhurſt, Wadham,
Cobham. So dubbels dhe ſibbilant by edher, in
Greſham, Cheſhunt, Chizhul, Chizholm, Chizwic: all
indiſpenſably herd Foolham, Dullich, Berric, ſhepperd,
Chattam, Batturſt, Middurſt, Waddam, Cobbam; Greſſam,
Cheſſunt, Chizzul, Chizzom, Chizzic. Dhat Hotham,
Wiſhart, and Cheſhire ar becom Hoddham (Hudhdham)
Wiſhart and Chesſhere, we hav boath herd and ſeen.
Lockhart haz precluded, by dhe inſertive k, dhe ambigguous
appearance ov Lochart; dho Loccart alone be
emitted. Swafham iz often ſeen, az always herd, Swaffam:
nor can Alnwic avoid ſinking dhe l, haven it dubbels
dhe n in Annic; az dhe conſtellacion ov licquids ſinks
dhe l, dho not ov elms, yet ov Elmſley (Scottiſhly Elmſly,
az ov Chelmsfoard; in Emſley, Chemsfoard. Worth,
way, or oddher febel compounders, vary not ſo ezily
dheir vocal articulacion. Unchainged remain dherfore
Petworth, Tamworth, Hanway, Conway, Medway, and
dhe like. Dhat dhe ſollemn and dhe familliar ar (in evvery
language) materially contraſted by fool and minc't,
by diſtinct and rappid utterance, can hardly be new to'
dhe conſidderate. Dheze wil dherfore az natturally expect
bacward and forward from dhe won, az from dhe
oddher baccard and forrard, if not quite coincident widh
forred, dhe due emiſſion ov forhed.
Dhe ſubſtitucion ov open vowels.
VOWELS, in picturage, claim graiter freedom: but
libberty, unlimmited, enſlaves. A ſlender, having in
oddher diccions, dhe form ov e; adopts dhis in ours, to'
diſtinguiſh dhe coincident eyght ov oziers, and eight dhe
numeral, from ate, dhc old pretterite ov eat; alſo dhe
law term eyr, and eir inherritor, from anny oddher air:
ſo a birds eyry or neſt, from airy dhe adjective. Dhus
peir, dhe fruit, keeps equally clear ov pair dhe cuppel,
and pare, dhe verb (ov cutting): ſo beir dhe beaſt, ov
bair dhe verb, and bare dhe adjective. Simmilarly
ſeen iz vein, dhe blud-veſſel, diſtinct from vain dhe adjective,
and vane dhe weddhercoc; az fein (wonce affected
feign) from fain dhe quallifier, and fane dhe
(poettic) tempel: ſo doutles feint, from faint. Dhe
raddical ſervile (g) gards reign rule, which rane might
doutles diſtinguiſh; az dhe proxy vowel ſhows dhat rein,
reſtrainer, iz not rain-wauter. Dhus doz prey, booty,
appear oddher dhan pray, beſeech; nay dhe Dey ov
Algiers, and Bey ov Tunis, dhan a common day or bay.
Dhe ſame ſubſtitute marks Wey five chaldron, az wel az
dhe name ov a rivver; and wood dhe verb weigh, poiz
or ponder, dho dhis ſhood even drop dhe guttural picture.
Sufficiently ar dhey all out ov dhe beaten way; from
hwich dhe iniſcial aſpiracion eſſencially ſevvers dhe dellicate
hwey, firſt ſevvered from dhe milk. Weight, dhe
formative ov weigh, iz dhus (boath by vowel and raddical)
diſtinguiſhed from wait or ſtay, and from wate
dhat ſerrenades; deſcendants ov dhe French glut and
guetter: ſo, from nay, dhe old neggative and new pozzitive,
hwich haz fairly ſupplanted its old contraſt and
compannion yea; neigh, hwinny, and dhe neigh ov
neighbor, vertually nabor. Dhus parts dhe heigh, ov
ſpent heigh-ho! from anny hay, dhe ſidhe may mow.
Ettymolodgic iz e for a in dhe pronoun dhey, widh dhe
pronoinminal (and diſtinctive) dheir and dheirs; az wel
az in dhe verbs inveigh, convey, ſurvey and purvey;
hwich dhus revverence dhe Lattin, prefferably to' dhe
nearer (French) parents. Obéir and obéiſſance eliſcit dhe
French e open (our a ſlender), ſince dhey cannot in Ingliſh
own é cloſe, from our obey and obeiſance, vertuallv
obay and obaiſance. In Teutonnic names, dhe
ſubſtitute may be ſtrong, az in Leyden; or weak, az in
Manheim. In Ingliſh names it proovs natturally feebel;
az in Burleigh, Harley, Tilney, Alderney; or in dhe
appellative hacney; cocney; abbey, alley; lamprey, oſprey,
E, univerſally pictured i abraud; and, hwen febel,
coincident widh dhat vowel at home; may wel admit
dhe forrain ſubſtitute, even ſtrong, hwen aſcertained by
e ſervile, in ciel, pier, bier, tier; mien; piece, piep (az
a chic), widh lief and griev; reſpectively diſtinct to' dhe eye,
from ſeal, peer, beer, tear, mean, pece, peep, leaf, greav
(fetter). Lief and griev muſt be accompanied by dheir
near relations, believ and belief, reliev and relief; az
dheze by grief, brief, and fief; chief widh miſchief and
atchiev; thief and thiev, repriev and retriev; by niece,
tierce, fierce, and pierce; liege, ſiege, and prieſt. Som
pretend to' derive a forrain bieſting, raddher dhan admit
ſo coarſe a domeſtic formative az beaſting. Dhis clas iz
certainly ſwelled by various remote or forrain proppers:
az Miege, Crief, Moncrief, Montier, Tangier, Algiers,
dhe Nieſter, dhe Nieper, and dhe reſt. Dhe vowel,
dho long open in dhe ſucceſſive ſhapes ov freende,
freend, freind, friend; ſhut itſelf indeed at laſt in frend:
hwich can however hav no oddher dhan contraſted influence
on fiend, dhat nevver varied; nor needs dhe
authorrity ov a Wallis, for chiming widh glean'd ſcreen'd;
or interven'd; unalterably az doo field, ſhield, yield,
and wield, widh reel'd, or heel'd. Fiend dhen can no more
ſhut dhe vowel, dhan frend can open it. Plat and plait
ſeem to' hav formerly painted a fluctuating vocallity,
hwich ſettelled at length in dhat ov pleit or pliet. Edher
ov dheze may more pleze Ettymollogy's eye; but pleat
or pleet muſt fix it in Ingliſh Orthoggraphy. Dho dhe
ſame ſymbols natturally paint common and propper apappellacions;
ſurnames often affect unneceſſary, ſomtimes
impracticabel, diſcriminacion. Dhis iz nohware
more obzervabel dhan in dhe ſurname Pierce; hwich
(by dhe foar different ſerviles dhe vowel may aſſume, and
dhe prezzent ſubſtitucion it may adopt widh edher ſhape
ov dhe ſibbilant) may appear in anny won ov ten different
forms: not onely dhen Pierce or Pierſe, but Peirce
or Peirſe, Pearce, and ſo on.
Y's Greek preddeceſſor (γ, υ) equivvalent to' dhe prezzent
French u; ran Eollically into' i, dhe prezzent e
Ingliſh. Dhence dhe Lattin ſylva ſettelled in ſilva; dhe
French and Ingliſh ſtyle and rhyme, in ſtile and rime.
Dhe Eolians, varying dhe eſſence ov dhe vowel, cood not
but chainge dhe figgure. But, in moddern fredom, dhe
two figgures ſpeaking won reallity; Ettymollogy ſtickelled
long for dhe older; hwich, for aught ſhe knew, remained
eſſencially different; and urged at leaſt dhe right
ov priorrity. Ingliſh Orthoggraphy appointed y dhe final
proxy ov i vocal, and dhe iniſcial ſubſtitute ov i licquefied
or emboddied into' articculacion: az in July and
Yule; dewy and lawyer. Here indeed dhe licquid iz
clear; but in Yule, az in yew, Ettymollogy's iniſcial
iz ſuperfluous to' dhe ſound, hwich ule and ew might picture.
We can dherfore no more wonder dhat e ſhood be
i's licquid, dhan its vocal ſubſtitute; az in dhe buteous
ocean. If y muſt be i's final form; ſuch it muſt be
equally, in or out ov combinacion; in expreſſion, or ſervillity:
ſo in joy, and Joey. W iz doutles dhe ſimmilar
ſubſtitute ov oo; but nevver out ov compoziſcion; hweddher
in dhe dipthong, az in bow, bend; or, az dhe umbel
ſervile, in bow, dhe arch: ſervile to' a vowel ſtrong
or febel, az in flow or follow. If e may proxy dhe ſlender,
o mav queſtionles dhe braud licquid; by poettic choice
or convenience; in Pholoe, contracted (vertually) Pholwe;
or in follower, ſo ſquezed into' folwer; hware dhe ſervile
ſeems to' turn dhe effective. In two, even here indulged,
dhe old licquefier ſinks (az in ſwoon) in dhe cognate
vowel, hwich iz o depreſſive; dho it haz remained widhout
dhe ſervile (o), cover ſince two, like hwo, had dhe
licquid effective and o direct. Boath two dherfore and hoo
might ſeem complete, nay dhe former better aſcertained,
in twoo and hwoo; or two' and hwo': but two iz
tollerably ſafe, and hoo defies evvery dainger.
DHO oo admits no ſubſtitute, Diſtinccion paints it hwen
combined widh dhe ſlender licquefier, not onely by yoo;
but ettymolodgically by eu and ew, az wel az by dhe ſinguel
figgure u. Hence yew, hew, dew, Kew, blew,
flew, and Jewry; occularly diſtinct from dhe really coincident
yoo and u, hue and Hugh, due, cue, blue, flue, and
jury; ſo yoor, from ure and ew'r dhe abbreviation ov
ewer: hence dhe promiſcuous interchainge ov ſkew and
ſcue, ſcrew and ſcrue, clew and clue, fewel and fuel,
ſewet and ſuet. Ettymollogy wood hav liked Jue, mue,
and crue, fool az wel az Jew, mew, and crew: ſo crew
wood not hav ſeemed at wonce a primmitive noun and a
pretterite verb. Dhe mute iniſcial pretends not onely to'
ſevver knew from new; but to' unite it widh its
fellow-formatives, blew, crew, grew, drew, and threw.
Lewd and ſhrewd appear particippials; hwile feud
we reccollect dhe ſhrimp ov fohood. Dhe parents (peu
and veue, now vue) claim few and vew: ſhrew, brew,
and ſtew, hav alſo titel enuf to' dhe compound figgure;
eſkew iz ſaved by it, from being ſtreſſed widh reſcue.
Different aſpects diſtinguiſh dhe noun pew, and Pugh dhe
chiming ſurname ov Hugh; ſo ſafe from hue and hew.
Dhe French Huet haz politely aſſumed dhe various
Brittiſh phazes ov Hewet, Hewit, and Hewed. Dhe
compound figgure ſaves dhe propper Dewks, from dukes;
nor clodhes les propperly Tewkſberry, Bewdley, and
Bewley az Bew. Dhe appellative ſteward haz been retained
by ſom fammilies in dhe ſurname; hwile oddhers
hav varied it into' Stewart, Steuart, and, widh all dhe
forrain world, Stuart.
Dhe ſubſtitucion ov ſhut vowels.
DHAT e ſhort iz equivvalent to' i febel, and hwen
ſhut painted by it, iz notthing new; or dhat dherfore
complement iz to' dhe ear indiſtinguiſhabel from compliment;
nay, dhat five-pence, and three-pence run az
natturally into' fippence and thrippence, az two-pence into'
tuppence. O (howevver) iz, by various cauz, dhe chief
proxy ov ſhut vowels; dho' (indeed) but ov two. Its
own ſound muſt, az weak or ſtrong, be ſhort or long;
but iz, in Ingliſh, nevver ſhut. A, open or ſhut,
havving in our language a dubbel part (ſlender and
braud) to' play; can diſtinguiſh itſelf, braud and open,
by ſervile exhibbited or underſtood; but muſt perform
dhe braud ſhut part by proxy; being, hwen ſhut, neſceſſarily
header, unles articculated by dhe braud licquefier
or licquid braudener (w, qu, or gu); in hwich prediccament
A ſhut cannot continnue ſlender. Yet, even ſo articculated,
Harmony precludes A braud, and ſo regains
A ſlender, if ſhut by dhe ſame guttural dhat articculates
dhe braudener; dhat iz, if ſhut by dhe ſound ov k,
or by dhe nazal combinacion; az in wax, wag; quac,
quag; twang, ſwank. Hware A braud performs its own
ſhut part, and excludes A ſlender; az in wallet and
quallity, want and quantity, war and quarrel, ward and
ſward; o, frendly az free, perſonates u ſhut. Elſehware
o ſhut can be notthing but A braud ſhut; hwich dherfore
admits no oddher ſubſtitute. Boath (az all) truiths
we ſee exampelled in dhe WORD ov dhe LORD.
V and U havving been, in Lattin, interchaingeabel
pictures ov dhe vowel, and afterwards ov dhe conſonant
Ingliſh picturage haz (howevver ſlender dhe rezon) avoided
dhe combinacion ov dhoze figgures, or ov edher widh
dhe Teutonnic; often az dhe vocal ſound iz really
combined widh edher articculaciun: for word iz vertually
wurd; and vew (hiddherto' butified view! in compliment
to' videre, viſta, or anny thing, raddher dhan
Truith or itſelf) might certainly hav been painted vue, in
Ingliſh az wel az in French. Dho we perceiv dhe ſhut
vowel (u) no more affraid dhan in parent-picture, to' be
articculated by v; and, open or cloſe, by dhe dental aſpirate
(th or dh); az in vulnerabel, Thucyddides, Ammathus,
dhus; u always ſubſtitutes o, hwen ſhut by dhe
depreſſive, edher labial or dental, aſpirate: az in lovving
oddhers (vertually, nevver vizzibly, luvving udhdhers).
Dhus it iz dhat ſouths formatives and compounds, ſhutting
duly dhe dipthong, or natturally loozing it, in u ſhut
(uh), figgure dhis ſound by o: az in ſoddhern, ſoddherly,
or Sodhwark, dhat iz, Soddhark. Sothcote keeps
direct widh direct company; Sutton and Sutley guiv dhe
vowel its own picture, havving no plea for ſubſtitucion;
and Southgate fool az often emits dhus its parts unchainged,
az amalgamates dhem into' Sodhgate. If dhe Ingliſh
Hotham and Rotherhith can nevver be effectively
Hoddham, and Roddherhith, til dhey dhus appear dhemſelvs;
but muſt til dhen be ranked, by evvery ſtrainger,
widh Otho and Jotham; ſo dhe Scotch Sutherland,
Rutherford, Carruther, Struthers, or dhe like, cannot
be gueſſed, even by an Ingliſh Reader (hoo ſhood be a
ſolver ov riddels), to' be Soddherland, Roddherfoard,
Carroddher, Stroddhers, and ſo on. Anſtruther and
Rutherglen, if dhey diſdain dhe Ingliſh dres ov Anſtroddher
and Roddherglen, wer much better loſt in Anſter
and Rugglen; hwich ar Natures own harmonious abbreviacions.
But, dho u ſhut by dhe dental aſpirate iz painted
by o; o (occularly) ſhut by dhat aſpirate, repprezents
not always u; playing its ſtil graiter favorite A braud
ſhut, in dhe vulgar term boddher, in dhe weight or quantity
ov mettal, named foddher; az wel az in dhe propper
Roddhery and Roddheram, Rothberry and Rotthes:
if not elſehware.
DHE ſame offiſcious frend, hweddher mindfool ov dhe
frequent interchainge, az cloſe alliance (dho nevver mutual
ſubſtitucion) ov o and u in Greek and Lattin, or ov
oddher orrigin; and evver dezirous ov aiding intellectual
diſcriminacion; inſiſts on repprezenting dhe latter ſhut
vowel, in manny diſtinctive and oddher caſes; particcularly
before dhe licquids, n and m: ſo diſtinguiſhing ſon,
ſom, non, don; from dhe coincident (verry different)
words, ſun, ſum, nun, dun. Dhis don (az different in
ſound az in ſenſe, from dhe Spanniſh titel hwich dhe unſubſtitucional
ſyllabel repprezents, muſt be accompanied
in ſubſtitucion by doth (duth) dhe auxilliary contractive ov
dhe ſollemn dooeth, and by dheir familiar doz (duz).
Dhat ſpoonfool ſhood run into' ſponfool (ſpunfool) can be
no odder, dhan dhat moonday (wonce monedaie) ſhood
run into' monday (munday), boombard into' bombard
(bumbard), or Broomtown (wonce Brometoune) into'
Brampton (Brumton). Nor leſs ezily may we annalize
and anallogize dhe compound names Plompton, Crompton,
Cromwel, Bromley, Romney, and dhe reſt. Simmilar
iz dhe ſubſtitucion in dhe diſtinctive Sommers and
Sommerville (or Sommervil); in Hommerton, and twice
in Montgommery): az in pommel and ſtommac, ſo in
com, compas, combat, comfit and comfort; az in yong,
mong, monk; font and front (widh frontier); in contry,
condit (wonce conduit), conſtabel and conjure: in onnion,
widh honney, conney, and monney. Before r we alſo
know dhat attorney (for atturney) pleads preſcripcion; and
wood gladly carry jurney, and her three cozzens, along
widh him: nor can we deny hearing dhe propper Tuttel,
hware we ſtil ſee Tothil. Yung we ſaw, in Yong,
onnor Teutonnic orrigin. Yolk, fairly offiſciating for
yulk, looks nedher blue nor yellow.
IN febel place dhe ſubſtitucion may ſeem ſtil more
frequent, becauz les aſcertainabel: az in Ammon, Hammond,
Stormont, Montroze; conjure, contribbute, abandon,
random, carrol, onnor. A weak vowel indeed
(eſpeſcially e or o) articculated by anny mute, and ſhut
by n, iz almoaſt abſorbed in dhe ſhutter: ſo truly ar dhe
licquids half-vowels. Dhus capon, happen; ebon, ribbon;
;ſtiffen, ſnivvel; fatten, mutton; laden, Bladon, haſten,
faſten; ſhorten, lengthen; Ethon, hedhen; baſon,
rezon, rizzen; aſhen; taken, bacon, beckon (or beckon)
and reckon; Dagon, draggon, widh wezon or wezand,
thouzand, and ſo foarth: not here to' rezume dhe interchainge
(by like cauz) ov en and in, em and im prepozzitive;
in ſuch compounds az entruſt and intruſt, emprizzon
and imprizzon, alreddy mencioned widh dhe
Quieſcents. Shut by n or r final, weak voccallity havving
ſo littel ſound, and dhe ſhutting licquid ſtil ſo much:
won vowel can (in ezy utterance) ſcarce be known from
anoddher. Hence dhe diverſity and ſamenes ov Allan
and Allen, Herman and Hermon; Miller and Millar,
Fawkener or Falconer and Falconar; altar and alter, augar
and augur, ſailor and ſailer, or dhe like. Law lovs
dhe ending or, diſtinctive ov peculiar from genneral carracter.
Dhus differ ſurveyer and ſurveyor, ſurviver and
ſurvivor, widh dheir fellows. So proppers often endevvor
to' keep clear ov common denominacions: Turnor,
Tailer, and Batcheler, beg leve not to' ſeem Turner,
Tailor and Batchelor. Hware dhe ſtres iz varied, dhe
ſenſe proovs more diſtinct widh dhe ſound; az in executer
and excccutor, inveſtigater and inveſtigator. It may
not be quite forrain here to' add, dhat er and or, mutually
illuſtrative raddher dhan encroaching, ar boath too
gennerous (dhat iz, too juſt) to' exclude dhe oddher endings
ov agents, dhat edher Anallogy or Ettymollogy
may claim. Dhus vizziter and vizzitor no more exclude
vizzitant, dhan can dhe verbal accounter dhe nomminal
accountant, dhe compannion ov annuitant; dhan
dhe orthoggrapher or philolloger can deny dhe ettymolloger
to' be dhe Ingliſh, and dhe ettymollogiſt dhe Gallic
agent. Simmilar iz dhe ſamenes ov weak vowels, ſhut by
hwatevver conſonant: hence dhe coincidence ov carrot
and carrot, dhe interchainge ov mattras and mattres.
Nay febelnes leves open and ſhut ſcarce diſcrimminabel
before a final conſonant: az in pallate and pallet,
pallace and Pallas, Wallace and Wallis.
NOT onely iz febelnes dhus indiſcrimminate; hwile
on and om ar dhe powerfool proxies ov un and um. Perfet
rimes ar dherfore mayor and player; tartar, barter,
and martyr. Nadir and trader, Emir and tremor; but
ſun and ſon, ſum and ſom, different identities. Howevver
ezily ur plays its own edher (ſtrong or weak) part in
murmur, ir (or yr) haz, for diſtinccion or deſcent, been a
hiddherto' undiſputed repprezentative ov ur: unles dhe
r be repeated, az in irraſcional, irradiate, mirror and
pyrramid. Even here haz it been indulged in ſquirrel,
az in hwirl; in ſirrah az in ſir, hwich, dho from dhe
French ſire, iz herd (a no French ſound in) ſur. Dhus
meet and part fir and fur, dhe former accompanied by
firkin and firlot, ſeemingly formed from dhe Batavian
parent ov foar. Widh dheze, hwir and hwirl; ſounds,
az juſtly painted hwor and hworl; ſtir, wonce az duly
ſeen ſtur: and myr, hwich (in mur) iz not dhe prior
part ov Myrrha. Followed we dhus find it by anny oddher
conſonant: in guirl, pirn, firm, chirp; ſhirt,
ſquirt, ſpirt, blirt, flirt, dirt, birt, bird, third, (thirteen,
thirty) and guird; mirth, birth (diſtinct in ſound
and ſenſe from berth) in Thyrſe, thirſt; irk, ſmirk,
kirk, quirk; birch, dirge. So Cirk or Circus, widh circuit
or cirket, cirkel, and evvery circum (in uncircumſcribed
circumference); dhe proppers Irwin, Irby, Shirley,
Byrn, Thirſk, Thyrſis; Byrſa, Mirza.
To' a focus dhus converges Ingliſh ſubſtitucion. Conſonants
admit non, beſide 1. dhe direct ſimpel ſibbilant
(s) repprezented by c, before e, i, or y; ettymolodgically,
and often diſtinctively, az in cel; cite, cit; Cimon,
Cyrus, Grece: oftener widh dhe diſtinccion alone ov
Ettymollogy: az in pece, paciffic; ſpice, ſpicy; cedar,
cyder or cider, cifer, (or ſifer,) cypres, cykel, cirkel, certain,
citty; ciſtern; Cincinnatus, Cezar, Ciſcero, Cyzzicus:
2. dhe depreſſive ſimpel ſibbilant (z), by dhe direct
form (s), after an open vowel, or widh a depreſſive
conſonant, az in days, idea's; paws, palls, palſy, diſmal,
Pegſy: 3. dhe direct ſibbilating aſpirate
(ſh), by the direct ſibbilating licquefaccion; chiming
dhus Baaſha widh Aſia, Dacia and Aſpaſia;
Baſhan, Gracian, Veſpaſian, and collacion; diſcreſcion
widh confeſſion; ſuſpiſcion widh ſubmiſſion and
coaliſcion; mocion widh Phocian alike and Phocion; Lucian
widh conſtitucion, and ſo on: nay by ch, ſinking
dhe vertual prepozzitive (t) after t, n, or l: az in Dutch,
French, and Welſh: 4. dhe depreſſive ſibbilating-aſpirate;
by dhe depreſſive ſibbilating licquefaccion; az in
evazion, cohezion, explozion, collizzion, colluzion: 5. dhe
depreſſive dental-ſibbilating-aſpirate (j), by g, before
(dhe ſofteners) e, i or y: hence ginger, and clergy;
widh German, joſtling Jermyn: 6. c by k, hware s by c
(before e, i, or y); az in keel, Keil; kite, Kit, Kitty;
Kedar, Kiron, Greek monnarky; ſucker, ſucking, lucky,
Suky: 7. c by q, articculating dhe braud licquefaccion:
az in ſquare equal quantity: 8. after a ſtrong
vowel, cs; before a ſtrong vowel, equally by x.
Dhus dhe ſurnames Cocs and Dicſon ar nexured into'
Cox and Dixon; ſo Hogſton, az if Hocſton, covvers her
conſtituents in Hoxton. From exit and extaſy; exiſt and
exalt, muſt be alike eliſcited dhe reallities ov ecſit, ecſtacy
(not unſeen); egziſt and egzalt. Ov excel, az ov
excellence, vertually eccel and eccellence; dhe nexured s
iz abſorbed in dhe following ſibbilant. 9. A depreſſive
may be dubbled by its direct ſhutting dhe ſtrong vowel
before it; in ſuch compound az cupboard, herd cubboard;
Hepburn, Hebburn. Much more may (10) dhe
direct labial aſpirate, retain dhe oridginal components
(ph) in certain tecnic terms from dhe Greek: az philoſſophy
or phyzzic, for filoſſofy or fizzic; like fantom and
frenzy, wonce phantom and phrenſy. 11. In all orthograpphic
duplicacion, dhe ſimpel ſuffices for dhe prior
aſpirate: az in Sappho, ſapphire: Matthew, Athens;
Bacchus, Bucchan; Oſſian, Priſcian, preſſure, plezzure:
12. A licquid, ſomtimes a mute, iz dubbled by dhe following
febel aſpiracion or braud licquefier: az in Walham,
Welwyn, Bathurſt, Goodwyn; herd Wallam, Wellin,
Batturſt, Gooddin.
VOCAL ſubſtitucion draws to' dhis dhe open vowels
a, e, i, u, and o depreſſive; dhe shut a braud, i, and
u, acccpt (ov) ſubſtitucion. Repprezented dhen ar, for
cauzes aſſigned; 1. a ſlender, by e: az in fein, vein,
peir, beir, dheir, dhey, obey, abbey, alley, Harley, Burleigh,
Chudleigh: 2. e by i, in pier, mien, fiend, field,
and dhe reſt: 3. i by y, in ſom Greek words, like pyre,
Tyre, Pylos; az wel az vocal in dhe end ov Ingliſh words,
and licquid in dheir beguinning: dhus ally, rally; Yare,
yard; and, az yern, ſo bowyer: 4. u, (rezolvabel into'
yoo) repprezented by eu, in ſuch Greek terms as pleuriſy
and Europe; by ew final, diſtinctively or derivvatively;
az in hew, dew; few, vew. 5. Diſtinccion haz pleaded
for dhe licquid inſted ov dhe vocal figgure ov o depreſſive
in dhe ſinguel word two, equal to' too. But too or
two' wil leve no oddity. Dhis ſound (after a braud) haz
u or w always painted in dhe dipthong; az in bow,
bowl, and bound,, fowl and foul. Dho u be now exempted
from ſervillity, w continnues dhe final ſervile: az
in bow, arch; ſo in bowl, baſon. In fifteen words ow iz dhe
final dipthong; in three ov hwich dhe medial figgure
takes place before dhe loſt aſpirate: plough, noun or
verb; ſlough, mire; and bough, branch. Dhe reſt ar,
nine monnoſyllabels; bow, bend; mow, az in a barley--
mow; prow, brow, cow, ſow; how, now, vow; widh
three diſſyllabel verbs, avow, allow, endow; not to' mencion
dhe old verb trow, believ, more dhan a Dutch frow.
W's third (evver inſepparabel) office, dhat ov articculating
in braud licquefaccion anny oddher vowel; Ettymollogy
begs leve to' perform after dhe articculating
guttural (or pallatal) q or g, by u; az Lattin had no
oddher repprezentative ov oo or w, hence dhe quallity
and quantity ov our language. Dhe ſlender licquefier,
for want ov ſuch ſubſtitute, muſt be dellicately blended,
dho unſeen (prezerved in reallity, hware it cannot be
painted) between dhis mute and a ſhut, ir for ur, and
dhe dipthong i: az in card, gard; kirk, guird; kind
Ov ſhut vowels, i can hav no ſubſtitute but y: az in
phyz or ſymptom, and Egypt. Dhat i and its proxy
equally proxy u ſhut by r (az in thirſt and Thyrſe) need
not here be repeated. Dhe oddher ſubſtitute ov ſhut
vowels (u and a braud) iz o; ov u, hware not engaged
in dhe ſervice ov a braud; az in work, word, world;
won, wonder; wot, quoth: nor can it be denied in
London, dhat ſom attorneys, and dheir ſons, comfort
dheir contry. On Monday (perhaps) oddhers hovver
over Sodhwark. Yet iz it no les allowed (becauz indiſputabel)
dhat o offiſciates for a braud, hware dhe latter
cannot for itſelf; dhat iz, hwarevver not articculated by
dhe braud licquefier, dhis common frend, havving no
ſhut duty ov its own, iz (to' all intents and purpoſes) dhe
Ingliſh occular performer ov A braud ſhut or ov Aw
ſhort. Hoo wil not extol dhe uncommon conduct ov ſuch
a proxy? or hoo wil not admire hwat dhe Don haz don
We wel know dhe eyes right ov diſcrimminating, hware
poſſibel, by dhe happy (not promiſcuous) variety ov Ingliſh
ſerviles: az in ale and ail, awl and all, ſee and
ſea, toe and tow, ſole, ſoal and ſoll: brute and bruit; in
mottoes or motto's; rays, raiz, opperaes or oppera's; in
aw, ay, and ah; ſha'n't, ca'n't (az if ſhahnt, cahnt); in
pſalm, no rime to' qualm or ſhawm; in dhe oddity
Marlburrough, widh dhe demonſtrated reſt.
ORTHOGGRAPHY, dhe depozzitary and gardian ov ORTHOEPPY:
indiſpenſabel, az to' all ſtiles; peculiarly
to' POETRY, dhe arbitres ov LANGUAGE.
SUPERFLUITY retrenched, defect ſupplied, and
miſrepprezentacion rectified; in dhe picturage ov vocallity,
az wel az ov articulacion; purity ov ſpeech becoms
aſcertained by propriety ov ſymbol. Dhus every
reader, ſyſtemattically enabled to' ſpel, az dhe beſt ſpeakers
ſpeak, may venture at length on dhe hiddherto' impracticabel
inverſion ov dhe rule; and ſpeak, az dhe beſt
writers ſpel. Dhe dore ov our language dhus opened to'
mankind, ov dhe Brittiſh Nacions iz a union ſo peculiarly
effected; dhat widh won voice, az widh won ſpirrit;
widh won pen, az widh won tung; dhey may glorify
God, and enlighten men. EDDINBURROUGH wil hencefoarth
vy widh LONDON, in dhe nattural, az undouting,
excellence ov language; and in all dhe harmony, dhat
can endear or empower dhe poolpit, dhe bar, and dhe
pres. No more ſhal SCOTLAND ſay, for no more ſhal
ſhe ſee, head and breaſt; chearful and vineyard; palace
and majeſty; guardian and build, ſword and target;
vaſe and father, move and prove, put and pudding,
buſy (buzzy) and bury: pear and bear, groat and broad;
ought and brought; draught and laugh, of and though;
for hed, breſt: cherfool, vinyard; pallace, madjeſty;
gardian, bild: ſoard, targuet; vauz, fahdher; moov,
proov; poot, poodding; bizzy, berry, peir, beir and bair;
graut, braud; aught, braught; draft, laf; ov, dho:
or continnue in dhe barbarous return ov barbarous repprezentacion.
Dhey hoo nedher hear nor ſee hwat Propriety
ſpeaks, wil ſpeak hwat Impropriety ſhows. But
now, dhat Propriety dains to' vizzit dhe fardheſt corners
ov dhe erth; not to' ſay, ov dhe iland; dhe philolloger
ov Eddinburrough, hoo can demonſtrate dhe ſucceſſive
diccions ov Jeruſalem, Atthens, Room, Florrence, or
Sienna, Madrid and Parris; perhaps ov Vienna, Dreſden,
and Scandinavia; wil, from ſeing, ſoon com to'
hear, dhe harmony ov London; and, from her demonſtrated
practice, becom abel to' teach her dhe happy
theory; ov hwich ſhe knows, les dhan oddhers, dhe
need. Dhe caſe grammattic wil dhen ſtand pure, az
anny caſe ov conſcience, or ov law: dhe nomminative,
gennitive, dative, accuzative, voccative, abblative; if not
ablative, like aberracion. Dhe degrees ov comparrizon
wil be clear az dhe caſes: dhe pozzitive and comparrative,
az dhe ſuperlative. Dhe moods (unblended widh
modes), az edher: dhe indiccative, indicating; dhe
ſubjunctive, implying ſubjunccion; dhe imperrative,
umbly imperious; dhe infinnitive, not finite, or bounded;
widh particippel, intimating its dubbel participation.
Rebbel, refuſe, reccord, and ſeccond, wil preclude
dhe dainger ov dhe French e (cloſe). Scotch proppers
wil no more, from miſrepprezentacion, be miſtaken
in Ingland; and, from miſtake, warped into' eſſencial
alteration: dhus Balmerrino, Crommarty, Mackenyie,
Dalyel, Hume, and oddhers, wil be ezy and ſafe az
Merriman, Covventry, Kenyon, Plume, or dhe reſt.
Places, no more dhan perſons, wil continnue in dainger;
hwen dhey alſo ar fortified, by dhe hand ov 'Truit
Secure from dhe Ingliſh and acceſſibel to' all, wil for
evver be dhe Merſe, Dunſe; Tweddale, Pebels; Tivviotdale,
Jedburrough; Lodhian, Eddinburrough; Abberdeenſhere,
Bucchan, Bamf, Murray, Caitnes, and
dhe reſt; no more falſified Mers, Tweedale, and ſo on.
Glaſcow and Lithcow, dhus aguen dhemſelvs, wil bluſh
dhat dhey ſhood evver hav ceſed to' ſeem ſo. Linlithgow,
muſt prezzently becom obſolete az Aberbuthenoth or
Aberbrothock, now Arbuthnot and Arbroadh.
Polliſh and Poliſh, moddeſt and modiſh, morral and oral,
primmer and primer, or dhe like, wil no more claim
reſpectively won ſtrong vowel; dhe Scots wil no more
boaſt dheir vineyard, dhan dhe Ingliſh ſtrain to' ſpeak dhe
progreſs ov dheir knowledge; or even dhe prologues ov dheir
Shakeſpeare. Nedher harmonized Land ſhal affect (from
ſimmilar cauz) in ſpite ov her ears and her hart, vaunt
and ſaunter, launch and laundry, ſauce and wrath, danger
and chamber, either (idher!) and oblige, great and
gold; Portugal and important, forge and ſcourge, only
and wholly, what and when (wat and wen) humble and
hoſpital; are and have, ſhould and would, perfect and
and corpſe; for, dhe neſceſſary az nattural, want and ſanter,
lanch and landry, ſahce and wrauth, dainger and
chaimber, prollogue and knollege (truly nollege), edher
and oblege, grait and goold, Poartugal and impoartant,
foarge and ſcurge, onely and badly, hwat and hwen,
umbel and oſpital (oſſpital); ar and hav, ſhood and wood,
perfet and coarſe or coarce; widh dhe reſt we now
know. Dhey, dhat ſpeak, az dhey ſpel; muſt ſpeak
wrong, if dhey ſpel wrong. Speech iz dhe guift ov
GOD; ſpelling, dhe picture we draw: ſhal dhis govvern
dhat, or dhat dhis?
No nation evver ſo remote, wil anny more be in
dainger ov miſtaking Ingliſh Harmony, hweddher in vocallity
or articulation; ov opening ſhut vowels, or ov
ſhutting dhe open; ov prezenting hwat ſhood be abſent,
or abſenting hwat ſhood be prezzent: ov interchainging
anny ſounds, dhe more nearly allied, dhe nicelier to' be
parted: particcularly direct and depreſſives; ov ſaying
door and floor, canoe and Rome, as and was; for dore
and flore, canoo and Room, az and waz, or dhe like.
Frequency ov falſehood renders Truith unknown. Dhey,
hoo, lerning from dhe eye to' ſay as and of, chance to'
hear dhat at London dhe ſounds ar az and ov; take natturally
for granted, dhat dhis iz Ingliſh libberty; hwich
muſt equally allow uz and iv to' be herd, hware us and
if ar ſeen. So muſt rezon dhe Scotch and dhe Iriſh;
and doo dhey rezon wrong? On dhe ſame liberal principal,
dhat ſpeech may go az far from writing, az writing
from ſpeech, ſays not onely Yorkſhere bud Cizzero, for
but Ciſcero: from untuned organs at London iſſue padrole
and pardner, proddeſtant and preſpyterian; for patrole
and partner, protteſtant and preſbyterian; nay, from ſom
ſuppozed ov true tone, tranſizzion for tranſiſcion. Shal
Gauls dhen or Celts be ſneered at for Taffy Etwarts or
Tonnel Tingwal, at dhe great quay? hware lowland Anallogy
expects Davy Edwards or Donnel Dingwal, at dhe
grait key? Or ſhal even Scotch lowlanders be held lower
dhan dhey ar, for dheir Dezember, inſted ov December?
Nor wil dhey be found lower dhan ſom (even polliſhed)
Londoners, hoo hav been herd (if not ſeen) to' ſacrifize
hware dhey ment to' ſaccrifice; nor dhat widhout authorrity,
now about to' be weighed.
If ſtraingers be no more miſled by appearance; natives
wil no more, even in dhe center ov propriety, inflict
on dhe ear ſuch violacions, az ar poorly compenſated
in dhe ſaccrifices offered to' dhe eye; by dhe verry
mailers and moddels, ov tendernes and ov harmony.
So ſuffers evvery vowel, open and ſhut; and ſo dhe
bilacion, in her oppozite powers, even in ſpite ov her
oppozite pictures.
DRYDEN, Wife of Bath's Tale:
Beneath his locks, the king my huſband WEARS,
A goodly royal pair of aſſes EARS.
Knight's Tale:
But rev'rence thou the Pow'r whoſe name it BEARS;
Relieve th' oppreſt, and wipe the widow's TEARS.
To' no falſe ſpelling can be imputed dhe Iriſh rime, widit
hwich dhe Poet crowns dhe hyperbollical compliment
To the Dutcheſs of Ormond.
The land, if not reſtrain'd, had met your WAY;
Projected out a neck, and jutted to the SEA.
Hweddher dhe harmoniſt meat to' warp great (grait) to'
deceit, or deceit to' grait, iz not ezy now to' divine:
Ajax and Ulyſſes:
In bloody fields, I labour to be GREAT:
His arms are a ſmooth tongue, and ſoft DECEIT.
POPE haz ſtarted a ſimmilar dout in dhe Illiad:
Whoſe fire, Diocleus, wealthy, brave, and GREAT,
In well-built Pherae held his lofty SEAT.
As if Misfortune made the throne her SEAT;
And none could be unhappy, but the GREAT.
D. Knight's Tale:
Tell me, ſaid Theſeus, what and whence you ARE;
And why this fun'ral pageant you prepare?
Theodore and Honoria.
Nor Theodore encourag'd more his FEAST;
But ſternly look'd, as hatching in his BREAST
Some deep deſign.
P. Il. xvii. 416.
On heaps the Greeks, on heaps the Trojans BLEED;
And thick'ning round them riſe the hills of DEAD.
- - xxii. 211.
As when ſome heroe's fun'rals were DECREED;
In grateful honour of the mighty DEAD.
Dhat dims to' miſchoice, redundance, or defiſcience,
hweddher ov effective or ſervile, muſt be owing dhe
falſe rimes, hwich bewilder ſtraingers, and diſgrace Ingliſh
verſificacion, iz perhaps alreddy evvident; but may
be ſtil fardher evinced, by dhe nattural progreſſion ov
error; hwile writers and readers ſteer alike widhout
compas, or by erroneous charts. Among dhe mannifold
guizes ov Falſehood, non can be ſo ſeducing az dhe ſernblance
ov Truith. Syllogiſm, (The reggular form ov dhe
won, becoms dhus dhe cunning ſhape ov dhe oddher.
Breaſt haz, by diſputeles authorrity, been ſeen to' rime
widh feaſt; breaſt needs no authorrity to' rime widh
or preſt: dherfore feaſt may rime widh reſt or preſt.
D. Theodore and Honoria:
Return'd ſhe took her bed, with little REST;
But, in ſhort ſlumbers, dreamt the fun'ral
Then each, indulging in the ſocial FEAST,
His thirst and hunger ſoberly REPREST.
If e ſhut be dhus equivvalent to' e open, annihware;
hwy not evverihware?
D. Cymon and Iphigenia.
Love made an active progres through his mind:
The duſky parts he clear'd, the groſs refin'd:
The drouſy wak'd; and, as he went, IMPREST
The Maker's image on the human BREAST.
If eſt and eaſt may chime, eſts and eaſts may better
chime; dhe ſame duller ov ſibbilacion, compenſating
(no dout) all difference ov vocallity.
P. Il. ix. 295.
Health to Achilles! happy are thy GUESTS:
Not thoſe more honour' d, whom Atrides FEASTS.
Dhe eye (fatal organ!) owns no difference between dhe
vowels ov hoſt and loſt. If dhe prezzent ſervile did no
harm to' breaſt; on dhe contrary, ſo happily cut of all
intercoarſe widh dhe French poart, and ſo natturally opened
correſpondence widh feaſt, az wel az widh beaſt; an
abſent ſervile may leve a vowel equally ſociabel widh a
ſimmilar, ſhut or open.
D. Knight's Tale.
A cloud of ſmoke envelopes either HOST;
And all at once! the combatants are LOST,
P. Il. xvii. 422.
In one thick darkneſs all the fight was LOST:
The ſun, the moon, and all th' ethereal HOST
Seem'd as extinct—
Prezzent or abſent ſervile immaterial, or advantageous;
ſince loſt makes ſo chaſte a rime widh hoſt, and dhis a
rime fool az chaſte widh boaſt; may not boaſt and loft az
chaſtely chime togueddher? P. E. on C. Eſſay on Criticiſm.

Oh! ne'er ſo dire a thirſt of glory BOAST;
Nor in the critic, let the man be LOST.
Dhus impliſcitly did POPE follow hiz maſter (au doit et
à l'euil) truly widh finguer and eye; and hoo ſhal diſpute
a DRYDENS authorrity?
Meleager and Atalanta.
Now learn the diff'rence, at your proper COST;
Betwixt true valour, and an empty BOAST.
Ov dhe two laſt rimes dhe eye had no oddher dhan conſequencial
direccion: picture waz innocent, az in dhe two
D. To the Dutcheſs:
Hibernia, proſtrate at your feet, ADOR'D,
In you, the pledge of her expected LORD.
Father of all! in ev'ry age,
In ev'ry clime ADOR'D;
By faint, by ſavage, and by ſage;
Jehovah, Jove, or LORD!
Innocent iz nedher picture nor rime; Il. xiii. 763.
Dauntleſs he ruſhes, where the Spartan LORD
Like lightning brandiſht his far-beaming SWORD.
Hwich may be equally ſaid ov dhe ſhut and open, or
ſhort or long, committed (yet denied) in dhe first and
third ov dhis ſtanza:
What bleſſings thy free bounty GIVES,
Let me not caſt away;
For God is paid, when man RECEIVES:
T' enjoy is to obey.
If open and ſhut vowels jar ſo togueddher, can o direct
and depreſſive agree?
D. Knight's Tale;
Their wagers back their wiſhes: numbers HOLD:
With the fair freckled king and beard of GOLD.
P. Il. xiii. 345.
Enter and ſee on heaps thy helmets ROLL'
And high-hung ſpears, and ſhields that flame with
D. Pygmalion and the ſtatue:
One would have thought ſhe could have ſtirr'd; but
With modeſty, and was aſham'd to MOVE.
P. Il. xiii. 562.
Approaching now, thy boaſted might APPROVE;
And try the proweſs of the ſeed of JOVE.
Az ezily might o, direct or depreſſive, rime widh u ſhut;
D. Twelfth Book of Ovid's Metamorphoſes
Immortal offspring of my brother JOVE!
My brighteſt nephew, and whom beſt I LOVE.
P. Il. xiii 1060.
A ſhout, that tore heaven's concave; and ABOVE
Shook the fixt ſplendours of the throne of JOVE.
— — xvii. 241
For, ah! no more Andromache ſhall COME
With joyful tears, to welcome Hector HOME.
By falſe ſervile, on won hand, and ſuperfluous on dhe
oddher, hav chimes been committed like dheze:
D. Ceyx and Alcyone;
What can thy mind to this long journey MOVE?
Or need'ſt thou abſence, to renew thy LOVE?
— — —
At once the claſhing clouds to battle MOVE;
And lightnings run acroſs the fields ABOVE.
P. Il. Xi. 924.
Some fav'ring god Achilles' heart may MOVE:
Though deaf to glory, he may yield to LOVE.
P. Il. xvii. 763.
The ſacred eagle, from his walks ABOVE
Looks down, and ſees the diſtant thicket MOVE.
By dhe ſame ſerviles attending o depreſſive and u ſhut:
D. Ajax and Ulyſſes:
Were my known valour queſtion'd, yet my BLOOD,
Without that plea would make my title GOOD.
P. Il. ix. 826.
For ſtrength conſiſts in ſpirits, and in BLOOD;
And theſe are ow'd to gen'rous wine and FOOD.
— — Xiii. 634.
Like gods of war, diſpenſing fate, they STOOD,
And burn'd to drench the ground, with mutual
— — xi. 868.
In arms we ſlept, beſide the winding FLOOD;
While round the town the fierce Epeians STOOD.
Dhe like apparent ſamenes ov ſo verry different, dho
cognate, vowels; haz crowned dhe at wonce (perhaps)
moaſt excepcionabel, and moaſt cellebrated, cupplet in
our language. Sir John Denham, from hiz Coopers Hil,
prommiſed indeed, in dhe butifool addres to' Tames,
O! could I flow like Thee, and make thy ſtream,
My great example, as it is my theme!
ſomhwat oddher (boath in ſenſe and ſound) dhan even
dhe renowned, az capacious, diſtic:
Though deep, yet clear; though gentle, yet not
Strong, without rage: without o'erflowing, FULL.
It waz ſurely no wonder, dhat a ſtream, edher clear
or gentel, ſhood not be dul. But, dho it might widh
much propriety be gentel and ſtrong; if gentel, it muſt
be widhout rage. Dhe rezon howevver and rime wood
hav been equally ſafe, in ſom ſuch cupplet az dhe now--
O! cood I flow like thee! and make dhy ſtream
My grait exampel, az it iz my theme!
Hoo deep, yet clear; hoo gentel, yet not ſlow;
Strong, doſt not ſwel; and, fool, not overflow.
Dhe ſemblance ov o open, belying a braud, might wel
deceiv hooevver cood quote
D. Baucis and Philemon.
Coarſe; but the beſt ſhe had: then rakes the LOAD
Of aſhes from the hearth, and ſpreads ABROAD
The living coals —
Centuries ago, hwen ſword and none wer dhe reallities;
ſuch rimes az dhe following, wer juſt:
D. Firſt B. of Homer's Ilias:
He ſaid; with ſurly faith believ'd his WORD,
And in the ſheath reluctant plung'd the SWORD.
— Theodore and Honoria
Th' avenger took from earth th' avenging SWORD;
And, mounting light as air, his ſable ſteed he
P. E. on C.
'Tis with our wits, as with our watches: NONE
Go juſt alike; yet each believes his OWN.
But dhe eye alone cood approov
D. Cock and Fox:
The firſt ſo binds the will, that things FOREKNOWN

By ſpontaneity, and choice, are DONE.
He, hoo ſet ſo efficacious, az we1 az libberal, an exampel
in cupplet; cood ezily extend hiz libberallity to' hiz favorite
tripplet: ov hwich alone hiz diſcipel immitated
nedher dhe buties nor dhe blemmiſhes. Elſe wood he
probbably hav braced u ſhut, o depreſſive, and o direct,
in love, move, Jove; for lov (luv), moov, Jove; in ſuch
gradacion, az DRYDEN addreſt to his honoured Couſin:
Juſt, good, and.wiſe! contending neighbours COME
From your award to wait their final Doom;
And, foes before, return in friendſhip HOME.
Boath maſter and ſcollar had herd, no les dhan ſeen, dhe
difference between oil and iſle, az boath doutles painted
our ile: for dhe good rezon, dhat dhe French (our parents
and parragons) had not entirely ceſed ſo to' paint dheir
île. Yet nedher harmoniſt had conceived dhe ſuſpiſcion
dhat won dipthong might not chime widh anoddher, compozed
ov ſo cognate partikels.
D. Meleager and Atalanta.
And, though inferiour, ſuffer me to JOIN
My labours, and my part of praiſe with THINE.
P. Eſſay on Criticiſm.
While expletives their feeble aid do JOIN;
And ten low words oft creep in one dull LINE.
Scanning ſo nicely all dhe reſt, he overlookt but dhe
conſummating ſyllabel; and, variouſly ſmart on oddhers,
forgot onely himſelf. In dhis, and numberles oddher
violacions ov vocallity; in dhe jar ov war and car, and
care; ov er and ſingular, abode and god, or dhe like;
oppozite, az open and ſhut; different, az hardly cognate;
no falſe picture can be alledged, had dhe allegacion
anny weight in dhe ſcale ov apollogy. If ſimmilarly
ADDISON committed open and ſhut
When in the ſultry glebe I FAINT,
Or on the thirſty mountain PANT —
making dhus pant and paint coincident; GAY might
yoke braud widh narrow:
Who can behold the careful ANT,
And not provide for future WANT?
Hwile dhey dhus ſaved dhemſelvs dhe trubbel ov exactnes;
dhey littel drempt dhey wer tranſmitting dhe contagion
ov exampel. SWIFTS fine ear, and manly frendthip,
often favored POPE widh ſallutary hints on dhis ſubject;
dho himſelf, widh all dhe Ingliſh (eſpeſcially Weſtern)
rimers ov hiz age (much more ov dhe following) may
wel be ſuppozed not onely az much miſled by
prezentacion, but far more apt to' commit E and A; for
want ov obzerving dhat dhe forrain E iz no more
dhe Ingliſh E, dhan dhe Ingliſh A ſlender iz
Ingliſh A braud, or dhe forrain A. If dhe Ingliſh
open dhe vowel in port and ſport, widhout ſhowing
poart or ſpoart; oddher Brittons, az wel az dhe Iriſh,
may alledge ſom plea for opening dhe vowel ov ſort. In
Popes (truly febel) cupplet (E on C.)
Expreſſion is the dreſs of thought, and ſtill
Appears more decent, as more ſuitable.
dhe chimers in oddity ov ending, deny dhemſelvs amenabel
to' dhe laws ov rime. Still haz an obvious protuberance;
but ſuitable
Deſinit in piſcem mulier formoſa ſupernè
A home-bred buty, widh a crawfiſh-tail!
may urge dhe tranſpozzitive plea; hwich infers Ingliſh
rime unanſerabel for anny ſound dhe eye cannot hear.
Suitabel dherfore innocent, az unſeen, precluded not dhe
interchainge ov cognate vowels; but precluded not dhe
diſcord, dhat muſt provoke dhe ear, hware licencious
vocallity ventures to' raiz (howevver dellicately) ſeccondary
ſtrength into' primmary attenſion. PRIOR, on dhe
contrary, waz not onely innocent, but ellegant; hwen, in
a Hudibraſtic (dhe reverſe ov a heroic) poem, he rendered
dhe gentel vocals ſo abſolutely febel, dhat all diſcrimminacion
waz abſorbed in dhe lambent licquid:
A ladel, quoth dhe man; a ladel!
Odzooks! Corſica, yoo hav pray'd il.
Odzooks! cries a laffing Crittic, hwy gave he not dhe reſt?
for ſom facecious Crittics doo find, like dhe man, an oath
widh a laf, ſo powerfool a ſubſtitute to' thought, or
hwatevver elſe can dignify a man; az to' prevent dheir
own perceiving dhat dhe reſt, if more tickelling to' dhe
Odzooker, waz propoarcionably dhe more, notthing to'
dhe prezzent purpoſe.
NOR ſee we les fredom uſed, hware won wood think
it equally impoſſibel, widh cognate conſonants, particcularly
dhe direct and depreſſive ſibbilacion; hoos (oppozite)
powers hav been hidherto' ſo promiſcuouſly warpt in
utterance and exhibiſcion, dhat rimers cool not queſtion
dheir titel to' dhe interchainge.
D. Meleager and Atalanta.
And, when the fun'ral flames began to RISE;
Receive, ſhe ſaid, a ſiſter's SACRIFICE.
— Pythagorean Philoſophy:
Ill cuſtoms; by degrees, to habits RISE;
Ill habits ſoon become exalted VICE.
P. Univerſal Prayer.
To Thee, whoſe temple is all SPACE;
Whoſe altar, earth, ſea, ſkies;
One chorus let all being RAISE,
All Nature's incenſe riſe.
Dho dhen febel vowels muſt be indiſcrimminate, hware
imperceptibel; perfect Rime (dhat iz, hwatevver can be
called Rime) requires not onely dhe final ſtrong
but dhe following articulacion (if anny) exactly coincident;
nor wil dhe uniſon ov won atone for dhe diſſonance
ov dhe oddher. Hence it iz dhat ſtil and ſuitabel chime
az il and wel, hevven and guivven; rize and ſaccrifice,
az pride and parraſite; ſo ſpace and raiz, az vice and
rice, or az take and plague: nor dheze better dhan fine
and rime; articulacions ov oppozite power, being incompattibel,
az dhoze ov different organ.
ON dhe hoal, it muſt be owned, dhat nedher DRYDEN
nor POPE, nor dheir beſt immitators, hav perceived
dhe conſequence ov ORTHOGGRAPHY; by ſuch inattenſion
to' dhe daingers, attending its violacion: and violacion
ov mellody, commenced widh ſeeming cauz, wil
be reddy to' procede widhout it. Few indeed, even ov
dhe acuteſt feelings, hav been inclinabel to' ſuſpect how
much dhe Ear, like dhe Pallate, moſt be influenced by
dhe Eve; how ſhort hwile dhe Ear, hwen dhe Eye iz
wonce viſciated, can hope to' prezerv her powers. Habittuated
to' Falſehood, won boozes taſte for Truith;
and coms to', more dhan, bair her ſophiſticacion. Stop
we dhen dhe proggres, if we cood not obviate dhe beguinnings,
ov evil; and let dhe genius, hoo, rezoning
(even hware he rimed not) widh Pythaggoras taught us,
Errors, like ſtraws, upon dhe ſurface flow;
Teach us, hoo ſerch for perls, to' dive below.
ESSENCIAL az dhis deduction haz been to' dhe enfoarcement
ov ORTHOGGRAPHY; no les prooved it a juſtice
to' dhoze hoo might hav been apt to' follow, even in deviacion,
ſuch guides; az muſt be allowed dhe moaſt capabel
ov leading dhem, into' evvery excellence ov Ingliſh verſificacion.
For, inſenſibel wer it, no les dhan unjuiſt, to'
forguet; or, remembering, not to' own; not to' own,
widh grattitude and rapture; dhat to' dheze
Immortal eirs ov univerſal praiz!
dhoze unrivalled maſters, DRYDEN and Pope! and to'
dhe genneral tensor ov dheir hevven-guided practice, we
chiefly ow dhe power ov ſettelling at laſt dhe principel.
In juſt abhorrence dherfore ov anny (impotent alike and
inviddious) wiſh to' detract from ſuch glories ov dhe Ingliſh
Language; from dhe two prime inſtruments, ov
bringing her to' dhe teſt of Purity; dhe Inveſtigator and
Syſtemmatiſt, ov our long-wanted ORTHOGGRAPHY, cannot
better atone for exemplifying its impoartance, in dhe
daingers to' hwich its neglect haz expozed dhe moaſt enlightened
verſifiers; dhan by drawing from dheir verry
works (hwence may be drawn moddels ov evvery buty)
inſtances ov dhat perfet vocallity, hwich dhey hav ſo
eſtabbliſhed, even under counteracting picturage, az to'
evince it highly wordhy dhe dres indiſpenſabel to' its
D. Ajax and Ulyſſes:
Or I with them an equal honour SHARE;
They honour'd to' be worn, and I to WEAR.
— Knight's Tale:
With equal mind, what happens, let us BEAR;
Nor joy, nor grieve too much, for things beyond
P. Epitaph on GAY.
Above temptation in a low ESTATE;
And uncorrupted, ev'n among the GREAT!
D. Wife of Bath's Tale:
As judges on the bench more gracious ARE,
And more attent to brothers of the bar.
— Cymon and Iphigenia:
The ſlav'ring cudden, propt upon his STAFF,
Stood ready gaping, with a grinning LAUGH.
Nor les butifoolly, in dhe ſame, ov dhe ſame:
Long mute he ſtood: and leaning on his STAFFS
His wonder witneſs'd with an ideot-LAUGH.
and aguen:
In malice, witty; and with venom FRAUGHT;
He makes me ſpeak the things I never THOUGHT,
az elſehware:
For he that but conceives a crime in THOUGHT,
Contracts the danger of an actual FAULT.
P. Eſſay on Criticiſm:
I know there are, to whoſe preſumptuous THOUGHTS
Thoſe freer beauties ev'n in them, ſeem FAULTS.
— Il. xi. 165.
Atrides mark'd, as theſe their ſafety SOUGHT;
And ſlew the children for the father's FAULT.
— — xxiii. 34
Behold the prizes valiant Greeks DECREED,
To the brave rulers of the racing STEED.
D. Meleager and Atalanta.
Then iſſu'd forth fam'd Jaſon, after THESE;
Who mann'd the foremoſt ſhip, that fail'd the SEAS.
Twelfth B. of Ovid 's Metainorphoſes:
Now, brave commander of the Rhodian SEAS;
What praiſe is due from me to HERCULES!
— — —
The cloud-begotten race, half-man, half BEAST;
Invited came to grace the nuptial FEAST.
— — —
With him fled Orneus; with like dread POSSEST,
Thaumas; and Medon, wounded in the BREAST.
P. Il. xvi. 252.
Thus, while he rous'd the fire in ev'ry BREAST;
Cloſe, and more cloſe, the liſt'ning cohorts PREST.
D. Firſt B. of Homer's Ilias:
In an ill hour, his piercing ſhaft he SPED;
And heaps, on heaps, of ſlaughter'd Greeks lay
hware ded muſt be owned an expletive to' dhe rime.
P. II. xvii. 406.
Indiſſolublv firm, around the DEAD;
Rank within rank, on bucklers bucklers SPREAD;
And, hemm'd with briſtling ſpears, the Grecian
A brazen bulwark, and an iron-woon.
like D. Wife of Bath's Tale:
Lonely the vale, and full of horror STOOD;
Brown with the ſhade of a religious WOOD.
Hwile dhe ſounds ove, oov, and uv, wer all huddelled in
dhe first ſemblance; no wonder if our matters, and dheir
ſcollars, made dhe verſe under it oftener jar dhan rime.
Yet here hav we alſo exampels ov dhe ears diſcrimminacion:
az P. E. on C.
Yet let not each gay flight thy rapture MOVE:
For, fools applaud; but, men of ſenſe APPROVE.
D. Knight's Tale;
For ſure, whate'er we mortals hate or LOVE,
Or hope, or fear; depends on Pow'rs ABOVE.
P. Il. xviii. 107.
Curs'd be that day! when all the Pow'rs ABOVE
Thy charms ſubmitted to a mortal LOVE.
P. Il. v. 417.
Through her bright vail, the daring weapon DROVE;
Th' ambroſial vail! which all the Graces WOVE.
Widh like harmony ar elſehware open and open, ſhut
and ſhut combin'd; nor doz dhe coincident aſpirate, widh
its cognate ſibbilacion, mar dhe rime in won ov DRYDENS
prollogues, hware ov himſelf he ſays:
He's bound to pleaſe, not to write well; and
There is a mode in plays, as well as CLOATHS.
— Knight's Tale:
Like drunken ſots, about the ſtreets we ROAM;
Well knows the ſot, he has a certain HOME.
P. Il, xxiv. —
Through Troy's wide ſtreets, abandon'd ſhall
In Troy deſerted, as abhorr'd at HOME.
— — ii. 1014.
From great Ariſba's walls, and Selle's COAST,
Aſius Hyrtacides conducts the HOST.
P. Il. ix. 755.
And know the men, of all the Grecian HOST,
Who honour worth, and prize thy valour MOST.
D. Meleager and Atalanta.
If I adore, and ever have ADOR''D,
Thy pow'r divine; thy preſent aid AFFORD.
— — Cinyras and Myrrha:
Grief, rage, reſentment could no ſpeech AFFORD;
But, from the ſheath, he drew th' avenging SWORD.
P. Il. xiv. 467.
But there no paſs the croſſing belts AFFORD
(One brac'd his ſhield, and one ſuſtain'd his SWORD.)
— — i. 728
Vain is the ſearch, preſumptuous and ABHORR'D!
Anxious to thee, and odious to thy LORD.
D. To John DRYDEN, Eſquire
Where ſuits are travers'd, and ſo littel WON;
That he, who conquers, is but laſt undone.
D. To the Dutcheſs of Ormond:
All other parts of pious duty DONE,
You owe your Ormond nothing, but a SON.
P. Il. xxiii. 695.
Gen'rous alike, for me the ſire and SON,
Have greatly ſuffer'd, and have greatly DONE.
D. Cock and Fox:
Swiftly he made his way, the miſchief DONE;
Of all unheeded, and purſu'd by NONE.
Dhus hav dhe accidental violators been dhe happy promoters
and prezervers ov Ingliſh harmony. If, in ſom
caſes, dhe deluded eye bewildered dhe ear; dhe latter
gennerally followed her onely ſure guide; and aſcertained
purity ov ſound, even in ſpite ov ſemblance.
AFFECTACION, dhe ape ov Excellence, prevails nohware
more dhan in language; becauz notthing iz les
ſtuddied, haven compulſion iz over; and notthing, edher in
or after ſcool, ſo littel, az dhe moaſt impoartant ov languages;
dhe native. ORTHOEPPY iz ſuppozed to' be nattural
(if not innate) ſpeech; ORTHOGGRAPHY, its nattural
picture. Hwen dheze nattural frends ſeem to' differ;
dhe latter, az more oſtenſibel, becauz remaining, becoms
alone regarded; and manny, hoo ſhood know better,
ſtrain dheir organs to' warp dhe Harmony dhey hear (or
may hear) into' dhe abomminacions dhey ſee. Hence
dhe prezent labors for vaunt, oblige, and oddher ſounds
hwich grate all Ingliſh ears, dhat hav yet dhe ſenſe ov
hearing; or turn all Ingliſh ſtommacs, dhat ſtil pozes
dhe power ov ſickening. But no falſe picture haz inſpired
dhe long rage for woond, and dhe late for ſoorce: dhe
former demanding not more dhe dipthong (ou) in dhe
pretterite ov wind, dhan in dhe expreſſive wound, ov
hwich dhe poets hav been dhe unannimous aſſerters.
D. Twelfth Book of Ovid's Metamorphoſes
And Mermeros, in the late race RENOWN'D;
Now limping ran, and tardy from his WOUND.
— Dhe ſhaft —
Drove through his neck aſlant: he ſpurns the
And the foul iſſues through the weaſon's WOUND.
P. Il. xi. 942.
An arrow's head, yet rooted in his WOUND;
The ſable blood in circles mark'd the GROUND.
P. Il. xvii. 414.
Fixt on the ſpot they war; and wounded, WOUND:
A ſanguine torrent ſteeps the reeking GROUND.
Source, neſceſſarily ſoorce in French; iz no les neſceſſarily
ſoarce, dhan dhe French force iz foarce in Ingliſh;
hwich knows no ſuch ſound az edher oorce or ource. Dhe
unnattural ſoorce opened not in Ingland, under our edher
Orrakel. Az dhe maſter, ſo ſaid dhe ſcollar: Il. xii. 19.
Eſopus, Granicus, with mingled FORCE;
And Xanthus, foaming from his fruitful SOURCE.
— xiii. 861.
Locrians and Phthians, and th' Epean FORCE;
But, join'd, repell'd not Hector's fiery COURSE.
Az ſource, dhus truly ſoarce, rimes widh force no
les truly foarce; and widh coarſe hwatevver, hwence
coarce, dhe lifeles boddy, may be duly parted: ſo coart,
long fallaciouſly court, widh poart and ſpoart.
D. Sigiſmunda and Guiſcarda.
Now lay thy line, and meaſure all thy COURT;
By inward vertue, not external PORT.
D. Sigiſmunda and Guiſcarda.
With this ſhe ſeem'd to play; and, as in SPORT,
Toſs'd to her Love, in prefence of the COURT.
Equally waz dhe depreſſive unviolated by DRYDEN, even
under dhe ambigguous picture; in dhe cellebrated verſion
ov dhe unfortunate
O! fortunatam natam me conſule Romam!
Fortune foretun'd the fatal fall of ROME,
When I, her Conſul, ſole conſol'd her DOOM.
Hwile we muſt dhen wonder more dhat our maſters hav
dhus polliſhed our language, under ſo long gaddhered
ruſt; and tranſmitted Ingliſh Truith, in ſpite ov diſguizing
Falſehood; dhan dhat dhemſelvs wer ſomtimes miſled by
Appearance, from Reallity; hwile dhey hav howevver
been enabled dhus to' guide us, into' a happines dhey
nevver enjoyed; dhat ov ſeing Propriety annealed in her
Picture; and ſo ov remooving dhe verry rocs, hwich no
Pilots (evver ſo ſkilfool) hav hiddherto' eſcaped; by
dhe now adjuſted compas ov ſound and ſymbol, non need
hencefoarth miſtake dhe navigacion hware ſteer ſo diſtinct,
Rote from Rezon, Affectacion from Ellegance;
Semblance from Subſtance, dhe indiſpenſabel from
dhe impoſſibel. In dhe diſpulſion ov Inconſiſtence hav
we dhus found dhe hoal Syſtem ov Ingliſh Harmony; nor
merely dhe numberles redundant, defiſcient, or inaddequate
ſymbols; but certain ſounds incompattibel widh it:
particcularly ige, oorce, auce, auge, aunt, aunce, aunch,
aunge and ange. Hence dhe inadmiſſibillity ov ſuch horrors
(howevver vulgar) az oblige, ſoorce, ſauce, gauge,
vaunt, aſcaunce, and ſtaunch; nay ov dhe old raunge
and raunger, hwich wonce wer (perhaps) juſt pictures;
dho nedher dhey, nor dheir ſucceſſors range and ranger,
can (now) be ſo: hwile rainge and rainger onely,
muſt be repprezented. Want haz indeed a braud, but
ſhort az ſhut; hwen compared widh dhe familliar contractive
wa'n't waz not. Dhat non ov dhe reſt, leaſt ov
all ige, can claim acces to' our Anallogy, wil com to' be
credditted by hooevver ſhal attempt to' find an authorrity,
vouched by a compannion, for anny won ov dhem; az
dhe ellegant ege iz, vouched in dhe deciſive cupplet:
Dredding e'n fools, by flatterers BESIEG'D;
And ſo OBLEGING, dhat he nehr OBLEG''D.
IF writing dhen muſt repprezent utterance; prezerv it
to' natives, and convey it to' ſtraingers; if proze muſt
be pure and melodious az verſe; dho it cannot alike aſcertain
edher dhe quallity or dhe quantity ov ſound; purity
ov ſpeech wil dictate purity ov picture, and dhe gennuine
picture wil reflect dhe gennuine oridginal. Dhus
dhe unviſciated ear furniſhes raſcional entertainment to'
dhe eye, and dhe unviſciated eye returns dhe mellody ov
dhe ear. On dheir mutual dependance, depends human
language; and, on dheir adjuſtment, dhe language ov
Propriety. Edher, erring, muſt injure dhe oddher; but
dhe error ov dhe ear, dho ſtriking for dhe moment, iz
leſs conſequencially, and les extendedly, fatal.
Vox emiſſa perit, littera ſcripta manet.
Emitted voice iz ſwallow'd ſoon in air:
Dhe written word alone dhe teſt can bair.
a pentammeter bilt (by hwomſoevver) on dhe ellegant
hemmiſtic ov HORRACE
— neſcit vox miſſa reverti.
or completing an ellegiac, widh 'hiz hexammeter:
Et ſemel emiſſum volat irrevocabile verbum.
Dhe livving word, let looſe, returns no more:
Dhe cunning tranſcript gards dhe golden ſtore.
Language, unpainted, muſt continnue unknown. Won
inſpired writer did but coincide widh anoddher, hoo ſaid:
If dhe trumpet guiv an uncertain ſound, hoo ſhal prepare
himſelf for dhe battel? Speech dherfore finds firſt aſcertainment,
and dhen ſtabillity, onely in its picture: for
dhare alone cood it be depozzited and exammined. Widhout
ORTHOEPPY (or preciſe oridginal) can be no ORTHOGGRAPHY
(or preciſe picture); but, widhout dhe latter,
wer dhe former loſt. Orthoeppy ripens by dhe
power ov ANALLOGY; hoo opperates in USE, called
blind, by blind obzervers; dho doutles
Quem penes arbitrium eſt, et jus et norma loquendi.
Dhat lord ov language, hoo commands dhe ſcools;
Dhat hevv'n-born deſpot, hoo by Rezon rules!
To' like purpoſe dhe Ingliſh Horrace
All Nature iz but Art, unknown to' dhee;
All Chance Direccion, hwich dhou canſt not ſee.
Orthoggraphy coms at laſt to' emboddy Orthoeppy; and
diſpels evvery cloud, dhat darkened her aſcertainers.
POPE might natturally ſay,
Our ſons dheir fahdhers failing language ſee;
but nevver hazzarded a: les judiſcious propphecy, dhan
dhat he ſubjoins:
And dhat hwich CHAUCER iz, ſhal DRYDEN be.
Better, dhan anoddher, knew he hoo ſaid ſo (yong az he
waz), dhat in CHAUCERS time Ingliſh waz ſuch a jargon,
az no genius cood bring widhin ſight ov Anallogy; dhat,
on dhe contrary, dhe proppheſier dhus hopeleſly ov
DRYDEN, waz alreddy contending widh hiz maſter alike
and hiz later contemporaries, hoo ſhood bring dhe far--
advanced language up to' dhat ſtandard, hwich he and
dhey rejoiced to' behold at hand. Under SHAKSPEAR and
BEN-JONSON, hoo boath braught it forward, ſtil waz it
far away. All dhe three grait poets weighed dheir words
too wel, to leve dhe picture at random; and wer perhaps
dhe firſt ov dhe Ingliſh geniuſſes, hoo perceived dhe impoartance
OV ORTHOGGRAPHY. Dhey cood nedher bair
to' hear nor to' ſee Shakeſpeare or Johnſon, ſubtle or
ſought; az we know, from dhe ediſcions dhey reſpectively
NOR wer dhoze dhe firſt Ingliſh writers, hoo ſaw dhe
conſequence ov writing propperly. Since dhe completion
ov dhis work, haz dhe Author been reannimated
by finding himſelf not dhe firſt Britton hoo dared to'
paint Brittiſh language from dhe life; dho he alone,
long ago, reduced her Principels to' a ſcience, and haz
alone here prezumed to' ſyſtematize her picture. Dhe
litterate az ingenious ROBERT LANGHAM, promoted by
dhe Erl ov Leiceſter (hoom he cellebrates under dhe nattural
name ov Leyceter) at dhe coart ov Queen Elizzabeth,
guivs a ſpirrited account ov Part ov dhe Entertainment
prezented untoo her Madjeſty at Killingworth- (or
Kennelworth-)caſtl in Warwik-ſheer; in a Letter untoo
Maſter Humfrey Martin, merchant ov London: printed
in 1575, dhe year ov dhe Royal Proggres dhat occazioned
it. In dhis curious, and at length cellebrated
pamphlet, appears perhaps dhe firſt, and queſtionles
dhe boldeſt Brittiſh effort, preceding dhe prezzent, to'
prezent Ingliſh words (by Ingliſh letters) in writing. For
dhare obviouſly dhe ſame plan ov uzing az few az poſſibel
ſymbols for won ſound, conſequently ſounds for won
ſymbol; ov retrenching ſuperfluity, ſupplying defect,
and righting wrong (widhout knighterrantry); ov telling
truith and dooing juſtice, exhibbits too (widh untoo and
intoo) doo, moov, proov, yoo, yooth, uncooth, alſo throogh,
and blud; pacient, potencial, mencion; az, waz, iz,
hiz; wize, uze, abuze, excuze, diſpoze, noze, noiz,
cauz; praiz, prezent, dezert, Cezar, damzel; tel, of,
od; goddes, highnes, fautles, iland, dout, ſcool; red,
hed, hart, aw, ar, wer, firie (or firy), gard, bild, banket,
hole: mannage, hunny, Latten, pollecy, reddy,
chappel; riddel, ſpindel, candel, aker; and dhe like,
ſince, az before, dilligently diſguized in dhe ſemblance
ov to, do, move, prove; you, youth, uncouth, through,
blood: patient, potential, mention; as, was, is, his;
wiſe, uſe, abuſe, excuſe, diſpoſe, noſe, noiſe, cauſe,
praiſe, preſent, deſert, Ceſar, damſel: tell, off, odd;
goddeſs, highneſs, faultleſs, iſland; doubt, ſchool; read,
head, heart, awe, are, were, fiery, guard, build, banquet,
whole: manage, honey, Latin, policy, ready, chapel,
riddle, ſpindle, candle, acre, widh dheir fellow-fal--
AFFRAID ov miſrepprezentacion, dhence fearles ov
coincidence; he admitted but littel ſubſtitucion. Dho
he did write fyrſt and Syr, he wrote ſtur (dhe parent ov
dhe old ſtour, duſt ſturred) burd, ſum, ſum, and cum;
hwich hav com innocently, hware not uſefoolly, into'
firſt and Sir, widh ſtir, bird, com, ſom, and ſon; az
wel az don, dheir fellow-diſtinctive. Too he boldly uzed
in all dhe three ſenſes, here diſtinguiſhed by to', two, and
too. Hiz principel waz, to' employ dhe direct figgure
for dhe direct ſibbilacion, dhe depreſſive for dhe depreſſive.
Hence wrote he medſin, paciens, pallaiſ, mallis,
and vois, (dho he wel knew boath dhe French and Lattin
names) for medcine, pacience, pallace, mallice, and
voice; ſo ſayz, ſtarz, beamz, queenz, cornz; az more preciſe
dhan ſays, ſtars, beams, queens, corns; and ſimmilar.
He avoided even dhe appearance ov a dipthong in ſuch
az kno, beſto, follo, and ſoll; hiddherto' elſehware painted
know, beſtow, follow, and ſoul, here aguen diſtinctively
ſoll. He cood not bair dhe ſight ov two conſonants for
won: dherfore choze he (lovving k final) bak, nek,
lok, luk; for bac, nec, ſtic, loc, luc; ſo publik, Warwik
(or Warwyk), for pubblic and Warwic; inſerting howevver
dhe c, az we ſubjoin dhe k in backing, ſticking, lucky,
or dhe like. He did not indeed always perceiv, more
dhan hiz ſucceſſive debaſers, dhe need ov ſhowing a ſhutter:
ſtil howevver did he far excede dhem in penning
facion, diſpozicion, provizion, trezure, bizines; for faſcion
(or fasſhion), diſpoziſcion, provizzion, trezzure,
bizzines or biznes. Incapabel ov ſhowing woman, and
yeomen, and pecple; he did ſhow wooman and weemen,
or wemen, wanting onely dhe ſhutting duplication ov
woomman and wimmen; he ſhowed yeeman or yemen az
dhey wer and ar; and peepl or pepl, but won ſtep from
dhe propriety ov pepel. Wel did he ſee dhe prepoſterouſnes
ov clapping even a febel vowel after dhe articulation
dhat ſhut it, dhat cood not ſhut it but by following
it. Yet he herd dhe licquid ſo clear, and dhe vowel ſo
littel, dhat he thaught it no violation ov Anallogy, Hebrew-like,
to' underſtand dhe ſoll in (ſo livving a part ov)
dhe boddy. Dho he doz prezent raſcionally candel, ſpindel,
riddel, and Middelton; he made it hiz conſtant az
ezy practice to' write littl caſtl, idl pepl; gentlmen,
noblmen, and dhe like; for littel caſtel, idel pepel; gentelmen,
nobelmen, and ſo on; not reflecting dhat moddern
picturage no more pretends to' primmitive refinement,
dhan oddher moddern practice to' dhe practice ov
Parradiſe. In Longhorns Ingliſh, az in dhe prezzent
Scotch (hwich iz indeed littel elſe dhan dhe Ingliſh ov hiz
days); nedher benignus nor benigne, nor frumentum nor
froment, precluded dhe interchainge ov benign and bening,
or dhe prefference ov ſurmenty (or ſurmety) to'
frommenty. Ov hour and herb he dropt dhe redundant
iniſcial, dho he adapted our and erb (in oour and earb)
perhaps to' dhe ſounds ov hiz time. To' dhe ſame did
he accommodate parfet and ſollem; dhe former ſince
refined into' perfet, dhe latter unchainged in eſſence, dho
dhe ſilent abuttal ov ſollemn innocently announces dhe
ſolemnity. Widh hiz frends name, and hiz own, he
delt tenderly; if indeed Humfrey and Robert wer dhen
becom Umfrey and Robbert. Yet Martin and Martyn
he uzes promiſcuouſly. I and Y wer interchaingeabel
in Ingliſh az in French, til dhe fair compromize,
dhat dhe pronoun y ſhood be dhe ſinguel y final in
French; and dhe pronoun I, dhe ſinguel i final in Ingliſh;
proppers duly excepted. on boath ſides. Hwen
nyneth or nyenth, waz dhe unprecluded nin'th ordinal,
dayn or dain (ſomtimes deyn or dein) forrayn or forrain;
ſouverayn or ſouverain, ſoverayn or ſoverain, for ſovverain,
did az much onnor to' dhe middel ov dhe ſixteenth,
az deign, foreign, and ſovereign, doo indignity
to' dhe end ov dhe enlightened eighteenth century. Dho
Mr. Langham goes no fardher, nor ſo far widh uniformity;
in dhe adaptation ov ſymbols to' ſounds; and dho
dhe prezzent ſyſtem waz completely digeſted, long before
dhe digeſter had ſo much az herd ov dhe blac-letter-curioſity;
dhe latter iz az proud ov ſuch anticipation, az
he wood hav been ambiſcious to' follow Nature, on dhe
moddel ov her favorite.
IF a Longhorn appears not in evvery age; in dhat
ſucceding to' hiz, no won attempted (far les MILTON)
to' offer edher delight or information to' dhe Pubblic,
widhout endevvoring to' doo hiz ſentiments dhe juſtice ov
imparting alſo hiz ſounds.
Dhe ear commanded, and dhe hand obey'd;
Nor, from dhe livving Truith, her pencil ſtray'd.
Truith lends grace to' her evvery picture: dhe gratefool
picture returns perpetuity. Vertue, burrough, battel,
perſwade, onely, and dhe like faithfool repprezentacions,
did not ceſe to' pleze, hwile Nature and Truith had
charms. Anallogy widh eſſence girded Ettymollogy.
No Brittiſh pen pretended, perhaps in dhe laſt century,
(hwich we moddeſtly compound ov fanatticiſm and riot)
to' promote convenience by a litterary ly; or to' prezent
an appoſtroph, az we hav ſeen, hware cood be no elizzion.
No hyphen recquizite waz purpoſely omitted; nor anny
won inſerted, but in its place. Principels ov life and
letters wer natturally dwindelling togueddher, hwen
widh dhe prezzent century dawned certain happy geniuſſes,
hoo braught dhe Language ſo near to' her
ſummit, dhat dhey cood not but pant for hwat cood alone,
at wonce, promote her permanence and extend her ſway.
Bickerſtaf reccommended Brightland. But Brightland
waz no bright verſifier, even on ſo annimating a theme
az dhat ov litteral letters; and hiz proze, alas! az dhat
in after-times ov Harriſſes HERMES, required ov dhe
Reader ſom ſmall exercion ov a certain commoddity;
hwich, being variouſly preſcious, became propoarcionably
ſcarce, and ſo waz rezerved for higher objects or
for happier days. Yet here and dhare Explorers ov Anallogy

Apparent rari nantes in gurgite vaſto:
Rear dheir undanted heds from out dhe gulf.
Won redeſcries red and boren (or bor'n), anoddher ſkeptic
and iland, under dhe fallacious ſemblance ov read, born
or borne, ſceptic and iſland; ſo teſtifying at leaſt ſom indignacion,
dhat BRITTAIN ſhood continnue in her letters,
az a late Neſtor pronounced her, an ISLAND! in her manners.
Widh ſuch ſeemed to' depart dhe verry oridginal
ov Purity; and, widh dhe oridginal, all dezire ov anny
remaining picture. Moddern tungs (eſpeſcially ours) wer
held unwordhy, or incapabel, ov raſcional cultivation:
dhe native muſt edher blow in widh dhe air, or be filtered
throogh dhe impervious boddy ov dhe aincient languages.
All pretence dherfore to' Ingliſh principel, in word or in
writing; ſoon incurred, from real or affected contempt,
intereſted fulminacion. Dhe Ingliſh dhus totally loſt
ſight ov dheir language; and, hwen out ov ſight, no
wonder if its purity be graddually guetting out ov mind;
az out ov dhe organ, hwence dhe mind muſt receiv it.
In dhis ſenſe alſo, widhout profane extenſion; If dhine
eye be evil, dhe hoal boddy iz fool ov darknes. Won organ
viſciated, dhe cognate cannot keep untainted, hweddher
by inſenſibel or ſtuddied compliance widh a picturage;
hwich, ſom time unqueſtioned, beguins to' plead
preſcripcion, and to' uzurp dhe ſacred titel ov ORTHOGGRAPHY.

NOT dhat widh a Langham departed all taſte ov
Truith. In letters, az in life, may be ſaid: Nemo repentè
fuit turpiſſimus. Widh regard to' Propriety, reces
muſt be graddual az advancement. Yet muſt be owned
— facilis deſcenſus Averni:
Noctes atque dies patet atri janua Ditis.
Sed revocare gradum, ſuperaſque evadere ad auras;
Hoc opus, hic labor eſt.
How ezy, and how ſmoodh dh' infernal road!
Wide gahps dhe gate ov Pluto's blac abode.
But to' regain dhe ſweet ſupernal gale,
May dhis our taſk, our glorious toil prevail.
In Iſlip's ediſcion ov Chaucer, 1602, and dhence
more or les thro' dhe ſevventeenth Century, remained.
uncorrupted labor, comming, ſomtimes, defaut, ſkil,
onely, diverſe; az widh ſmall repprehenſibillity, moove,
proove, forraine, feine, unfained; hartie, curteſie, floriſh,
caracter, tong, Petrarke, and dheir numberles
fellows. But now, dhat our Language haz attained dhe
deuce ov perfection; her picture and the, dhat iz ſpeech
and writing, continnue at conſtant variance; Ingliſh (for
want ov a teſt) neſceſſarily corrupting in dhe verry cappital,
cannot deſcend in purity acceſſibel to' dhe ſtrainger.
Notthing can dherfore prevent our diction from relapſing
into' barbariſm, far les open her ſluces ov fertillity and
fragrance; but dhe ſyſtemattic aſcertainment, hwich haz
been here exhibbited ezy, az impoartant; and, az impoartant,
DHIS indiſpenſabillity cood not eſcape dhe philoſopphic
FRANKLIN, hoo haz long lookt Nature electrically
thro'. Not howevver, til dhe complecion ov dhe prezzent
ſyſtem, did its conſtructor hear ov dhe Doctors ingenious
Plan for A reformed mode of Spelling; widh dhe
communication ov hwich dhe former haz juſt been onnored.
Nedher can now be ſorry to' perceiv ſo cloſe a
coincidence in dhe grait principels hwence muſt ſpring
dhe Refformacion, hwich boath ſaw ſo much wanted.
Attencion muſt indeed immediately ſattisfy Enquiry,
dhat for dhis glorious effect notthing waz recquizite
but to' lop redundance, ſupply defiſcience, and adjuſt
ſymbol. To' ad, dhat ſymbol can be adjuſted onely in
its place, and ſound repprezented hware alone it iz herd;
wer to arrain common-ſenſe, did it not arrain common
practice. To' ſuch adjuſtment waz no les obviouſly neſceſſary
evvery practticabel approach to' Natures own uſe ov
dhe feweſt poſſibel ſymbols for won ſound; and dhe feweſt
poſſibel ſounds for won ſymbol. Nay boath Anallogiſts
had certainly won idea, ov facillitating az wel az fixing
Ingllſh ſpeech; and, conſequently, ov propozing az littel
chainge az poſſibel in dhe picture. In dhe proſſecucion
ov dhis idea, dhey doo beguin to' differ. Dhe Doctor
thaught ſix new carracters wood improov dhe Alphabet;
but contrived dhem ſtil in concert widh Anallogy. Perceiving
O ſhut to' be dhe ſubſtitute ov A braud, ſhut or
ſhort; he braudened A, to' comprehend boath. To' dhe
hollow inſepparabel U ſhut, perhaps peculiar to' our
tung, he gave a deepening ov U open. Dhat no ſimpel
conſonants cood be wanting, he knew. Dhe two components
ov dhe nazal ſound, he cifered; rezolving dhat won
ſhood nevver ſuffice, if it cood not always. Three aſpirates,
like dhe Greeks, he nexured: dhe ſibbilating by
combined ſ i, hwich doo (in Aſia, and did in occaſion for
occazion) compoze it. Dhe dental aſpirate, hwich dhe
Lattins left open in dhe ſole emiſſion dhey gave it; dhe
Doctor waz too ſagacious, and too ſpirrited, not to' paint
in boath powers; butifoolly varying dhe cognate figgures,
at wonce from each other, and from dheir Saxon anceſtor.
But, ſince ph and bh had alreddy got ſimpel ſubſtitutes
in f and v; if ſh, direct and depreſſive, might be nexured
in won form; th and dh muſt claim ſepparate, dho cognate,
ſymbols: elſe had dhey boath ſtood receivers, if not
conductors, ov dhat ſhoc, or dhat flaſh, hwich Philoſſophy
alone can ſerenely expect from dhe jar ov ellements.
NOT to' enter on dhe Doctor's vocal ſubſtitucions,
combinacions, or oddher varriacions; widh hwatevver ingenuity,
adapted to' dhe grand principel ov appropriating
won ſymbol to' won ſound; dhe prezzent ſyſtemmatiſt
can nedher deny hiz pride ov ſo much coincidence
widh ſo acute an obzerver; nor pretend humiliacion, dhat
dhe ſyſtem here conſtructed admits nedher anny new
carracters, nor evvery ſuch uſe ov dhe old. Fond ov
dhe countenance and corroboration, hwich a Longham,
a Franklin, and all dhe votaries ov Truith, muſt reflect
on each oddher; no les dhan fired widh dhe onnor dhey
inſepparablv, dho reſpectively, partake in her ſervice; he
haz found himſelf enabled, by her light, to' ſhow dhe
Ingliſh ſyſtem ov Orthograpphic ſymbols complete.
Such indeed haz been dhe almoaſt ſamenes ov dhe human
Alphabet, like dhat ov dhe ſounds it waz to' convey;
az dheze ov dhe organs, dhat wer to' emit dhem; dhat in
number it cood not much vary, from dhe firſt to' dhe
lateſt language. Thro' all ages and dialects muſt dhe
verry names ov dhe letters hav prezerved ſom ſucceſſive
anallogy, and even dheir reſpective figgure been more
or les connectedly traceabel; dho dhis alone, widh its
employment, waz evver in human power. So ſuffiſcient
dherfore haz been dhe ſymbollic ſyſtem, dhat, from Greek
to' Lattin, widh littel; and dhence, widh ſcarce anny
varriacion, haz it foolly repprezented evvery deſcendant
ſpeech. So ſublime, it muſt be owned, waz dhe vizzibel
ſtructure ov primmitive language; dhat, til dhe graddual
invention ov dhe Greek alphabet, a vowel waz no more
ſeen in dhe articculating ſyſtem, dhan a ſoll in dhe boddy.
Dhe invizzibel, intellectual, immaterial, immortal ſpirrit,
annimating, mooving,. and guiding its organization;
knew wel how to' eliſcit from dhe organnic ſyſtem (ov
fymbols), dhe intended and indiſpenſabel, dhe raſcional
and harmonious ſounds, dhat varied dhe voice ov Truith.
Nor, til multiplying dialects, or degenerating man,
rendered occular aids recquizite, wer vocal delinneacions
invented; voice being indeed, no more dhan ſpirrit, an
object ov dhe boddily eye. Som faint idea haz been
guivven ov Dr. Franklins plan: an exemplificacion ov its
picturage wood but terrify dhe reader (perhaps alreddy
ſuffiſciently terrified) widh dhe appearance ov a ſtill more
forrain language. Yet dhe two Letters, hwich doo
oridginally exemplify dhe curious ſyſtem, wil (nor wil
dhe writers regret it) doo like ſtanding onnor to' dhis.
Kenſington, September 26, 1768.
Dear Sir,
I HAV tranſcribed yoor alphabet, &c. hwich I think
might be ov ſervice, to' dhoze hoo wiſh to' acquire an
accurate pronunciacion, if dhat cood be fixed; but I
ſee manny inconveniences, az wel az difficulties, dhat
wood attend dhe bringing yoor letters and orthoggraphy
into' common uſe. All our ettymollogies wood be loſt:
conſequently we cood not aſcertain dhe meaning ov
manny words. Dhe diſtinccion too between words ov
different meaning and ſimmilar ſound wood be uſeles,
unles we livving writers pubbliſh new ediſcions. In
ſhort, I believ we muſt let pepel ſpel on in dheir old
way; and, az we find it ezieſt, doo dhe ſame ourſelvs.

With eaſe, and with ſincerity, I can, in the old way,
ſubſcribe myſelf,
Dear Sir,
Your faithful and affectionate ſervant,
M— S—
Dr. Franklin.
Anſer to' Mis S.
Dear Maddam,
DHE objection yoo make to' rectifying yoor alphabet,
"dhat it wil be attended widh inconveniencies
and difficulties," iz a nattural won: for it always occurs,
haven anny refformacion iz propozed; hweddher in relidgion,
govvernment, laws, and even down az low az roads
and hweel-carridges. Dhe true queſtion dhen iz not,
hweddher dhare wil be no difficulties or inconveniencies;
but hweddher dhe difficulties may not be ſurmounted;
and hweddher dhe conveniencies wil not, on dhe hoal,
be graiter dhan dhe inconveniencies. In dhis caſe, dhe
difficulties ar all in dhe beguinning ov dhe practice.
Hwen dhey ar wonce overcom, dhe advantages ar laſting.
To' edher yoo or me, hoo ſpel wel in dhe prezzent
mode, I imadgine dhe difficulty ov chainging dhat
mode for dhe new, iz not ſo grait, but dhat we might
perfetly guet over it in a weeks writing. Az to' dhoze,
hoo doo not ſpel wel, if dhe two difficulties ar conkered,
to' wit: dhat ov teaching dhem true ſpelling in dhe prezzent
mode, and dhat ov teaching dhem dhe new alphabet,
and dhe new ſpelling according to' it; I am confident
dhat dhe latter wood be by far dhe les. Dhey natturally
fall into' dhe new metthod alreddy, az much az
dhe imperfection ov dheir alphabet wil admit (ov). Dheir
prezzent bad ſpelling iz onely bad, becauz contrary to'
dhe prezzent bad rules: under dhe new rules, it wood
be good. Dhe difficulty ov lerning to' ſpel (wel)
in dhe old way iz ſo grait, dhat few attain it; thouzands
and thouzands writing on to' old age, widhout evver
being abel to' acquire it. 'Tiz, beſides, a difficulty continnually
encreſing; az dhe ſound graddually varies
more and more from dhe ſpelling; and to' forrainers it
makes dhe lerning to' pronounce our language, az written
in our books, almoaſt impoſſibel.
Now, az to' dhe inconveniences yoo mencion. Dhe
firſt iz, dhat ''all our ettymollogies wood be loſt; con"ſequently
we cood not aſcertain dhe meaning ov man"ny
words." Ettymollogies ar at prezzent verry uncertain;
but, ſuch az dhey ar, dhe old books wood ſtil
prezerv dhem, and ettymollogiſts wood dhare find dhem.
Words, in dhe coarſe ov time, chainge dheir meanings,
az wel az dheir ſpelling and pronunciation; and we doo
not look to' ettymollogy for dheir prezzent meanings.
If I ſhood call a man a knave and a villain, he wood
hardly be ſattisfied widh my telling him, dhat won ov
dhe words oridginally ſignified onely a lad or ſervant;
and dhe oddher, an under-plowman, or dhe inhabbitant
ov a village. It iz from prezzent uzage onely, dhe
meaning ov words iz to' be determined.
YOOR ſeccond inconvenience iz, dhat, "dhe diſtinc"cion
between words ov different meaning and ſimmi"lar
ſound wood be deſtroyed." Dhat diſtinccion iz
alreddy deſtroyed in pronouncing dhem; and we rely on
dhe ſenſe alone ov dhe ſentence to' aſcertain, hwich ov
dhe ſevveral words, ſimmilar in ſound, we intend. If
dhis iz ſuffiſcient in dhe rapiddity ov diſcoarſe, it wil be
much more ſo in written ſentences; hwich may be red
lezzurely; and attended to' more particcularly in caſe ov
difficulty, dhan we can attend to' a paſt ſentence, hwile
a ſpeaker iz hurrying us along widh new wons.
YOOR third inconvenience iz, that ''all dhe books al"redly
written wood be uſeles." Dhis inconvenience
wood only com on graddually, in a coarſe ov ages. Yoo
and I, and oddher now livving writers, wood hardly forguet
dhe uſe ov dhem. Pepel wood long lern to' read
dhe old writing, dho dhey practiſed dhe new. And dhe
inconvenience is not graiter, dhan hwat haz actually its happened
in a ſimmilar caſe, in Ittaly. Formerly its inhabbitants
all ſpoke and wrote Latin: az (The language
chainged, dhe ſpelling followed it. It iz true dhat, at
prezzent, a mere unlerned Itallian cannot read dhe Lattin
books; dho dhey ar ſtil red, and underſtood, by
manny. But, if dhe ſpelling had nevver been chainged,
he wood now hav found it much more difficult to'
read and write hiz own language: for written words
wood hav had no relacion to' ſounds; dhey wood onely
hav ſtood for things: ſo dhat, if he cood expres in writing
dhe idea he haz, hwen he ſounds dhe word Veſcovo,
he muſt uze dhe letters Epiſcopus. In ſhort, hwatevver
dhe difficulties and inconveniences now ar, dhey wil be
more ezily ſurmounted now, dhan herafter; and, ſom
time or oddher, it muſt be don; or our writing wil becom
dhe ſame widh dhe Chineze, az to' dhe difficulty
ov lerning and uzing it. And it wood alreddy hav been
ſuch, if we had continnued dhe Saxon ſpelling, and
writing, uzed by our forefahdhers.
I am, my dear frend,
Yoors affeccionately,
Sept. 28, 1768.
HWEN a tong haz at length reached her ſtandard ov
purity, her verry picture becoms a ſcience; az, on dhe
oddher hand, hwen dhe picture ov anny tung iz reducibel
to' a ſcience, ſuch tung muſt hav attained her ſtandard.
ORTHOGGRAPHY had not ſtamped dhe Lattin language,
til dhe age ov JULIUS and AUGUSTUS. Hence it iz, dhat
few Roman Authors, prior to dhoze imperial Parragons and
Patrons, hav com down to'our days; and, ov dhoze hoo flurriſhed
in, or a century after, dhat goolden period, ſcarce
won Lattin Genius haz been loſt. Nor can here be overlooked
dhe lerning and taſte, dhat diſtinguiſh certain moddern
edditors ov dhe aincients: hwich edditors take ſo
ſacred pains to' cloud wonce more widh dhe ruſt ov barbariſm,
dhe polliſhed ſtile ov a HORACE or a VIRGIL; to'
reinſtate dhe vowels dhey had ſo perſpicuouſly, and ſo
harmoniouſly chainged; to' decompound dhe conſonant,
hwich dhey had, by Anallogy's own mellifluous guidance,
varied or abſorbed in combinacion; and to' reinſert
(or ſqueze in anew) dhat braud licquefaccion,
hwich cood nevver find place in Greek or French, nevver
annihware needles place in dhe reign ov Ellegance.
Ov dhe former ar exampels, volnus, maxumus, omnis;
inbuere, adſpirare, adſpicere; ov dhe latter, urguere and
unguere; for dhe Auguſtan, vulnus, maximus, omnes and
omneis; imbuere, aſpirare, aſpicere; urgere, and ungere.
A diſcrimminating ear, like Virgils, muſt find in olli,
a ſtrength ov labor, or labor ov ſtrength; not in illi, az
natturally plezing on dellicate, dherfore needed on common,
occazions. Nor iz
Olli inter ſeſe magna vi brachia tollunt.
Widh mutual effort huge, on high dhey heve
dheir arms.
more expreſſive dhan
Ille colit terras: illi mea carmina curae.
He moddels man; my verſes flow hiz care.
Hoo dhence wood evverihware prefer olli to' illi? Not
a Virgil; more dhan ollius, tu' illius; hwen hiz grattitude
Namque erit ille mihi ſemper Deus: illius aram
Saepe tenet noſtris ab ovilibus imbuet agnus.
To' him, az to' a God, I'l rear a fane:
Hiz altar oft my lambkin ſhal diſtain.
DHAT boath parts ov dhe Lattin dipthongs ae and oe
wer clearly, dho conjunctly, audibel az vizzibel, in Auguſtan
times, no les dhan boath parts ov dhe Greek preddeceſſors;
cannot be douted by dhe converſant in dhoze
diccions. Truly moddern iz dherfore dhe invention ov
dhe pretty nexures æ and œ; hwich ſom noted ſcollars
ov later days hav ſtrained to' ſqueze not onely into' Lattin,
but into' French and Ingliſh; prezenting widh
equal ardor az widh equal rezon, Cæſar and Phœbus, for
Caeſar and Phoebus, Céſar and Phébus, Cezar and Phebus.
Til Anallogy's eſtabbliſhment, ORTHOGGRAPHY'S parts
ar but half-eliſcited. Before dhe Auguſtan age, C painted
boath powers. Vicinti, dhus dhe parent ov viceſimus
and vicies, varied to' viginti, hwich produced vigeſimus.
Dhen became diſtinct, alike to' eye and ear, dhe
components centi and genti; az in quingenti and ſexcenti.
So Caius and Gaius wer interchainged for dhe name; az
we ſee dhe latter tranſlated into' Γαιός (Gaios), dho dhe
former remained almoaſt exeluſively at ROOM. Upon
dhis due diſcriminacion, C no longer involving alſo G;
hwich had in Greek cifered dhe guttural aſpirate (ch),
came in Lattin to' nexure C widh dhe ſibbilacion (CS or
GZ): az in pax, nox, nix. Pacs might ezily open into'
pacis: noctis and nivis, even legis and regis, appeared
unnattural or diſtorted prodgeny ov nocs, nics, lecs and
recs; hwich two laſt wood dherfore hav been alſo warped
into' legs and regs (legz and regz), had not dhe nexure
in lex and rex ſaved at wonce reallity and appearance.
Direct articulacion ſeems indeed by Nature made previous
to' depreſſive; hwich, howevver varying (even contraſting),
doz but continnue hwat dhe oddher began. All
tungs dhus tend priorly, and prefferably, to dhe former;
dhe direct being obviouſlv dhe ezier power, til carried
into' continuacion. Hence doo we find all prinimitive dialects
prefer it: hence had dhe Greek and Lattin, onely
direct aſpirates; if we except dhe ironic Digamma
(hwence our F) widh its Lattin ofspring (V) dhe depreſſive
labial. Hence alſo dhe les wonder, dhat dhe Lattin
combinacion ov dhe dental aſpirate, ſhood hav more
dhan ſufficed to' daughter-tungs, dhat know nedher
power ov dhat aſpirate; and even to' won, dhat from
dubbel ſoarce haz drawn boath. But we now ſee, az
we1 az hear, dhe thing: for we too hav found our ORTHOGGRAPHY.

Ov forrain Ettymollogy.
HWEN, under dhe ſmile ov a LEWIS XIV, hoom dhe
genius he cherriſhed might wel ſurname DHE GRAIT;
a truly Auguſtan Conſtellacion had matured dhe French
Language to' a ſyſtem; ſtil Orthoeppy waz not aſcertained
and ſecured in Orthoggraphy; nor ſtood dhe perfet
ſoll confeſt in dhe perfet boddy, before dhe auſpiſcious
reign ov hiz ſucceſſor; or indeed, until almoaſt dhe middel
ov dhe prezzent century. Far graiter az dhen waz
neſceſſary dhe chainge in dhe French, dhan had dhe Auguſtan
age ſeen in dhe Latin, dho not graiter dhan dhis
age rejoices to find practicabel in dhe Ingliſh Orthoggraphy;
propoarcioned waz dhe reziſtance to' dhe innovacion;
ov hwich dhe neceſſity, or even dhe propriety,
no more appeared to' Ettymollogy, dhan to'. Preſcripcion;
dho boath ſaw az clearly dhe audaciouſnes, az dhe dainger,
ov loch an inſult to' dhe lerned world. Pompous
ediſcions wer made widhout delay, ov dhe prime French
Claſſics; to' ſave alike from mutilacion or metamorphoſis
(equally impending!) dheir vennerabel and orthodox, az
oridginal and unalterabel form. MOLIERE briſtelled widh
raddicals, almoaſt up to' MENANDER; and BOILEAU ſtood
impennetrably mailed, az evver HORRACE by Bentley.
All, alas! to' no purpoſe. MOLIERE and BOILEAU wer
boath ſpoiled ov dheir armor, by dhat ruithles reformer
ANALLOGY; hoo, in a littel time, left not a genius ov
France, unexpozed to' dhe capture ov dhe febelleſt aſſailant,
in all dhe defenceleſnes ov ORTHOGGRAPHY.
Evver ſince haz dhe French tung prooved acceſſibel az
dhe Lattin; and, being a yong Dialect, made lovly by
Rezon, haz not onely extended az far, but may hope to'
bloom az long az her perennial parent.
SHAL BRITTAIN diſpute widh evvery nacion dhe exerciſe
ov Rezon, and guiv up to' anny nacion dhe vehikel
ov it? Shal her language, at length in all dhe charms ov
maturitv, and a rival in excellence to' anny ſiſter alive,
remain unherd az unſeen abraud; nay unknown, az unvouched,
at home; for want ov dhe alluring and authenticating
picture, drawn by dhe hand ov Truith? Hwile
evvery Language round haz received from Anallogy, dhe
fool enjoyment ov her reſpective powers; and dhence, ov
ſhining before all men in perfet fredom; ſhal Brittons
continnue to' boaſt dhe ſuperior libberty ov dhat Speech,
hwich iz abſolutely loct in dhe chains ov Ettymollogy?
ORTHOGGRAPHY iz dhe picture but ov won tong at
wonce, az a poartrait can prezent but an individdual.
Won language dherfore, no more dhan won perſon, can
be repprezented by dhe picture ov anoddher; hwatevver
be dhe relacion, or propoarcionate rezemblance. If a
painter, inſted ov all, and onely, dhe fetures ov hiz object;
ſhood ſubſtitute or minguel dhoze ov a parent, cozzen,
or anny oddher object; a verry ſtiking likenes
muſt be expected! And ſuch iz dhe praactice ov dhoze,
hoo wood paint dhe ſounds ov won language by dhe ſymbols
ov anoddher. Evvery individdual being dhus (diſtinct;
hooevver wood exactly repprezent won, muſt
avoid, for dhe moment, dhe ſight ov anny oddher. Dhus
alone haz each mature diction been delinneated: from
ſuch delinneacion alone ar dhe Hebrew, Greek, and
Lattin demonſtrabel at dhis day; and by ſuch conduct
alone hav dhe Itallian, Spanniſh, and French, becom
diffuzabel for evver to' mankind. Widh ſuch propriety
did dhe reſpective Acaddemies, to' divert nedher dhemſelves,
nor dheir diſcipels, from principel; preclude
in dheir Dictionaries, all acces to' forrain, and
but ſparingly indulge domeſtic, Ettymollogy. Dhey
wel knew dhat relations ſo near, and ſo az parent
and child; howevver mutually rezembling, cool aſcertain
notthing ov edher. Wer indeed Natures progreſſive
variations uniformly iuveſtigabel; Genneallogy ov
evvery ſort wood becom a ſcienee. But, if branches in
dhe ſame language depart often ſo far, in ſenſe at wonce
and ſound, from dheir roots; hweddher by graddual
diſtance, or figgurative oppoziſcion, we ſhood raddher
wonder, hwen words, paſſing from won tung to' anoddher,
keep dhe preciſe oridginal, edher ſoll or boddy;
dhan dhat dhey ſhood, in dheir new ſtate, aſſume new
boath; conſequeneial verry natturally, or anallogous;
yet often dhe reverie ov identic. Dhus άμω̃ (amô) from
ſignifying, I reap, gaddher or combine, became in Lattin
amo, I lov; λέγω (lego) I ſay, dho alſo I gaddher;
lego I read, or I gaddher (won gaddhers dhe idea's, dhe
oddher dhe letters, before emitting dhem); δέίω (deico)
I ſhow; dico, I ſay, or ſhow to' dhe mind: δοϰίω (dokeo)
I think, or I ſeem; doceo (dhe Lattin dokeo) I teach
— oddhers to' think or ſeem: αρϰίω (arkeo) I ſuffice, or
am ſufficed; ſo reddy to' tranſmit arceo (dhe Lattin arkeo),
I repel — from ſatiety: Βρίμω (bremo) I bluſter, Lattinly
fremo, I roar or I rage; Frenchly, je frémis, I
ſhudder: τρέω (treo) I trembel; hwence not onely dhe
Lattin ſynonnymous tremo; but terreo, I terrify, or
make trembel. In like manner, various moddern tranſmiſſives
edher nevver wer, or hav (by good cauz) ceſed
to' be coincident in ſenſe widh dheir parents. Dhus dhe
Lattin mittere, to' ſend, haz produced dhe French mettre,
to' pool, ſet, or lay; az dhe Greek ρ΄αίνω (rhaino,
hwich cood be but raino) I ſprinkel: I rain or wet, ſuppozed
perſonal, being ύω (hyo). Like dhe Greek δηλέω
(deleo) I hurt, and dhe Lattin deleo, I blot out or deſtroy;
iz dhe French heurter, to' knoc or noc, and dhe
to' hurt, hwich iz bleſſer or nuire. So from Lattin to'
Itallian, az from evvery Tung to' her ofspring; dhe obvious
rezemblance, dhat almoaſt prommiſes identity; can
be no guide to' ſenſe, ſound, or picture ov dhe deſcendant.
Dhus dhe Lattin bucca cheek, produces dhe Itallian
bocca mouth; and dhis dhe French bouche, widh unchainged
idea. Nay dhe Florrentine addage, Lingua
Toſcana in bocca Romana, evinces dhat dhe Tuſcan
tung became quite oddher in a Roman mouth.
NUMBERLES ar dhe Ingliſh boath verbs, and nouns,
directly from French; to hwich dhey prezerv a palpabel
anallogy, in abſolute diſcriminacion; hweddher by partial
or total chainge, ſomtimes interchainge, ov genneral
and particcular, direct and collatteral; and often by
tranſiſcion from litteral to' figgurative. Nor iz it unaccountabel,
dhat parent and child, nevver havving dhe
ſame boddy, ſhood frequently com, not onely to' differ
in mind, but even to' pozes oppozite idea's; dhat dherfore,
in length ov time, diſtance ov place, or by reſpective
company; dhey may boath verry natturally find
cloſer correſpondents, nay more intimate frends, dhan
each oddher.
NOT here to' repeat inſtances, long ſince exhibbited elſehware
by dhe ſame Anallogiſt; az heurter iz not to' hurt,
choquer iz not to' choke, dhe correſpondent ov étouſſer,
dhe parent ov ſtifel; az travailler iz not (now) to' travvel,
but to' labor; labourer iz merely to' labor dhe
ground; az journée iz not a jurney, but dhe day total
howevver ſpent; voyage iz not a voyage (won ſenſe ov
dhe French navigation) but a jurney. Phyſicien iz no
more dhe phyziſcian (médecin), dhan patient dhe patient
(malade); dhe former being (hwat a phyziſcian ſhood
queſtionles be) an adept in phyzzics; dhe latter a crimminal,
or (ſuffering) mallefactor. Az glu iz not glue,
but bird-lime; colle iz not coal (charbon), but glue, or
oddher paſte. Plat iz no plate (plaque, aſſiette, vaiſſelle);
but a diſh, dhe apparent prodgeny ov diſcus
(hwence alſo disk) dhe aincient coit or quoit: az dhe
French libraire iz no oddher librarian, dhan a bookſeller;
dho hiz fahdher librarian waz dhe tranſcriber or coppier;
no more dhe ſeller dhan dhe bier, ov books. Dhe progreſſive
chainges ov meaning in Natures own firſt favorites
πάπας and πάππος (pappas, pappos, Lattinly pappus)
pappa or papa, and mamma, or too wel known, az too
obvious, to' be hinted. Dhat armus implied dhe human
arm, before it varied into' dhe ſholder ov a beaſt, can no
more be douted, dhan dhat armum waz a figgurative arm
or weppon, are arma, its plural, rendered ſuch arms inſepparabel.
In ſimmilar gradation ov chainge, dhe Teutonnic
parent ov wife, ſignified woomman, in evvery
(genneral and particcular) acceptacion; az femme iz, in
French, woomman and wife. Hwen wife, dhence oridginally
woomman in Ingliſh, ſettelled dhare in dhe moaſt
onnorabel idea ov wedded woomman; it began to' couch,
in dhe parent-language, an opprobrious meaning.
Amid dhe nattural varieties in dhe tranſmiſſion ov human
language, to' ſom Readers it may yet be new, dhat
limon iz not lemmon, but cittron; dhat citron iz not cittron,
but lemmon: dhat viſage iz not vizzage, but face;
and dhat face iz not face, but vizzage or phyz: dhat
dhe French haſard iz not hazzard, but chance; and dhat
chance iz not dhe Ingliſh chance, but hazzard: that propreté
iz not propperty, but propriety; az propriété iz not
onely propriety, but oftener propperty. Dhe ſame iz
dhe varriacion ov adjectives: az propre, dho propper in
genneral, iz neat in particcular; net, dho neat in ſtile
and net in trade; iz litterally clean, and figguratively
clear. So craſſe, dhe parent ov coarſe, correſponds
widh groce; and gros, dhe parent ov grace, correſponds
widh coarſe. Dhus ov real and immediate, more dhan
ov proggreſſive and figgurative transfuzion, Ettymollogy
haz no idea. Says Anallogy Dhat iz my provvince.
It may be pretty (for inſtance) to' ſee dhe fiſh fwimming
in a pool; but I hav ſeen arch anglers hovvering over a
French pool (poule), and ſticking in certain convenient
holes ov a propper board, dhe French fiches, inſtantaneouſly
mettamorphoz'd into' Ingliſh fiſh, or fiſhes, for
marking dhe number ov feddhers. Here (continnues our
Guide) iz a tranſiſcion from figgure to' figgure; innocent
at leaſt, ſo not quite unwordhy dhe ſmile ov dhat Cornmon-ſenſe,
hoo ſeems no peculiar blazoner ov Ingliſh ins,
in not precluding anny ſuch picture (previous to' its elucidacion
in words) az The Bell Savage, or The Bull and
Mouth; hwich no miſrepprezentacion ov Belle Sauvage,
or ov Boulogne, had guivven to' figgure Dhe Bel-Sav--
vage or Dhe Booloin-mouth. But hware dhen had been
dhe Conundrum?
WE may hence at leaſt perceiv, if we did not before,
genneallogy and bioggraphy to' be different ſciences;
az parent and child, different beings: and dhe anceſtry
ov anny language, az ov anny man, ſo totally diſtinct
from dhe man or dhe language; az more likely to'
draw of due attention from edher, dhan to' throw reſpective
light upon dhem. And hence we lern to' own, in
language az in life, dhe propriety ov dhe diſtic;
Dhey, dhat on nobel anceſtors enlarge,
Produce dheir det, inſted ov dheir diſcharge.
dhe inabillity ov preddeceſſors to' pay dhe det ov ſucceſſors;
and dhe conſequent duty ov dheze to' pay dheir
own det; ſo to' ern dheir own diſcharge, and unborrowed
hope ov immortallity, az had don dheir evvery
way illuſtrious anceſtors. Nay, won wood think Ettymollogy
az blind az def, or more waggiſh dhan edher (if
evver ſhe doo laf), hwen widh dhe three (diſtinctive!)
prefixes (w, k and g) ſhe ſeems to' moc at wonce all poſſibel
combinacion, and dhe verry genneallogy ſhe pretends
to' maintain. Not to' make new onnorabel mencion
ov dhe w, hwich illuſtrates our writing; but merely
countenances wrauth, and enlarges wren; dhe k and g
com kind prelimminaries to' n, az if ſtudiouſly from interchainged
foarces. Dhe Greek (and Ingliſh) Κ ſends
us Γ (G): and Γ, Κ, ΚΝΑ΄Ω or ϰνάω (knao) guivs us gnaw,
and ΓΝΟ΄Ω or γνόω (gnoo) guivs us know. So dhe Lattin
gnavus becoms our knave; and even dhe French canif,
oftener herd ganif; dhe Ingliſh knife. Nor iz it unlikely
dhat ſom onneſt Greeks, az wel az ſom onneſt Brittons,
may hav attempted effective juſtice to' dhe mute
dhey ſaw embracing dhe licquid, apparently for ſuch purpoſe.
Dhe ſibbilant indeed ov ſcience, ſcene, abſces,
conſcience and conſcious (but not concionabel); Ettymollogy
tranſmitted in innocent ignorance, dhat ſibbilacion
and gutturallity might won day proov coincident; dho
ſhe wel knew dhat Κ and Γ wer long interchaingeabel in
Greek; and dhat dhe figgure C ſufficed for boath, to'
dhe Romans, til dhe Auguſtan age.
BUT, if true Ettymollogy guiv no certain illuſtracion
to' indubitabel deſcendants; falſe Ettymollogy muſt dubbly
darken ſuch upſtarts, az claim oddher progennitors
dhan dheir own. Individduals can be known onely from
dhemſelvs, or (by reflected light) from won anoddher.
Parents, hwen found, wil exhibbit dhe difference, raddher
dhan dhe identity. Parents, unjuſtly claimed, muſt
arrain edher dhe ſkil ov dhe herrald, or dhe legittimacy
ov dhe children; perhaps boath. But ſo indeed may
children, dhe beſt-born, looz ſight ov all fammily-connexion:
a plain proof, dhat fammilv-connexion iz uneſſencial
to' intrinſic worth. Dhe latter howevver may
be warped, by ambiſcious purſuit ov dhe former: nor can
a more ſtriking, among manny inſtancos, be found, dhan
dhe late affectacion ov ſolicit! Regardles ov dhe obvious,
az immediate parent ſolliciter; or imputing ignorance,
hware dilligently impoarting it; raging Ettymollogy rezolved
(remuer terre, if not ciel, and) raddher dhan confes
dhe light ov hevven; mole-rezembling, to' turn up
(if indeed citare can turn up) dhe ground. Dhus cunningly
did ſolicit bring foarth a parent, in ſolum citare;
knowing az littel ov itſelf, az ov its incontrovertibel anceſtors;
ſolliciter, and ſolllicitare, ſolus or ſolum licitare,
are yet deponent in licitari; ov dhe ezy proggres from
bidding or outbidding to' ſollicitacion, az ov dhe oppozite
vocal quantity in ſolum dhe ground, and ſolus alone:
hwence equal taſte in parental picturage muſt be proud
to' orthoggraphize ſoliciter and ſolicitare: nor les butifoolly
muſt ſolicitus accompany its parent (not child) ſolicitous;
hware ſollicitus aught to' produce ſolliſcitous;
and ſollicitare, thro' dhe French ſolliciter, dhe Ingliſh
ſolliſcit. Dhe Ingliſh o indeed, being febel, diſtinguiſhes
onely in dhe mouth ov Precizzion, dhe ſhut vowel (howevver
different) from dhe open. But dhe utterance cannot
be exact, dhat doz not diſtinguiſh even a febel vowel;
az, hwarevver iz real dout or equallity, Ettymollogy
haz a titel to' turn dhe ſcale; and dhis ſhe wood hav az
natturally turned, had ſhe known annithing ov pourſuivre,
in favor ov purſue, az perſecutum decided in behalf ov
perſecute. No wonder eſkew, often falſely articculated,
becauz falſely exhibbitted, eſchew; waz occularly traced
from dhe old eſcheoir (afterwards échoir) to' devolv or
eſcheat, raddher dhan from eſquiver, to' parry, avoid
or eſkew; by dhoze, to' hoom dhe boddy ov dhe child,
and dhe ſoll ov dhe parent, wer equally unknown.
DHUS haz foreign been hiddherto' hugged, az commanding
fores, or foras, or foris, regni! widhout dhe
leaſt attenſion to' foraneus more dhan to' forain, dhe no
verry remote parents ov forrain. So haz ſovereign
reigned ſupra regnum; widhout dhe leaſt conſideracion
ov hiz intrinſic ſelf ſouvverain (really ſuvverain) dhe pretty
obvious child ov ſouverain; az dhis, mediately or immediately,
ov ſupraneus, a no les legittimate (if a les
oſtenſibel) parent dhan foraneus. Hwy becoms not caitif
catif, az daizy haz been ſeen (in ſpite alike ov day and
dais) daſy; or, by Brittiſh (ſo far beyond Itallian) libberty,
captif (like receipt!) ſince gravely deduced dhe haples
ofspring or cattivo? hwich, had dhe Tuſcan Acaddemy
duly revverenced raddicals, wood hav at leaſt kept
dhe decency ov captivo, if not dhe integgrity ov captivus.
Can paltry French chétif, after all, pretend anny
relation to' dhe ſtout ſterling caitif — except dhat ov hiz
fahdher, in ſoll and boddy? Hiz broddher (perhaps himſelf,
dhe) culprit, iz allowed to' be French, even by
dhoze hoo cannot ſhow dhe particcular (nay dhe poſſibel)
extraction: hwich, in coulpe-prit, waz much too obvious
to' be vizzibel. Poor Betty, nevver ſo diſonnored ſex or
fammily, az hwen ſhe played (or waz thaught capabel ov
playing) dhe bettee! Levee haz indeed becom (unles on
extraordinary occazions) dhe coincident ov her cozzen
levvy; az ſurely az dhe poettic levvant (eaſtern) dhe contraſt
ov dhe Levant. But leſſee and leggattee, dhe lawfool
claimants ov dhe leſe and leggacy, will be ſuppoarted by
all dhe dignity and precizzion ov Law, from evver ſinking
into' leſſy and leggaty. Bettee, dhe no les legal iſſue,
and formidabel agent ov beat, might hav hoped like diſtinctive
safety, from all dhe mackinacions ov littel Elizzabeth.

ODDHER domeſtic formatives hav innocently ſhared
like repprobacion. Som hav been pronounced aliens,
dhat wer obviouſly Ingliſh-born; or hav been hooted
az terms ov cant, dhat conſtitute in our monnoſyllabbic
diminnutives, dhe carracteriſtic buty ov diction:
az mav be exemplified equally in our nouns and verbs,
ſhutting hwatevver vowel by hwatevver conſonant. Dhus
bun, bam; pip, drop, fop; fob, ſquib, ſcrub, grub;
crab, drab, ſquab; brat, ſlut, hut, ſmut; pad, pod,
lid, mud; ric, ſtac; bag, flag, nag, quag; dreg, peg,
prig, hwig, guig; log, bog, fog, prog, frog; pug,
ſlug, plug; dung, pang, brink, glimpſe, bunch, craſh;
ſpirt, ſquirt, blirt, flirt: il, ſlim, trim, prim, grim;
glum, glib; ſtif, ruf, gruf, bluf; pat, ſquat, hot; mad,
bad, ſad; ſlac, blac; ſnug, ſmug: gul, pun, bang;
ſlip, drip, pop, ſtop; blab, drub; lag, flag, drag, brag,
beg, dig, cog, jog, flog; flant, ſquint, ſtunt, hunt,
grunt, ſnort; ſlink, trink, prink; winch, flinch, crunch,
ruſh, gnaſh, graſp, gaſp: reſpectively from bake, balk;
peep, drip, fool; feel or fumbel, ſcue, ſcrape, gripe,
(or crawfiſh, dhe ſpawn ov écreviſſe), crawl, drawl or
draggel,ſquat or ſquare; beray, ſlug, houſe,ſmoke; pacer,
pea, ly or lay, muc; rear, ſtand; bac, fly and flaccid, neigh,
quake; dry or drain, pec; prim, hwim, go; ly or lay,
bow or bwoy, foul, pry, prey or prowl, fry or friſk; monkey,
ſlow, pluc; dank, pain, brim, gleam, bind; crac,
ſpit or ſpue, ſkit or ſcue, blow, fly or flit: evil, ſlender,
try or tric, pry or pric, gray; gloom, glide; ſtand
ir ſtic, rug, ruf or growl, blow; poot, ſquare, beat;
mated, bated, ſated; ſlow, bleak, az dhis from blea or
blae, and dhis from blue; ſneak or ſnac, ſmoodh;
guile, poze or puzzel, bane or beat; ſtide, dry;
pour, or peep, ſtay; blow, drive; ly or loiter, fail or
falter, draw or drawl, bray or brawl; bec, dive, coc,
jag, flay or fliſk, if not φλογιζω (flogizo); fly, ſcue, ſtint,
hound, groan, ſnore; ſlim, trim, prim; wink, fly,
grind, run, gnaw, gripe, gahp. Dhis may be ſuffiſcient
ſpeſcimen of dhe copious clas, widhout ſwelling it by ſo
obvious (nor les butifool) dimminucions, hweddher ov
domeſtic or forrain terms; az gap, prep, bit, put (dhe
game or player), from gahp, ſcrape, bite, poot; or az
as, el, fan, club; cat; pit, fig , brig; from aſne (now
âne) or aſinus, aulne (now aune) or ulna, van or éventail;
clava, chat (and catus); puits or puteus, figue and ficus,
brigantin, liwence dhe Ingliſh briggantine. So cag, ſtil
more diminniſhed keg, from caque or caſk; and bud (az
wel az button) from bouton, or dhe old parent bouter, if
not from its Ingliſh ofspring poot; like bung from bondon,
and plot from complot; hware dhe Ingliſh monnoſyllabels
aſſume a domeſtic aſpect.
So ezily may appearances deceiv. A ſuperfiſcial glance
often pronounces deformity, hwat a nearer view finds
dhe reverſe. Our monnoſyllabels hav ſeemed edher too
minute for obzervacion, or too numerous not to' be repprobated
az barbarous ſtumps, productive onely ov cacopphonous
collizzion; in vulgar language, ov rude ſhoc.
Hiddherto', and particcularly in dheze days ov lerned refinement,
dhoze alone hav been held enlightened Crittics,
hoo ſoared too high to' ſee pigmy-buties, or to' hear
dhe ſmall expreſſion ov compreſt vocallity; and ſo wer
fain to' bring from far ſets ov ſeſquipedalians; hwich,
widh all dhe charms ov novvelty, filled booth eye and
ear; and ſweetly compenſated (to' moddern ſtudents)
all uncommattabel ſenſe, by dhe pomp ov ſound. Dhus
it iz dhat certain Brittiſh Philollogers, conſcious ov ſkil
in aincient languages, hav pretended to' dictate on moddern;
widh hwich, for want ov ſimmilar cultivacion,
dhey wer totally unacquainted; havving nedher theory
nor practice ov oddher livving tongs, nor anny raſcional
knollege ov dheir own, independent ov Lattin and
Greek. Yet dhus it iz, dhat INGLISH Diccion haz hiddherto'
been blindly entruſted to dhoze, hoo knew no
more ov her Ettrmollogy dhan ov her Anallogy; ov her
genneracion forrain, dhan domeſtic; hoo practiſed livving
ſpeech provincially, pedanticly, or by rote; not dreaming
(that it had anny rezon; and, newer havving ſeen
(hwat waz imadgined obvious or uſeles, impropper or
impoſſibel) wer not verry likely to' ſhow, its Picture:
witnes gaol, doubt, allege, or dhe like: hoo, becauz
dhey wrapt up dheir native language, in dhe ſhroud ov
anticquity; and made it briſtel, widh evvery incompattibel
raddical; wer ſuppozed quallified to' trace, annalyze,
anallogize, and convey it; widh oraccular infallibillity,
az widhout hezzitacion.
Seen being dhe ſtate ov Brittiſh letters, ſuch dhe conſequence
ov reliance on Ettymollogy, and ſuch dhe parental
elucidacion ov children; ſhal we blame dhe forrain
Anallogiſts, hoo kept Ettymollogy out ov ſight; hwile
dhey ſubſtanciated dheir reſpective language? or, cood
dhey elſe hay trezzured her in her picture?
hwenceſoevver, iz notthing dhe les Truith. Syſtem ſtil
iz ſyſtem, from manny, or from few. Dhe ſame plan
ov Nature iz here exactly followed: dhat ov painting
won at wonce, and no oddher, object; dhe Ingliſh Language,
not her parents. Becauz anceſtral tungs, not
havving, cood not ſhow, boath powers ov dhe dental aſpirate;
muſt ours, sizing conſtantly boath, ſhow but won?
Or, under won picture, can boath oridginals be conveyed?
Becauz Lattin uttering, dhence numbering, boath
parts ov dhe Greek dipthongs ae and oe, knew not how
to' repprezent, widhout writing dhem; ſhood French
and Ingliſh, uttering but won, ſhow boath? Dhey hav
indeed anſered, No. If Lattin or French, not dubbling
an articulacion, cood not pretend ſhe did; aught
hwen ſhe doz dubbel an articulacion, to' pretend
ſhe doz not? If Lattin, requiring an inſertive, employed
won; and, requiring no inſertive, employed non; az
redeo tacitus; muſt Ingliſh dherfore, requiring no inſertive,
employ won, in ſolar or allegiance; or, requiring
an inſertive, employ non, in ſcollar and alledge? So
dhe vulgar (and viſcious) batcheldor, iz onneſter dhan
bachelor; nor les onneſt, dho les ellegant, dhan dhe reproachles
batchelor. Dhe firſt and laſt ar equally (like)
dheir reſpective ſelvs; dhe ſeccond haz dhe onnor ov
more rezembling bachelier; az tacit, dho unlike itſelf, iz
widhin a verry trifel ov tacite; and dhis trifel wer more
ſafely added, dhan dhe ſhutting ſibbilation excluded dhe
real taſcit. For, hwy avow army chainge, and not avow
evvery chainge; eſpeſcially dhe principal? Alike may
be ſaid, ow dhe French clairet, and dhe Ingliſh claret, for
dhe real clarret; Hwy lop a ded limb, and not prezerv
a livving? Hwy own but half dhe tranſmutacion; dhe
letter dropt, az inadmiſſibel, ov dhe oridginal; and not
dhe letter indiſpenſabel in its place? Hwy dhus maim
boath parent and prodgeny; and, by attempting to' ſhow
boath, show nedher?
ALL dherfore now neſceary to' dhe maintenance ov
dhe Ingliſh Language at dhe pure ſtandard ſhe haz gained;
to' dhe aſcertainment ov her propriety at home, and
her conſequent proppagacion abraud; iz to' doo her dhe
juſtice, dhat haz been don to' her evvery polliſhed parent
and ſiſter; dhat juſtice, hwich can alone prezerv and
perpettuate anny language; to' paint each, preciſely az
ſhe iz; preciſely herſelf, and no oddher. Finding, for
inſtance, dhe Ingliſh umbel to' be no more dhe French
umble, (far les humble) dhan dhe Itallian umile, or dhe
Latin humilis; ſo dhe Ingliſh onnor to' be no more onneur
(not to' ſay honneur) dhan onore or honor; how can
we keep or know our words, but in dheir own ſhape?
Hwen we ſtuddy dhus oddher languages, not ſervilely to'
coppy dheir ſymbols or oddher peculiarrities; but to'
emmulate, in our own, dhe fredom and exactnes, dhe elegance
and eze, ov dheir ſevveral repprezentacions; dho
no picturage can go beyond, not to' ſay dhe Greek and
Lattin, perhaps even dhe Itallian; ours, if late, may
ſurpas dhat ov dhe French tung; hwich, by genneral
precizzion, and demonſtrative (not merely acceſſibel,
but unreziſting, az reziſtles) buty; haz hiddherto' ſo
eclipſed her contemporaries, az to' proov dhe Queen-Dialect
ov Europe. Nor haz onely dhe Greek, or dhe Lattin
evinced; dhat Dhe Language iz moaſt likely to' dictate
to' dhe World, hwich by dhe World iz beſt underſtood.

Ov M. l' Abbé Anonyme.
SCARCE ar dhe triumphs dhus concluſively allowed
dhe FRENCH Tung in dhe field ov PROPRIETY, hwen a
new ellegant Vollume flies over from PARRIS, to' onnor
dhe allower; but, az if to' forbid hiz conceſſions:
Syſtême de prononciation figurée, applicable à toutes les
langues, et exécuté ſur les langues Françoiſe et Angloiſe:
par M. l'Abbé ***. Dhis Syſtem projects dhe pronouncing
ov French, Ingliſh, (equally indeed!) anny language,
by dhe guidance ov underwritten ſigns or marks,
direct or curve; pointing, by dheir poziſcion or inclination,
dhe reſpective quantity or quallity, quieſcence and
revival ov ſound: all dhis to' ſupply dhe defect ov Orthoggraphy!
hware no ſuch defect iz made appear in
won language; or underſtood, far les remmedied, in
dhe oddher. Dhe mecannic amuzement ov a dexterous
device, widhout dhe fondues ſo nattural for wons
own invencions, might ezilv ſhut for dhe moment, even
a viggorous mind, to' dhe obvious az oridginal, and onely
intellectual means ov mezzuring and aſcertaining human
ſounds. Dhat dhey, hoos mental eye iz opened by principel,
ar independant ov all corporeal carracters, az
wel az ov all acceſſory aids; wil be az clear az, dhat dhoze
hoo ſeem to require ſuch, muſt find dhem unavailing; if
we conſidder dhe ſimpel and ezy mezzures, dhat occur
to' Rezon from dhe firſt vizzibillity ov Speech; or how
much ezier ſhe finds it to' make a thinking, dhan even
a ſpeaking hed. Natures alternation ov labor and reſt, or
foarce and febelnes, gave riſe to' dhe foar diſſyllabbic combinacions
we ſaw in dhe ſeccond Chapter ov dhe former Part,
Nature iz frugal, and her wants ar few:
how effectually, az ezily, ſupplied! Yet haz M. 1' Abbé
underwritten, raddher underſigned, for hiz French parragon,

Les côteaux, les vallons charmeroient vos douleurs.
hwich may be az natturally ſcanned by dhe common feet,
az anny oddher iambic; and aſcertained in evvery part,
by dhe wel-known laws ov dhe language. But dhe
Syſtemmatiſt, hoo might hav got from dhe ſame Poet, dho
nevver lavviſh (like Dryden) ov ſuch communicacion,
dhe verry hexammeter he wanted alſo in our language;
ſeems to' hav avenged Lattin and French ov Ingliſh heroics,
for daring to' be but pentammeter; and clapt poor
POPE into' dhe bed ov Procruſtes; dilating dhe nervous
Good, Pleaſure, Eaſe, Content, whate'er thy name!
Good, Pleaſſure, Eaſe, Content! whatever is thy
ſo truly conſtituting
Dhe needles Allexandrine ov dhe ſong;
Hwich, like a wounded ſnake, drags its ſlow length
Had not dhe ingenious artiſt been dhus adventurouſly
and unfortunately employed; he might hav perceived,
dhat, ov dhe poets ſeven words, foar wer more ezily reducibel
to' dhe buty ov Truith, dhan ſuppoarted by anny
maſheenery in falſificacion. Dhe acute ſtrainger, hoo
did perceiv dhat eaſe, is, and thy had dhe direct for dhe
depreſſive ſemblance; and, in dhis at leaſt, rectified all
three; diſcerned dhe open vowel ov eaſe, dho nedher
vowel ov pleaſure, more dhan dhe intervening dubbel
articulation, or dhan dhe tranſpozal ov dhe aſpiracion in
whate'er far les dhe neceſſity ov chainging dhe appoſtroph
and redundant following, into' dhe ſervile aſpiracion.
More wonderfool howevver iz it, dhat dhe French
Philolloger haz gon ſo far into' INGLISH ORTHOGGRAPHY;
dhan dhat he went no fardher. A littel more indeed,
and dhe Scot had been umbel; now, he iz onely
proud: for, hwat might he not hav apprehended, had
Gallic Genius ſent him,
Good, Plezzure, Eze, Content! hwatehr dhy name.
But wel may evvery Britton be jellous ov dhe Ingenuity,
hwich in dhe following parragraphs, challenges dhe Spirrit
ov evvery polliſhed Nacion; and tends to' enfoarce
Improovment, extenſive az human ſpeech.
Une ſaine politique, les ſecours quo nous devons par
reconnoiſſance aux E'trangers, les beſoins de nos Provinces,
la gloire de notre Langue, le deſir d'aggrandir
l'empire des Lettres, et de leur acquérir de nouveaux
ſujets; tous les intérêts ſe réuniſſent pour nous faire ſoubaiter,
qu'il puiſſe etre imaginé un ſyſteme propre à fixer
& à répréſenter les ſons de la parole, à établir l'uniformité
de la prononciation, à indiquer l'uſage authentique
de la Capitale; &, s'il n'eſt pas poſſible de le corriger
une fois qu'il eſt contracté, du moins à prévenir l'accent
vicieux des Provinces.
La France renferme en ſon ſein, pour la perfection
des arts, des reſſources qu'aucum autre Peuple ne poſſede;
et, quand elle le voudra bien, les miracles mêmes en ce
genre, lui couteront peu. Sans doute, it eſt ſuperbe pour la
Capitale d'entretenir ſous la protection de ſes Rois, une
ſociété de Savans, qui poſſedent at enſeignent toutes les
Langues, même l' Arabe, le Perſan, le Chinois; et qui
peuvent fournir des interprêtes à tous les E'trangers raſſemblés
ici de toutes les parties, et pluſieurs des extrémités
même de l'Univers. Mais pourquoi faut-il que la
Langue nationale ſoit la ſeule exclue de cc gymnaſe
univerſel? A Athenes, on n'enſeignoit dans les écoles
publiques, qu'une ſeule Langue, la Langue Greque. A
Paris, ily a des chaires établies pour toutes les Langues,
excepté pour in Langue Françoiſe.
Les E'trangers nous reprochent de négliger l'utile,
pour donner dans le faſte; de manquer preſque toujours
le but de la gloire; parce que nous n'y courons que par
vanité; de vouloir être grands, par de petits moyens;
d'etre (enfin) riches en ſuperflu, & pauvres des choſes néceſſaires:
lavons nous de cette accuſation, quelqu' injuſte
et exagéree qu'elle puiſſe paroître.
Rien de plus facile aſſurément, qua de former en
faveur de notre Langue, un établiſſement national. Il
n'y a pas trop dequoi s'étonner, qua les Univerſités,
l'époque de leur fondation, aient négligé la Langue nationale:
elle n'exiſtoit point encore. Mélange monſtrueux
d'ancien Celte, de Grec & de Latin, ce n'étoit alors qu'un
jargon rauque, groſſier & agreſte: point de phyſionomie
décidée dans les formes de ſa prononciation; dans ſa
ſyntaxe, point de loix certaines; dans le ſtyle, ni proportion,
ni harmonie. Auſſi n'en faiſoit-on gueres plus de
cas, que nous faiſons aujourd'hui d'un patois de Province;
& on ne s'aviſoit pas de employer pour un Ouvrage ſérieux
et utile. Mais, depuis quo notre Langue marche
l'émule & la rivale des Langues de Rome et d'Athenes;
depuis quo les Corneille, les Boſſuet; les Fénelon, les Rouſſeau,
les Monteſquieu, les Buffon, l'ont rendue la Langue
de la poéſie, de l'éloquence, des graces, de l'hiſtoire, de la
politique, et de la philoſophie; aujourd hui enſin, qu'elle eſt
devenue pour la France, une ſource de ſplendeur et de
gloire; &, ſi on pout dire, une branche de richeſſe comment
ſe peut-il, qua l'on faſſe peu pour la mettre à la
portée des E'trangers, et des habitans de nos Provinces:
que dans la Capitale elle n'ait pas même la diſtinction &
la faveur, dont jouiſsent les Langues anciennes on étrangeres?

Je vais fanner un vœu, & j'oſe dire, qua tout cœur
François qui lira mon vœu, ſe mettra à l'uniſson avec moi
pour en deſirer l'exécution. C'eſt que, de tant de Colleges
qui compoſent Univerſité de Paris, on en détache un,
pour le conſacrer à l'enſeignement public de la Langue
Françoiſe: que dans chaque Capitale de Province, on
fonde en même tems une chaire de Langue Françoiſe:
que la Maiſon de Paris, établiſscment national, entretienne
un nombre conſidérable de jeunes gens, ſoit E'trangers,
ſoit Regnicoles: que ce College ſoit la pépiniere des
Maîtres, que chaque Province choiſira elle-même pour remplir
la cbaire de Langue Françoiſe établie dans ſa Capitale:
qu'à l'example de l'Italie, qui fonder des E'coles et
des Académies pour la perfection de ſa Langue, et expliquer
les beautes du Dante, du Taſſe & de l' Arioſte, ces
chaires Nationales prennent pour livres claſſiques nos plus
célèbres E'crivains: que les Profeſſeurs s'attachent à faire
connoître le méchaniſme de la Langue, c'eſt-á-dire, le
génie de ſa ſyntaxe & les formes authentiques de ſa prononciation;
la conſtruction de la phraſe Françoiſe, ſon
harmonie, fondée ſur l'arrangement des mots; et tout ce
qui appartient au méchaniſme des ſons. Cet établiſſement,
qui manque à la France, ſi digne de la France, & qui
ne lui coûteroit que le ſacrifice de quelque objet de luxe
ou de ſuperflu, préſente un moyen certain de répandre
dans toute l'Europe, la connoiſſance du génie de la Langue,
& d'établir l'uniformite de la prononciation dans
le Royaume.
Un ſyſtème d'orthographe, qui nous apprendroit à ſuppléer
aux erreurs & aux imperfections de l'écriture, eſt
un ſecours dont le beſoin n'eſt pas moins évident, et dont
l'effet ſeroit encore plus univerſel. Les Provinces du
Royaume ont droit de l'attendre de la Capitale; & l'Europe
entiere, le demandera-t-elle toujours vainement à la
L'uſage, ſans doute, eſt la regle ſouveraine des Langues;
ſon empire eſt bien plus abſolu encore, quand il
s'agit de la maniere de prononcer. Mais, entre mille
uſages vicieux ou incertains, comment diſcerner le feul
qui ſoit bon & authentique? C'eſt à la Cour qu'il établit
ſon tribunal, qu'il rend ſes oracles. Le petit nombre de
ceux qui la fréquentent, apporte à la Capitale ſes déciſions,
& ſa maniere de prononcer; qui, de la Capitale,
paſſent enſuite ſucceſſivement de bouche en bouchc dans les
Provinces,& chez l'Etranger. Cependant,comme le code
de ſes loix n'eſt point écrit, comme il n'eſt tranſmis que
par une tradition orale, le depôt ne ſubſiſte pas long-tems
ſans que l'on forme des doutes ſur ſon intégrité & ſur
ſon authenticité. Chacun cite ſon uſage; on ſe fait un
point de vanité de le garantir pour le ſeul qui ſoit de bon
aloi; et, toujours d'accord ſur la règle, ſans ceſſe on diſpute
ſur l'application.
Perfectionner l'art de peindre les ſons de la parole,
rapprocher le plus qu'il ſe pourra, la Langue écrite de la
Langue parlée, de maniere que les yeux liſent dans l'écriture,
tout ce que la prononciation fait entendre à
Foreille; voilà l'unique moyen de parvenir à répréſenter
fidellement la pronunciation de la Capitale; de déterminer
l'authenticité de uſage, d'en fixer la mobilité &
d'en conſacrer les loix.
Tel eſt l'objet de notre travail.
SUCH iz dhe prezzent French ov PARRIS, according
to' dhe Acaddemy's picturage; hwich wants ov Orthoggraphy,
dhat iz, ov Perfection, but perhaps ſix degrees:
1. Dhe diſappearance, hware iz no reallity, ov aſpiracion;
l'armonie de l'umble mécaniſme, no longer l'harmonie
de l'humble méchaniſme: 2. Dhe diſtinctive (az
innocent) retention ov t, in dhe plural ov nouns in ant
and ent; comme dans les ſavants établiſſements, evvery
way prefferabel to' ſavans établiſſemens: 3. Dhe e open
ov ai, unblended widh dhe dipthong oi; Français, parais,
crais, widh François, parois, crois: 4. Dhe e
femmininely febel in feſant, and its formatives, claiming
no more (in faiſant) dhe e open ov faire: 5. No t, belying
Lattin, more dhan falſifying French, in dhe ſibbilacion.
So wil Falſehood no more dance hand in hand
widh Truith, in prononciation, to' dhe diſgrace and dettriment
ov all prononciacion; nor les fatal to' our pronunciacion;
hoo, bluſhing dhat anny exampel cood lead
her into' dhe labbyrinth ov pronunciation, wood gladly
guide bac, into' dhe way ov Truith, her nohware ſo bewildered
IT wer perhaps indellicate here to' ſuppoze, dhat dhe
French Acaddemy haz not yet withdrawn dhe few following
indulgences ſhe ſo long vouchſafed to' Redundance,
Defiſcience, and Tranſpoziſcion. If Oût be fixt dhe
ſound, dhe A ov Août muſt be ſuperfluous; az it iz (or
waz) in taon and Saone, hwich ar tôn and Sône; az iz
dhe e ov Caen, Jean, or ſeoir: Can, Jan, and ſoir,
fearles ov coincidence. In eau and beaux, at leaſt, e iz
diſtinctive: hwich cannot be ſaid ov veau, nouveau, or
dhe like; hware vau, nouvau, and ſo on, might ſuffice.
So dhe o ov paon, faon, Laon; pan, pan, Lan: ov
oeil, oeuf, boeuf, oeuvre, voeu, noeud, ſoeur, coeur,
choeur: euil, euf, beuf; euvre, veu, neud, ſeur, cueur,
queue: nor can it be douted, dhat dhe u of piquer muſt
remain in piquure, hware picure wer indeed an equivvalent.
Dhat dhe conſonants ar ſucceſively redundant,
cannot be denied, in ſuch az thé, théatre,
Thomas, Athenes; in fils, cul, pouls: baptiſer, bapteme,
baptiſtere, ſept, eſt, laqs, legs, vingt, doigt; and
in ſuch compounds az coq-d'Inde or chef-d'euvre:
té, téatre, Tomas, Atenes; fis, cu, pous; batiſer, batême,
batiſtere, ſet (widh ſettieme), êt, lâs, lês, vint,
doit; co-d' Inde, ché-deuvre; raddher chédeuvre, widh
aujourdui; not aguen to' hint h iniſcial, hware ineffective,
perniſcious. To' Anallogy or Truith, dhe pleas
ov Ettymollogy, or even ov Diſtinccion, muſt in ſuch
caſe be vain. Dhe coincident ſoir, pous, vint, doit;
dhe cognates fille, baptiſte, baptiſme, ſeptante, or Septembre;
and dhe ſimpels, coc or coq, chef, or dhe like:
dhoze can bring no objeccion, becauz dhey can ſhow no
dainger; dheze ſhow dhe diſtinccion, indiſpenſabel az dhe
difference. To,' mencion dhe tranſpozal in cueillir and
recueil, for cueuillir, recueuil, widh dheir frends; wer
but to' offer a new indignity, hware onnor iz in genneral
ſo due. No pretext can invert Nature; or make ue eu,
more dhan le el.
6. IF all accents wer ſo long unknown to' Gaul, az to'
Grece; and an impropper, worſe dhan an omitted accent;
ſhal we ſee an acute in collége, az dho dhe ſtrong e wer
cloſe; even a grave in ſyſtème, az dho dhe febel final
ſufficed not to' open dhe preceding e ſtrong? or, ſtil les
accountably, ſhal a circumflex cap it in ſyſtême, az if
elizzion here contribbuted to' prolongation?
SINCE marks, found ſo neſceſſary to' precizzion, proov
dhus equally liabel to' miſapplicacion and to' neglect;
a plan ov ſubterfluous ſigns, precluding raddher dhan
promoting Science, by ſubſtituting Art to' Rezon, widhout
even a Maſorettic plea, may make Proſſody ſmile at
dhe props ov Meccaniſm; but ſpeaks an effort, howevver
dexterous, hardly wordhy dhe Genius, hoo cood make
ſo ſcientiffic, patriottic, and univerſally improovabel
deduction, az appears indeed peculiarly written for our
lerning; and dherfore highly merrits tranſlacion into
Ingliſh Truith.
"SOUND pollicy, dhe aids we ow in grattitude to.'
ſtraingers, dhe improovment ov our Language, dhe enlargement
ov dhe empire ov Letters, and dhe encreſe
ov dheir ſubjects; all intereſts unite to' make us wiſh dhe
devizal ov a ſyſtem to' fix and repprezent dhe ſounds ov
ſpeech, to' eſtabbliſh uniformity ov pronunciation, to'
diffuze dhe authentic practice ov dhe Cappital; and, if
it be not ezy to' mend it hwen contracted, at leaſt to'
prevent dhe viſcious accent ov dhe Provvinces.
FRANCE contains in herſelf, for dhe perfeccion ov dhe
arts, reſoarces no oddher Contry can boaſt; and, hwen
ſhe ſo ſhal pleze, mirrakels dhemſelves wil be ezy for her
in dhis matter. Glorious iz it doutles for dhe Metroppolis,
to maintain, under dhe proteccion ov her Kings, a
Society ov dhe Lerned, hoo pozes and teach all Tungs;
even dhe Arrabic, dhe Perſian, dhe Chineze; and
hwich can furniſh interpreters to' all forrainers from
hwatevver quarter, manny even from dhe ends ov dhe
erth. But hwy muſ dhe native Tung be alone excluded
genneral ſtuddy? At Atthens waz taught in dhe pubblic
ſcools, but won, and dhat dhe Greek Tung. At
Parris ar chairs inſtituted for evvery, but dhe French
STRAINGERS reproach us widh neglecting dhe uſefool,
to' guiv into' dhe fantaſtic; widh miſſing almoaſt always
dhe mark ov glory, becauz we aim at it onely thro'
vannity; widh attempting to' be grait by petty means;
widh being in ſhort rich in the ſuperfluous, and poor in
things neſceſſary. Let us clear ourſelvs from dhis
charge, howevver unjuſt and exaggerated it may
NOTTHING ezier ſurely dhan to' form, in favor ov
our Language, a naſcional eſtabbliſhment. It can be no
matter ov wonder, dhat dhe Univerſities, at dhe eppoc
ov dheir foundacion, ſhood hav neglected dhe naſcional
tung: it did not yet exit. A monſtrous medley ov Celtic,
ov Greek, and ov Lattin; it dhen waz no
oddher dhan a harſh, rude, and barbarous jargon:
no deciſive plan in dhe modes ov its pronunciacion; in
its ſyntax, no certain laws; in ſtile, nedher propoarcion
nor harmony. So waz it littel more regarded, dhan iz
now a Provincial guibberiſh; nor did anny won dream
ov employing it for a ſerious and uſefool Work. But,
now dhat our Language moovs dhe unaſſuming rival ov
dhe Languages ov Room and ov Atthens; now dhat
dhe Corneilles, dhe Boſſuets, dhe Fénelons, dhe Rouſſeaus,
dhe Monteſquicus, dhe Buffons, hav rendered it dhe
Language ov Poetry, ov Elloquence, ov dhe Graces, ov
Hiſtory, ov Pollitics, and or Philoſſophy; dhis day dhat
it proovs to France a ſoarce ov ſplendor and or glory;
and, if won may ſo ſay, a branch even ov riches; how
can it be, dhat ſo littel iz don to' bring it widhin reach
ov dhe forrain world, or indeed ov dhe inhabbitants ov
our Provvinces; dhat it haz not, even in dhe Cappital,
dhe diſtinccion and favor ſo juſtly indulged to' aincient
and forrain Tungs?
I WIL dherfore form a vow, and I dare (to') ſay dhat
evvery French Spirrit, hoo ſhal hear ov dhe vow, wil
join in uniſon widh me to' pant after its accompliſhment.
It iz dhat, ov ſo manny Colleges, hwich conſtitute
dhe Univerſity ov Paris, won be conſecrated to' dhe
pubblic inſtitucion ov dhe French Tung; dhat in dhe chief
town ov evvery Provvince be founded at dhe ſame time
a chair ov dhe French Language; dhat dhe Scool of PARIS,
dhe naſcional eſtabbliſhment, be ſuffiſcient to' admit a
conſidderabel number ov Students, hweddher Straingers
or Natives; dhat dhis College be dhe Nurſery of dhe
Maſters, hoom each Province ſhal chooz, to' fil dhe
French Chair erected in her Cappital: dhat, after dhe
exampel ow Ittaly, hoo founded Scools and Acaddemies
for improoving her Language, by explaining dhe buties
ov a Dante, a Taſſo, an Arrioſto, dhoze naſcional Chairs
ſhal take for dheir Claſſics our moaſt cellebrated Writers;
dhat dhe Profeſſors ſhal exert dhemſelvs, to' diſplay
dhe meccaniſm ov dhe Language; dhat iz, dhe genius
ov its ſyntax, and dhe authentic forms ov its pronunciacion;
dhe ſtructure ov French phrazzeollogy, its
harmony founded on dhe arrangement ov words, and
hwatevver belongs to' dhe meccaniſm ov ſounds. Dhis
eſtabbliſhment; yet wanting to' France, ſo wordhy ov
France, and hwich wood coſt her but dhe ſaccrifice ov
ſom luxury or ſuperfluity, prezents a certain means ov
diffuzing over Europe dhe genius ov dhe Language, and
ov ſettelling dhe uniformity ov pronunciacion thro' dhe
hoal compas ov dhe Kingdom.
A SYSTEM OV ORTHOGGRAPHY, dhat ſhood teach us
to' ſupply dhe defects and correct dhe errors ov Writing,
iz an aid, ov hwich dhe expedience iz no les evvident,
and ov hwich dhe effect wood be ſtil more univerſal.
Dhe Provvinces hav a right to' expect dhis from dhe
Cappital: ſhal all Europe demand it ov France, and demand
it always in vain?
USE, doutles, iz dhe rule ov Language; widh empire
peculiarly abſolute, in matter ov pronunciation. But,
amidſt a thouzand viſcious or uncertain uzages, how ſhal
we diſcrimminate dhe onely pure and authentic? At
Coart iz eſtabbliſhed dhe tribunal ov Uſe: dhence alone
Uſes orrakels ar iſſued. Dhe few dhat frequent it, bring
to' dhe Cappital its decizzions and its ſounds, hwich from
dhe Cappital pas from mouth to' mouth into' dhe Provvinces,
and into' forrain contries. Yet, az dhe code
ov its laws iz not written, but tranſmitted by oral tradiſcion;
dhe depozzit ſubſiſts not long, before douts arize
concerning its integgrity and its authentiſcity. Each quotes
hiz own practice; and makes a point to' warrant it dhe
teſt ov purity. Dhe rule ſtands unexcepcionabel; dhe
application alone iz diſputed.
To' perfet dhe art ov painting ſpeech, to' bring written
language az near az poſſibel to' language ſpoken; ſo
dhat dhe eye ſhal read preciſely hwat iz committed to'
dhe ear; ſuch iz dhe ſole means ov repprezenting faithfoolly
dhe pronunciacion ov dhe Cappital, ov determining
dhe authentiſcity ov practice, ov tranſmuting its inſtabillity,
and conſecrating its laws.
SUCH iz dhe object ov our labor." —
NOR ſurely dhe object ov French labors alone: les
indeed now ov dhem, dhan ov anny oddher. Had dhe
ſpirrited Patriot, and gennerous Philolloger, known how
much more hiz doctrine waz recquizite, not to' ſay applicabel,
abraud dhan at home; hiz Charrity wood here
too hav paſt dhe Channel: to' a Land pronounced enlightened,
hoo yet haz no pubblic Inſtitucion ov domeſtic
Letters; dho her Tung, equally matured in evvery
poſſibel excellence, cannot but hav an equal claim to'
aſcertainment in dhe Cappital, and conſequent diffuzion
into' dhe Provvinces. In dhis Cappital dherfore, an
umbel Individdual, hoo long ago reduced dhe Language
into' Theory, haz now unaided (but by Hevven,) and
unawed by man; dhe boldnes to' commence dhat ſyſtematized
Practice, hwich can alone, by exhibbiting Truith
in her gennuine buty, ſecure her a Tempel hware the
firſt appears; and hence tranſmit her purity to' dhe fartheſt
limmits, hweddher ov place or time.
To the vigilant as infallible Criticks; of whatever
claſs, character, denomination; the only
lawful guardians of Britiſh literature;
honour, health, immortality.
WHEREAS ONE, who ſhall continue nameleſs, as
no-where miſtakeable; wholly regardleſs of whatever
is venerable to SCHOLARS; has (without provocation,
precedent, authority alleged thereunto) endeavoured
ſyſtematically to arrange, ſcientifically to prove,
indefatigably to propagate, the moſt dangerous, infectious,
pernicious principles, that ever threatened the vernacular
literature of any country, particularly of this
iſland: PRINCIPLES! that, though once diſſeminated
ſpeculatively, have become leſs conſequential, through
the able, animated, patriotic reprobation, which ſome
of the ever watchful Spirits brought to the moſt ſucceſsful
bearing: THIS ſolemn refutation, full as forcible as
the other, will doubtleſs operate ſimilarly with ſimilar diſciples.
Otherwiſe Principles, that were magically operative,
wherever patiently meditated; will do double
execution, when this deadly Volume ſhall ſpread their
theoretic force together with their practicable facility.
Deadly is well intituled the publication, which diminiſhes,
ſwells, mangles, maſſacres, every character of
great, little, middling, condition-; which, beginning,
with the very majeſty of the ſovereign, proceeds gradually
thence to do what diſhonour, what damage is poſſible,
to the humbleſt of the people! Where princes
repreſents the property with the. plurality of one prince,
as well as the ſingularity of one princeſs; ſhall nobility
promiſe diſcrimination? The marquis, the marchioneſs,
the marquiſate, are, with as little conſideration of one
property, as of another; of herald, inheritor, inheritreſs,
heritage; degenerated, diſpoſſeſſed, deſolated.
The guardians of greatneſs, of limits, of -every poſſeſſion,
become unguarded together. The nobleman, who
has occaſionally changed the dreſs of his title; eorle,
eorl; earle, earl; dwindles back to the pitiful erl, as
pearl to perl! The viſcount alleges, with proper indignation,
the impoſſibility, ſhould the novel faſhion ſucceed,
of proving the openneſs of vocality, ſhutneſs; of
propagating, conſequentially, any noble paradox. The
baron receives, with as great patience as the biſhop, thoſe
irreverent as unnatural INNOVATIONS; that could never
have originated, unleſs through the cracks of one ſcull;
which the nobles ſpiritual with ſecular, which both
Houſes of Parliament, ſeverally diſparaged, would generouſly
uſe any method to recover into perfect ſanity.
The baronet, jealous as the baron, is moved, with parity
of reaſon, only to ridicule the general enemy; having
humanity enough to inſinuate laughter the adequate remedy,
the ſufficient puniſhment. Noblemen, gentlemen,
yeomen, are once however huddled into unanimity,
proportioned as well to particular aggrievement, as
to the peril of the literary commonwealth. Who verily
ſhall continue unendangered, when put to the ruthleſs
examination of the fell confederacy, Exceſs, Deficience,
Miſreprefentation? Any one of theſe would level the
moſt reſpectable of the realm, with the offscouring of
the earth; would arraign of incapacity to ſpell his very
title, the moſt liberal ſcholar: were this another, Bubb,
Dodington, Baron of Melcombe!
WITH the venerable prelate, the every diffuſer of religious
truth, trembles to conſider the inauſpicious novelty,
that dreadleſsly attacks the moſt aweful, eſtabliſhments;
ancient; modern, civil, eccleſiaſtick the BIBLE
jeoparded with the LITURGY! The oracles of integrity,
the bulwarks of property; of whatever is proper, feaſible,
indefeaſable, fencible, indefenſible; whoever plaintif,
poſſeſſor; priſoner, criminal; have, unanimouſly as
their very reverend fathers, brethren, friends, reſolved
to proſecute with the utmoſt rigour, any one who ſhall
give parallel provocation to the literate, illiterate, to almoſt
every individual of the ſatisfiedly peaceable publick.
The Statutes of both Houſes of Parliament, put into the
balance, with the Statutes of both Volumes of Revelation!
Theology, Equity, every Faculty vilified; Medicine
could little promiſe to preſerve any veneration. The
phyſician, chirurgeon, apotbecary, degenerated into their
modern ſelves, mourn their great luſtre gone. The
humble chiropodiſt, the operator of double (though novel)
utility, perceives his capacities put learnedly together,
only to become the laughing-ſtock of the Dedalus
that compofed them. Amient vocables thus perfectly
anſwering to modern compoſition, who ſhall ceaſe reverentially
to ſeize every ſhadow of antiquity? of which
ſhadow every one is obliged to confeſs the uſefulneſs; as
earning thence the honours of education, without the
loſs of precious minutes, the interruption of buſineſs,
the trouble of ſtudy, the exertion of talent, the danger
of ſucceſsleſſneſs: that ſhadow! thus manifoldly ſolider
than the ſolidity, which ſome generous foreigners imagine
to have once overſhadowed this iſland.
WITH what merit then, what modeſty, what unimagined
eaſe do Britiſh Scholars of every denomination, reverence
the tongues of antiquity, as the only tongues; the delineations
of thoſe tongues, as the only delineations, that
ever could, ſhould; ſhall, will; expreſs energetic thought!
With what ſenſibility, ſincerity, ſublimity, do they pity
the hapleſs moderns, who continue ſtrangers to the noble
diction of Italy, as to that of Greece! With what erudition,
what energy, do they evidence, that modern
tongues are only degenerate mutilations of the antient;
thence incapable of ſeparate completion, of ſyſtematic
intelligibility! Novel gibberiſh having thus nothing proper,
unleſs Latin reliques; with what reverend fidelity
ſhould preſent orthographers treaſure every ſyllable,
element, reſidue, reſemblance, of primitive diction
every unutterable, incombinable, incompatible particle;
thus ſubſtantially preferable to whatever would figure
only pitiful modern realities, rationalities! Thoſe pitiable
geniuſes therefore, who, imagine that Paris has any
other tongue, than that (woefully changed!) of Athens;
Britain, than that of Rome; who having ſtudied only
what they are pleaſed to title modern tongues! will
doubtleſs do their little poſſible to repreſent what they
have ever heard, rather than what they have never read.
Thus do women, girls, chambermaids, liverymen, poſtilions,
porters, tell very delectable truth! as though
Truth could ever deign to bear the touch of uncouth, unlearned
(that is, unancient, unlatin) tongues, fingers,
quills, repreſenters. Shall any preſume to ſpell derivative
tongues, who are unable to dreſs them as their progenitors?

INASMUCH, however, as this pragmatic changer of
literary exhibition, regardleſs of whatever is revertible,
inſidiouſly ſhocks the very foundations of Britiſh liberty;
whoſe capital bulwark is the liberty of the preſs; inſinuating,
that tome of Antiquity's faſhions ought to loſe
the very liberty of living; his unqueſtionable intention
is to limit liberal thought, together with liberal image;
to mould both to the model of Liberty's greateſt enemy,
though Analogy's boſom-friend; to whom both redoubted
antagoniſts do very amicably give the appellation of
reſiſtleſs TRUTH. Without other ſupporter, preſumes
the dauntleſs Analyſt to ranſack, transfigure, new model
the whole Creation; planet, comet, element, earth,
water; heaven, hell; body, ſoul, ſpirit; cherub, ſeraph,
angel, archangel. Without other authority has this
(ſubtle enough) Analogiſt the unparalleled boldneſs to
predicate, rather than inſinuate; poſitively to ſhew, that
Britiſh Scholars, Philologers, Philoſophers, Politicians,
ſolicitous of every other improvement; particularly raviſhed,
as rarefied, with the tranſmigration of aeroſtatics;
have hitherto forborne (whyſoever) to delineate any intelligible
figure of their mother-tongue. This humble,
as honeſt, repreſentation ſhall.manifeſt his modeſty! Who
ſhall, of theſe lineaments, criticiſe one punctilio? Were
this inſufficient, ſhall the celebrated Seminaries, Biſhopricks,
Capitals, of both the Britiſh iſlands; ſhall Oxford,
Cambridge, St. Andrew's (vilified as ever Abernethy!);
ſhal Glaſgow, Aberdeen, Edinburgh, Dublin, tacitly
tolerate, ſhamefully encourage the Tongue who tells
them, without heſitation, reſerve, apology; that they
are unqualified to ſpell their very denominations? That
they ſtill are ſimilar ſtrangers to Rome, Athens; Italy,
Greece; to the whole realm of ENGLAND, as to the
iſland of GREAT BRITAIN ! Shall this matchleſs confederacy,
this invincible body of literature, prove incapable
of battling ONE inſignificant Individual; of levelling the
general leveller, with his inviſible Friend?
NEITHER has this unexceptioned arraignment continued,
as ſome arraignments do continue, ſimple aſſeveration.
The Architect, having mathematically depoſited
the foundations, proceeds to ſubſtantiate every
article of his building; as though demolition were deliberately
meant to the whole œconomy (hitherto undoubted,
therefore indubitable) of the Engliſh Diction. His
opinion, of his buoyant conductreſs, has borne his inanity
to the extravagant apophthegm: Who tells Truth,
ſpills Truth; who ſpells none, tells none. That every
honourable, as intolerant, individual, ſimilarly ſituated
(with the lye given!) puts the intolerable truthteller to
death, when his ſecond (his guardian-angel!) proves unable
to cover his head, his heart, his totality; that this
noble manifeſtation of ſpirit (this preſerver of polity,
with politeneſs!) originated with Chivalry, is as little
queſtionable, as that the particular minute, when this
precious relique of Chivalry ſhall vaniſh, baffles preſent
calculation. Though every ſpirited character occaſionally
fills the poſt of honour, diſputeleſs is the military
prerogative to ſingle, double, anifold battle. Thus will
the general, brigadier, colonel, lieutenant; the very
ſerjeant, with the centinel; every one honourably maſſacre
his friend, rather than hear that the public enemy
ſhould paſs without extermination. Should the military
prose as feeble as other force, with the odd ONE, who
deſires only one odd auxiliary; what could prohibit
civil meaſures, machinations, ſtratagems; reputable as
the oppoſition to the double antagoniſt? Through many
eliabliſhed figures; mutilation, aggravation, diſtortion,
diſloca!ion, tranſmutation; through unimaginable, rather
than unprecedented, management; ſhall Truth's
elevated architect topple headlong into the abyſs of oblivion.
One ready, one pleaſing, as pleaſant, ſtratagem
is laughter, which is ever eaſier than logic. One broad
laugh, eſpecially of the rhymers, will prove ſufficient to
reprobate any futility; eaſily then that of the preſent
Truthmonger's very logical reaſoning. Though modern
rhyme is ſomewhat other than ancient rhythme, ſhall any
one preſume to doubt the viſible chailenefs of breaſt and
feaſt; good and blood; Jove, move, and love; however
diſſimilar to the rhymes of the faultmaker, rather than
faultfinder; when the authorities are conſidered, that
change every one of them into the beauty of incontrovertible
precedent? While thus every rational Critic
confeſs their juſtneſs; natural, as dutiful, becomes
the evocation of ancient father Chaos; who mantles
with eſpecial fondneſs his ever-faithful progeny, would
welcome his very enemies to repeople his dominions; will
verily receive both of theſe as friends, when his loving
offspring ſhall predicate them worthy; when the awful
Court, who regulates public Study, ſhall honour them
with the proper atteſtation. Thus honoured they ſhall
continue unexamined, unviſited, unheard, unread, inconſequential;
as irrefragably, evidenced illegible, unintelligible:

With integrity adequate to the penetration which animates
the diligence, the moſt earneſt endeavours, of the
confederate Critics; do they grieve to acknowledge that
they conceive nothing of the preſent ſcheme of ORTHOGRAPHY,
unleſs the novelty of whim, without ſhadow of
utility: that therefore, never doubting the well-approved
deference of the public to their ever humble deciſions,
they poſſeſs very little ſuſpicion of danger to Curioſity;
who is become dutifully moderate, wherever thought is requiſite;
as jealous of every innovation, without other
ſupport, than that of ſyſtematic, however ſpirited
WHAT then is ONE to many, were that one the very
vaunted TRUTH? What the opinion of one, though
logically irreverſible; to that of myriads, who probably
never troubled one head with literary diſcrimination
Should they exhibit miracles, rather than one forbear novelties?
Is ſtudied repreſentation, however proper, however
eaſy, preferable to unſtudied intelligibility? Are
thoſe, who have learned one habit, obliged ever to learn
Middleton, who officiouſly brought river to river,
earned his overwhelming. Whoſo brought water to
countries that ſought none, ought to perils without water,
ſhould floods forget to miniſter equity. Inſtead of
guarding, as once imagined capable, the fartheſt outpoſts
of the literary fortreſs, the preſent faithful centinel has
levelled the circumvallation! Thus, notwithſtanding
every arrangement, that promiſed impenetrability; has
the hapleſs Engliſh tongue, when moulded to perfect
movement, become fenceleſs to the attack of the youngeſt
to the rapacity of the moſt avaricious,
though the fartheſt, foreigner. Guarded however thus
once again, the fortifications are evidently rebuildable;
when Britiſh ſpirit ſhall prove ſufficient perpetually to
baniſh that invulnerable Baſiliſk, TRUTH! whoſe very
intuition Britons themſelves would confeſs irreſiſtible;
though that of the implacable enemy to every preſent
vernacular volume; enemy fill only to that armour,
which prohibits acceſs to the treaſures, the pearls, the
diamonds, the every precious reality within.
Leſt anny ſhood dhus be unfortunately precluded dhe
luſter ov dhe diamond widhin dhis pubblic-ſpirrited Admoniſcion;
dhe abov Bazziliſk aſks not leve wonce more
to' glance down interception; and to' poot dhe iſſue ov
dhe argument, on dhe propriety ov its clodhing.
To dhe vidgilant, az infallibel, Crittics; ov hwatevver
clas, carracter, denomminacion; dhe onely
lawfool gardians ov Brittiſh litterature;
onnor, helth, immortallity.
HWARAZ WON, hoo ſhal continnue nameles,
az, no-hware miſtakabel; hoally regardles ov hwatevver
iz vennerabel to' SCOLLARS; haz (widhout provvocacion,
,preſcedent, authorrity alledged dharunto') endevvored
ſyſtemattically to' arrainge, ſcientiffically to'
proov, indefattigably to' proppagate, dhe moaſt daingerous,
infeccious, perniſcious principels, dhat evver threttened
dhe vernaccular litterature ov anny contry, particcularly
ov dhis iland: PRINCIPELS! dhat, dho wonce diſſemminated
ſpecculatively, hav becom les conſequencial, thro'
dhe abel, annimated, pattriottic repprobacion, hwich ſom
ov dhe evver-watchfool Spirrits braught to' dhe moaſt ſuccesfool
bairing: DHIS ſollemn reffutacion, fool az foarcibel
dhe oddher, wil doutles opperate ſimmilarly widh
ſimmilar diſcipe1s. Oddberwize Principels, dhat wer
madgically opperative, hwarevver patiently medditated,
wil doo dubbel- execucion, hwen dhis dedly Vollume ſhal
ſpred dheir theorettic foarce, togueddber widh dheir practicabel
Dedly iz wel entitelled dhe pubblicacion, hwich diminniſhes,
ſwels, manguels, maſſakers, evvery carracer ov
grait, littel, midling, condiſcion; hwich, beguinning
dhe verry madjeſty ov dhe ſovverain, procedes graddually
dhence to' doo hwat diſonnor, hwat dammage iz
poſſibel, to' dhe umbelleſt ov dhe pepel! Hware princes
repprezents dhe propperty with dhe plurallity ov won
prince, az wel dhe ſingularrity ov won princes; ſhal
nobillity prommiſe diſcrimminacion? Dhe markis, dhe
marchiones, dhe markizate, ar, widh az littel conſidderacion
ov won propperty az ov anoddher; ov herrald, inherritor,
inherritres, erritage; degenerated, diſpozeſſed,
deſſolated. Dhe gardians ov graitnes, ov limmits,
ov evvery pozeſſion, becom ungarded togueddher. Dhe
nobelman, hoo haz occazzionally chainged dhe dres ov his
titel; eorle, eorl; earle, earl; dwindels bac to' dhe pittifool
erl, az pearl to' perl! Dhe vicount alledges, widh
propper indignation, dhe impoſſibillity, ſhood dhe novvel
faſhion ſuccede, ov prooving dhe opennes ov vocallity ſhutnes;
at, proppagating, conſequencially, anny nobel parradox.
Dhe barron receivs, widh az grait patience az
dhe bisſhop, dhoze irrevverent az unnattural INNOVACIONS;
dhat cood nevver hav oridginated, unles thro'
dhe cracs ov won ſcul; hwich dhe nobels ſpirritual widh
ſeccular, hwich boath Houzes ov Parlement ſevverally
diſparaged, wood gennerouſly uze anny metthod to' recovver
into' perfet ſannity. Dhe barronet, jellous az
dhe barron, iz mooved, widh parrity ov rezon, onely to'
riddicule dhe genneral ennemy; havving humannity enuf
to' inſinnuate lafter dhe addequate remmedy, dhe ſuffiſcient
punniſhment. Nobelmen, gentelmen, yemen, ar wonce
howevver huddelled into' unanimmity, propoarcioned az
wel particcular aggrievment, az to' dhe perril ov dhe
litterary commonwelth. Hoo verrily ſhall continnue unendaingered,
hwen poot to' dhe ruithles examminacion ov
dhe fel confedderacy, Exces, Defiſcience, Miſrepprezentacion?
Anny won ov dheze wood levvel dhe moaſt reſpectabel
ov dbe relm, widh dhe ofccouring ov dhe erth; wood
arrain ov incapaſcity to' ſpel hiz verry titel, dhe moaſt
libberal ſcollar; wer dhis anoddher Bub Doddington,
Barron ov Melcomb.
Widh dhe vennerabel Prellate, dhe evvery diffuzer ov
relidgious truith trembels to' conſidder dhe inauſpiſcious
novvelty, dhat dredleſly attacs dhe moaſt awfool eſtabbliſhments;
aincient, moddern, civvil, eccelezziaſtic: dhe BIBEL
jepparded widh dhe LITTURGY! Dhe orrakels ov integgrity,
dhe boolwarks ov propperty; ov hwatevver iz
propper, fezabel, indefezabel, ſencibel, indefenſibel;
hooevver plantif, pozeſſor, prizoner, crimminal; hav
unannimouſly az dheir verry revverend fahdhers, breddhren,
frends; rezolved to' proſſecute widh dhe utmoaſt
riggor, anny won, hoo ſhal guiv parrallel provvocacion
to' dhe literate, illiterate, to' almoaſt evvery individual
ov dhe ſattisfiedly peceabel pubblic. Dhe Stattutes ov
boath Houzes ov Parlement, poot into' dhe ballance
dhe Stattutes ov boatb Vollumes ov Revvelacion! Theollogy,
Ecquity, evvery Facculty villified; Medcine cood
littel prommiſe to' prezerv anny venneracion. Dhe
phyziſcian, kirurgeon, apottecary, degennerated into'
dheir moddern ſelvs, moarn dheir grait luſter gon. Dhe
umbel kiroppodiſt, dhe opperator ov dubbel (dho novvel)
utillity, perceivs hiz capaſcities poot lernedly togueddher,
onely to' becom dhe laffing-ſtoc ov dhe Deddalus, dhat
compozed dhem. Aincient vocabels dhus perfetly anſering
to' moddern compoziſcion; hoo ſhal ceſe revverencially
to' ſeze evvery ſhaddow ov antiquity? ov hwich
ſhaddow evvery won iz obleged to' confes dhe uſefoolnes;
az erning dhence dhe onnors ov edducacion, widhout dhe
los ov preſcious minnutes, dhe interruption ov biznes, dhe
trubbel ov ſtuddy, dhe exercion ov tallent, dhe dainger
ov ſucceſleſnes: dhat ſhaddow! dhus mannifoldly ſollider
dhan dhe ſoliddity, hwich ſom gennerous forrainers
imadgine to' hav wonce overſbaddowed dhis iland.
WIDH hwat merrit dhen, hwat moddeſty, hwat unimadgined
eze, doo Brittiſh Scollars ov evvery denomminacion,
revverence dhe tunes ov antiquity, az dhe
onely tungs; dhe delinncacions ov dhoze tungs, az dhe
onely delinneacions, dhat evver cood, ſhood, ſhal, wil;
expres ennergettic thaught? Widh hwat ſenſibillity ſincerrity,
ſublimmity, doo dhey pitty dhe haples modderns,
hoo continnue ſtraingers to' dhe nobel diction ov Ittaly, az
to' dhat ov Grece! Widh hwat errudiſcion, hwat ennergy,
doo dhey evvidence, dhat moddern tungs ar onely degennerate
mutilations ov dhe aincient; dhence incapabel
ov ſepparate completion, ov ſyſtemattic intelligibillity!
Novvel guibberiſh havving dhus notthing propper, unles
Lattin rellics; widh hwat revverent fidellity ſhood
prezzent orthoggraphers trezzure evvery ſyllabel, ellement,
rezzidue, rezemblance, ov primmitive diction; evvery
very unutterabel, incombinabel, incompattibel partikel;
dhus ſubſtancially prefferabel to' hwatevver wood
figgure onely pittifool moddern reallities, raſcionallities!
Dhoze pittiabel geniuſes dherfore, hoo imadgine dhat
Parris haz anny oddher tung, dhan dhat (wofoolly chainged!)
ov Atthens; Brittain, dhan dhat ov Room; hoo,
havving ſtuddied onely hwat dhey ar plezed to' titel moddern
tungs! wil doutles doo dheir littel poſſibel to' repprezent
hwat dhey hav evver herd, raddher dhan hwat dhey
hav nevver red. Dhus doo wimmen, guirls, chaimbermaids;
livverimen, poſtillions, poarters; tel verry delectabel
truith! az dho Truith cood evver dain to' bair dhe
tutch ov uncouth unlerned) dhat iz, unaincient, unlattin)
tungs, finguers, quils, repprezenters. Shal anny
prezume to' ſpel derivvative tungs, hoo ar unabel to'
dres dbem az dbeir progennitors?
Inazmuch howevver az dhis pragmattic chainger ov
litterary exhibiſcion, regardles ov hwatevver iz reverabel,
inſiddiouſly ſhocs dhe verry foundacions ov Brittiſh
Libberty, hoos cappital boolwark iz dhe Libberty or dhe
Pres; inſinnuating, dhat ſom ov Anticquity's fasſhions
aught to' looz dhe verry libberty ov livvring; hiz unqueſtionabel
intenſion iz to' limmit libberal thought, togueddher
widh libberal immage; to' mold booth to' dhe moddel
ov Libberty's graiteſt ennemy, dho Anallogy's buzzom-frend;
to' hoom boath redouted antaggoniſts doo,
verry ammicably, guiv dhe appellacion or reziſtles
TRUITH. Widhout oddher ſuppoarter, prezumes dhe
dantles Annalyſt to' ranſac, transfiggure, new-moddel dhe
hoal Creacion; plannet, commet, ellement; erth, wauter;
hevven, hel; boddy, ſoll, ſpirrit; cherrub, ſerraph,
aingel, arcaingel. Widhout oddher authorrity haz
dhis (ſuttel enuf) Anallogiſt dhe unparrallelled boldnes to'
preddicate, raddher dhan inſinnuate; pozzitively to' ſhow,
dhat Brittiſh Scollars, Philollogers, Philoſophers, Pollitiſcians,
ſolliſcitous ov evvery oddher improovment; particcularly
ravviſhed,az rarrefied,widh dhe tranſmigracion
ov aeroſtattics, hav hidelherto' forboren (hwyſoevver) to'
delinneate anny intelligibel figgure ov dheir moddher-tung.
Dhis umbel, az onneſt, repprezentacion ſhal mannifeſt
hiz moddeſty! Hoo ſhal, ov dheze linneamenis, critticize
punctillio? Wer dhis inſuffiſcient, ſhal dhe cellebrated
Semminaries, Bisſhoprics, Archbisſhoprics, Cappitals,
ov boath dhe Brittiſh ilands; ſhal Oxfoard, Caimbridge,
St. Andrews (villified az evver Abbernetthy!)
ſhal Glaſcow, Abberdeen, Eddinburrough, Dubblin, taſcitly
tollerate, encurrage, dhe Tung, hoo tels
dhem, widhout hezzitacion, rezerv, apollogy, dhat dhey ar
unquallified to' ſpel dheir verry denomminacions? Dhat
dhey ſtil ar ſimmilar ſtraingers to' Room, Atthens; Ittaly,
Grece; to' dhe hoal relm ov INGLAND, az to dhe iland
ov GRAIT BRITTAIN! Shal dhis matchles confedderacy,
dhis invincibel boddy ov litterature, proov incapabel ov
battelling WON inſignifficant Individdual; ov levvelling
dhe genneral Levveller, widh biz invizzibel Frend?
Nedher haz dhis unexcepcioned arrainment continnued,
az ſom arrainments doo continnue, ſimpel aſſevveracion.
Dhe Arkitect, havving matthemattically depozzited
dhe foundations, precedes to' ſubſtanciate evvery artikel
ov hiz bilding; az dhe demmoliſcion wer delibbeately
ment to' dhe hoal econnomy (hilddherto' undouted, dherfore
indubitabel) ov dhe Ingliſh Diction. Hiz opinnion,
ov hiz bwoyant conductres, haz boren hiz inannity to dhe
extravvagant appothem: Hoo tels Truith, ſpels Truith;
hoo ſpels non, tels non. Dhat evvery onnorabel (az intollerant)
individdual, ſimmilarly ſittuated (widh dhe ly
guivven) poots dhe intollerabel Truithteller to' deth,
hwen hiz ſeccond (hiz gardian-aingel!) proovs unabel to'
covver hiz hed, hiz hart, hiz totallity; dhat dhis nobel
mannifeſtacion ov ſpirit (dhis prezerver ov pollity, widh
politenes! oridginated widh Chivvalry, iz az littel queſtionabel,
az dhat dhe particcular minnute, hwen dhis
preſcious rellic ov Chivvalry ſhal vanniſh, baffels prezzent
calculation. Dho evvery ſpirrited carracter occazzionally
fils dhe poaſt ov onnor; diſputeles iz dhe millitary
prerogative to' ſinguel, dubbel, annifold battel.
Dhus will dhe genneral, briggadier, curnel, lieftennant;
dhe verry ſergeant widh dhe ſentinel; evvery won onnorably
maſſaker hiz Frend, raddher dhan bair dhat dhe
pubblic Ennemy ſhood pas widhout extermination? Shood
dhe millitary proov az feebel az oddher foarce, widh dhe
od WON, hoo dezires one1y won od Auxilliary; hwat cood
prohibbit civvil mezzures, mackinacions, ſtrattagems;
repputabel az dhe oppoziſcion to' dhe dubbel antaggoniſt?
Thro' manny eſtabbliſhed figures; mutilacion, aggravacion,
diſtorſion, diſlocacion, tranſmutacion; thro' unimadginabel,
raddher dhan unpreſcedented mannagement,
ſhal Truiths ellevated Arkitect toppel hedlong into'
dhe abys ov oblivvion. Won reddy, won plezing, az
plezzant, ſtrattagem iz lafter, hwich iz evver ezier dhan
lodgic. Won braud laf, eſpeſcially ov dhe Rimers, wil
proov ſuffiſcient to' repprobate anny futillity; ezily dhen
dhat ov dhe prezzent Truithmongers verry lodgical rezoning.
Dho moddern rime iz ſomhwat oddher dhan aincient
rhythme; ſhal anny won prezume to' dout dbe vizzibel
chaſtenes ov breaſt and feaſt; good and blood,
Jove, move, and love; howevver diſſimmilar to' dhe
rimes ov dhe fautmaker,raddher, dhan fautfinder; hwen
dhe authorrities ar conſiddered, dhat chainge evvey won
ov dhem into' dhe buty ov incontrovertibel preſcedent?
Hwile dhus evvery raſcional Crittic ſhal confes dheir
juſtnes; nattural, az dutifool, become dhe evvocacion ov
aincient fahdher Chaos, hoo mantels widh eſpeſcial fondnes
hiz, evver-faithfool prodgeny, wood welcom hiz verry
ennemies to' repepel hiz dominnions; wil verrily receiv
boath dhoze az frends, hwen hiz lovving ofspring ſhal
preddicate dhem wordhy; hwen dhe awfool Coart, hoo
reggulates pubblic ſtuddy, ſhal onnor dhem widh dhe recquizite
Atteſtacion. Dhus onnored dhey ſhal continnue
unexammined, unvizzited; unherd, unreel, inconſequencial;
az, irreffragably evvidenced illedgibel, unintelligibel:

Widh integgrity addequate to' dhe pennetracion,
hwich annimates dhe dilligence, dhe moaſt emeſt endevvors,
ov dhe confedderate Crittics; doo dhey griev to'
acnollege, dhat dhey conceiv notthing ov dhe prezzent
ſkeme ov ORTHOGGRAPHY; unles dhe novvelty ov
hwim, widhout ſhaddow ov utillity: dhat dherfore, nevver
douting dhe wel-approoved defference ov dhe pubblic
to' dheir evver-umbel decizzions, dhey pozes verry
littel ſuſpiſcion ov dainger to' Curioſſity; hoo iz becom
dutifoolly modderate, hwarevver thaught iz recquizite;
az jellous ov evvery innovacion, widhout oddher
poart, dhan dhat ov ſyſtemattic, howevver ſpirrited REZON.

Hwat dhen iz WON to' manny, wer dhat won dhe verry
wanted TRUITH? Hwat dhe opinnion ov won, dho
lodgically irreveſibel, to' dhat ov myrriads, hoo probbably
nevver trubbelled won hed widh litterary diſcriminacion?
Shood dhey exhibbit mirrakels, raddher dhan
won forbair novvelties? Iz ſtuddied repprezentacion,
howevver propper, howevver ezy, prefferabel to' unſtuddied
intelligibillity? Ar dhoze, hoo hav lerned won habbit,
obleged evver to' lern anoddher
MIDDELTON*, hoo offiſciouſly braught rivver to' rivver,
erned hiz overhwelming. Hooſo braught wauter to'
contries, dhat ſaught non; aught to' perriſh widhout wautar,
ſhood fluds forguet to' minniſter ecquity. Inſted
garding, az wonce imadgined capabel, dhe fardheſt outpoaſts
ov dhe litterary fortres; dhe prezzent faithfool
Sentinel haz levvelled dhe circumvallacion! Dhus, notwidhſtanding
evvery arraingement, dhat prommiſed impennetrabillity;
haz dhe haples Ingliſh Tung, hwen molded
to' perfet moovment, becom ſenceles to' dhe attac ov dhe
yongeſt novvice, to' dhe rapaſcity or dhe moaſt avvariſcious,
dho dhe fardheſt, forrainer. Garded howevver
dhus wonce aguen, dhe fortifications ar evvidently rebildabel;
hwen Brittiſh ſpirrit ſhal proov ſuffiſcient
perpettually to' banniſh dhat invulnerabel Bazziliſk
TRUITH; hoos verry intuiſcion Brittons dhemſelvs wood
* Sir HUGH MIDDELTON, hoo conducted dhe New-Rivver (20 miles)
from Hartfoardſhere, to' accommodate dhe North-ſide ov London (hwich haz
evver ſince enjoyed dhat nobel improovment), waz treated, az if he had carried
coals, to' Newcaſtel. Dhe patriot undon left hiz children to' dhe care ov a Provvidence,
dhat forſaketh not dhe ſeed ov dhe righteous, and ov a pubblic, dhat made ſom
(verry) ſmall amends for its ingratutude to' dheir fahdher.
confes irreziſtibel; dho dhat ov dhe implacabel ennemy
to' evvery prezzent vernaccular vollume: ennemy ſtil
onely to' dhat armor, hwich prohibbits acces to dhe trezzures,
dhe perls, dhe dimonds, dhe evvery preſcious reallity

Candor haz doutles paciently red:
Page 7, line 11; 25,
20; 62, 18; 125, 3;
300, 2; 315, 16. to — to'
30, 2; 331, 9. —of — ov
53, 3 — ov — or'
18, 15, 50, antep. is — iz
22. 21. — as — az
10, 11. .— than — dhan
151, penult. — Dhis — Dhus
282, 9. — thought — thaught
53, 1. — eyc — eye
28, 1; 39, 23. — ſodjorn — ſodjurn
242, pen. — piſtacho — piſtaſho
163, 22. — Iearn — lern
63, 20. — dhemſelves — dhemſelvs
64, 14. — Shall — Shal
283, 10. — perfect — perfet
66, 3. — optionabel — opcional
49, 16. — ſibbilaccion — ſibbilacion
328, 1. — ſollicitare — ſollicitare
157, 26. — portreve — poartreve
81, 10. — geeſe — gueſe
45,14. — any — anny
119, 18. — impoſſibility — impoſſibillity
99, 25. — improperly — impropperly
93, 13. — eſpecially — eſpeſcially
47, laſt — occazional — occazzional
176, 14. — pooting — pootting
16 12 —nothing — notthing
2823, 17. — hidherto' — hiddherto'
315, laſt — perſpicuouſly — perſpiccuouſly
117, 20 — particle — particule
22. corpuſkel — corpuſkel or corpuſce
32, 5. — retrogade — retrograde
242, 17. — in-favor — in favor
56, pen. — creſcent; quieſcent, — creſcent, quieſcent;
129, and 7 foll. — 117 and ſo on — 129, and ſo on.


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Propriety Ascertained in Her Picture, Vol. 1. 2022. In The Corpus of Modern Scottish Writing. Glasgow: University of Glasgow. Retrieved October 2022, from

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Propriety Ascertained in Her Picture, Vol. 1

Document Information

Document ID 150
Title Propriety Ascertained in Her Picture, Vol. 1
Year group 1750-1800
Genre Orthoepists
Year of publication 1786
Wordcount 83998

Author information: Elphinston, Mr James

Author ID 223
Title Mr
Forenames James
Surname Elphinston
Gender Male
Year of birth 1721
Place of birth Edinburgh, Scotland
Occupation Educationist
Father's occupation Clergyman
Locations where resident London
Other languages spoken French, Latin
Religious affiliation Episcopalian