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Hints on Swimming

Author(s): Wilson, William

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Hints on Swimming
BY
WILLIAM WILSON,
Chairman Associated Swimming Clubs of Scotland
President West of Scotland Swimming Club,
Author of "Swimming, Diving, and How to Save
Life,"
"The Bathers' Manual," &c
Dedicated with special permission to the
Chairman and Committee of the City of
Glasgow Corporation Baths.
GLASGOW:
JOHN SOMERS, PRINTER, 75 EAST HOWARD STREET.
Entered at Stationers' Hall.
FORSYTH'S
Swimming Costumes,
Gymnastic Costumes,
Scholastic Costumes,
Football Costumes,
All ready in Stock, or can be Made to Order
on very SHORt notice.
OUTFITTERS to the University, and
for all the principal Academies and
Swimming Clubs in Glasgow and West
of Scotland.
5 & 7 Renfield Street,
GLASGOW.
REID & TODD,
48,50,52,54 GLASSFORD STREET,
AND
73 WILSON STREET,
HAVE always on hand a largo stock of
WATERPROOF COATS,
LEGGINGS,
CARRIAGE APRONS,
AIR & WATER BEDS,
CUSHIONS,
SWIMMING BELTS,
FOOTBALLS, &c.
Portmanteaus, Trunks
HAND-BAGS, &c.
UMBRELLAS AND WALKING STICKS.
UMBRELLAS RE-COVERED
IN ONE HOUR.
THE ARGYLE BATHS
Hair-Cutting Saloon,
366 ARGYLE STREET,
Is one of the Sights of the City.
Fitted with Brushing Machinery
driven by Water-Engine.
No expense or study has been spared to
make this Saloon the most complete in Scotland.
Considerable attention is given to the
Cleanliness of Brushes, Towels, and Cutting--
Cloths. Each customer is shaved with
clean hot water, whilst the prices are
exceedingly reasonable, considering that only
first-class Hair-Dressers are kept.
Hair-Cutting, - 4d.
Shampooing, - 4d.
Shaving, - 2d.
OPEN FROM 8 A.M. TO 9 P.M.
Gentlemen can have their Hair Cut
and Shampooed as often as desired for 10/6
per annum.
One trial solicited by A. ASTON,
Proprietor.
WEST OF SCOTLAND
SWIMMING CLUB,
INSTITUTED 1867.
Object:
Teaching and encouraging the Art of
Swinnuing, and rewarding Members for
Saving Life from Drowning.
Meet for Practice —
MONDAYS, at 9 p.m.,
Cromwell Baths.
THURSDAYS, at 8 p.m.,
Green head Baths.
ENTRY-MONEY, - 1s.
ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION —
Adults, 3s.6d. — Juveniles, 2s.6d.
Pants Free.
D. HANNINGTON, Hon. Secy.,
33 WARWICK STREET
CROMWELL BATHS
CROMWELL STREET,
Great Western Road,
Near St. George's Cross.
SUPERIOR PRIVATE BATHS
from 6d. upwards.
SPLENDID SWIMMING POND.
Adults 4d., Juveniles 2d.
Twetve Tickets, 3s.
BATHS FOR LADIES.
Open from 6 a.m. till 10 p.m.
Sundays, 6 till 10 a.m.
ST. ENOCH
RESTAURANT,
4 ST. ENOCH SQUARE,
GLASGOW.
W. G. PIGOTT, in returning his thanks
for the liberal patronage he has received
since opening the above Establishment, begs
to intimate that he has got it thoroughly
Re-arranged and Renewed, and hopes, by
continued attention and moderate charges,
to meet a continuance of your favours.
DINNERS, SUPPERS,
AND
PRIVATE PARTIES
CONTRACTED FOR.
MESSRS
TURNBULL & SONS
HAVE special facilities for the production
of First-Class Portraits. Amongst them is
their famous " LUXOGRAPH APPARATUS,"
which enables them to take Photos at
NIGHT AS WELL AS BY DAY.
A Private Studio set apart for Portraits in
Fancy Dress or Swimming Costume.
TURNBULL & SONS,
75 Jamaica Street, 75
GLASGOW.
Hints on Swimming
BY
WILLIAM WILSON,
Chairman Associated Swimming Clubs of Scotland
President West of Scotland Swimming Club,
Author of "Swimming, Diving, and How to Save
Life,"
"The Bathers' Manual," &c
Dedicated with special permission to the
Chairman and Committee of the City of
Glasgow Corporation Baths.
GLASGOW:
JOHN SOMERS, PRINTER, 75 EAST HOWARD STREET.
Entered at Stationers' Hall.
CONTENTS.
PAGE
Important to Bathers, - 3
Swimming, - 5
Preliminary, - 6
The Lesson, - 8
Breathing, - 11
Treading, - 12
Back Swimming, - 13
Overhand Swimming, - 14
Howard's Method of Resuscitation, 18
IMPORTANT TO BATHERS.
With a view to diminish the number
of accidents which occur during the
summer season from incautious bathing,
the Royal Humane Society has distributed
throughout the United Kingdom
the following
CAUTIONS :—
Avoid bathing within two hours after
a meal.
Avoid bathing when exhausted by
fatigue or from any other cause.
Avoid bathing when the body is
cooling after perspiration.
Avoid bathing altogether in the
open air if, after having been a short
time in the water, there is a sense of
chilliness, with numbness of the hands
and feet; but bathe when the body is
warm, provided no time is lost in
getting into the water.
Avoid chilling the body by sitting
or standing undressed on the banks or
boats after having been in the water.
Avoid remaining too long in the
water, but leave the water immediately
there is the slightest feeling of chilliness.
The vigorous and strong may bathe
early in the morning on an empty
stomach.
The young and those who are weak
had better bathe two or three hours after
a meal; the best time for such is from
two to three hours after breakfast.
Those who are subject to attacks of
giddiness or faintness, and those who
suffer from palpitation and other sense
of discomfort at the heart, should not
bathe without first consulting their
medical adviser.
SWIMMING.
This is the purest exercise of health,
The kind refresher of the summer heats;
Nor when coldwinter keens the bright'ning
flood —
Would I, weak shivering, linger on the
brink.
Thus life redoubles, and is oft preserved
By the bold swimmer in the swift illapse
Of accident disastrous. Hence the limbs
Knit into force ; and the same Roman arm
That rose victorious o'er the conquer'd
earth,
First learned, while tender, to subdue the
wave.
E'en from the body's purity the mind
Receives a secret sympathetic aid.
THOMSON.
The following instructions or "hints,"
it is hoped, will prove of benefit to
those about to learn the art of swimming,
it may be by themselves, or at
the hands of a teacher.
PRELIMINARY.
In all your trials while learning to
swim, think less of the water than of
the motions of legs and arms, as hereafter
described.
Bear in mind, that in order to attain
excellence in the art, the swimmer
must control the water, and not allow
the water in any way to control the
movements of the limbs.
Dress and undress leisurely.
Boys should not bathe in tepid or
fresh water oftener than once a day.
The stay in the water should not be
prolonged beyond ten or fifteen minutes.
The immoderately long baths of boyhood
are an absolute injury.
Having undressed, enter the water
quickly, but without flurry or excitement;
stoop down, and immerse the
head, closing the mouth and holding
the breath when under, opening the
eyes and mouth and breathing freely
immediately the head comes above the
surface of the water. Repeat this
operation several times, until the body
has become accustomed to the temperature
of the water, and the breathing is
natural.
THE LESSON.
Now walk further in until the water
reaches midway up the chest, turn
toward the shallow part of the bath or
shore, lift the feet off the bottom, and
reaching downward and forward try to
touch the ground with one or both
hands. The learner will soon discover
that it is not so easy to go to the
bottom as he may have imagined.
Possessed of this knowledge he will have
more confidence in the buoyancy of
the body when in water, and with less
timidity proceed to the more important
part of the lesson, which is as follows: —
Having first taken a long breath, lay
the body on the water; at the same
instant kick the feet out sideways, and
put the hands straight in front, as far
as they can be stretched in a line from
the chin. The further the hands reach
forward the neater and cleaner will be
the appearance of the stroke.
Next, bring the legs together without
bending the knees, at the same time
part the hands to the right and left,
and carry them round until hands,
arms, and shoulders are in a straight
line across; the hands by this movement
will have each described a quarter
of a circle.
Finish the movement by bringing
the hands under the chin, the position
from whence they started. In order to
accomplish this neatly, let the elbows
go backward and close to the sides, and
return the hands sideways through the
water, so as to offer as little friction or
resistance as possible. While this
movement is being gone on with, the
feet should be brought close up to the
body, the knees and toes being pointed
outward, and the heels touching. Repeat
these movements slowly, deliberately,
and with mechanical precision.
Beyond these three simple motions
which form the correct stroke, make no
attempt by kicking or pushing the
hands downward, or hitching the body,
to keep the head above the surface of
the water. As the stroke attains perfection,
so will the head and face come
more and more above the water, until
the lips are clear during at least part of
each stroke.
BREATHING.
To breathe naturally, exhale as the
legs are extended, and inhale while the
arms are being carried round and the
legs are brought together, while a suspension
of the respiratory organs should
take place as the feet are drawn up to
the body, and the hands are at the last
part of the movement.
Breathe regularly at every stroke,
and this accomplished, half the difficulty
of learning to swim has been got
over.
TREADING
Every one, swimmer or non-swirnmer,
should know how to tread water. and
thereby support the head above the
surface, although no onward progress is
made.
The body is in an upright position,
and one has only to kick the feet downward,
in as nearly as possible the same
way as when running. Or kick downward,
using the ordinary swimming
motions.
Non-swimmers should have hands
and arms under water, but swimmers
should practise to have them above the
surface.
BACK SWIMMING.
To swim on the back, the movements
of legs are the same in every
detail as in ordinary breast swimming.
The hands should be put on the waist,
the head and shoulders being laid well
back in the water, with the chest close
to the surface, and at the start the
lungs well inflated. In this position
the body requires no effort to support
it, and the smallest movement of the
legs will send it forward at a tolerably
fast rate. It is important in back
swimming, as with the ordinary stroke,
that the feet be kicked wide apart
before being closed at the second part
of movement. In swimming matches
the hands and arms can of course be
used to increase the speed.
OVERHAND SWIMMING.
This method of moving through the
water is the fastest at present known.
In its practice, one of the hands, instead
of being along with the other kept
under, is, by a lifting of the elbow,
brought above the surface of the water
and carried along in advance of the
head as far as it can be stretched. The
palm of this hand is then turned to
face outward from the body, the points
of the fingers drooping slightly. The
hand and arm is then pushed into the
water, and, on setting the muscles of
hand, arm, and shoulder, a strong pull
along the body follows as the propelling
part of the stroke is performed. All
these motions are done with the left
or uppermost arm. As the left hand
has completed the positive part of
the stroke, the right is put straight
out from the shoulder, as far in
front as possible, it is then brought
down, scooping the water as it were,
until it reaches almost, although not
quite, down to between the knees. It
is then returned along the body to the
position at the shoulder from which the
stroke may be said to have started. As
the undermost hand is put out in front
the legs are kicked wide apart, and as
the hand is performing the pull downward
the legs are brought together
then without any rest the feet are
brought close up to the body. Special
attention must, however, be paid to the
difference of the leg movements in overhand
swimming from those of the plain
stroke. As the body is lying on the
side it will be easily understood that
one leg is lying deeper in the water
than the other. The one is therefore
lying along the water while the other is
obliquely pointing towards the bottom
of the bath. As the feet are kicked
apart the position resembles as nearly
as possible a wide step in running,
the topmost foot being sent straight
out in front of, and at right angles
with the body, while the undermost
leg is kicked in the direction of
one's own back. As the legs are brought
together at the positive part of the
movement the resisting surfaces are the
inner ancle of the uppermost foot, and
the instep, front leg, and inner ancle
of the undermost. It should also be
noted that the kicking apart, and the
closing of the limbs before they are
brought up, must be as nearly as
possible performed in one strong, and
at the same time, graceful motion.
The muscles of the arms and
legs, especially the arms, should have
a rest between the strokes, and be only
set in order to perform the positive
motions.
The mouth will be above the surface
when the hand is carried to the front,
this, therefore, is the time to take a
breath when the hand is being pulled
through the water along the body, at
the positive or propelling part of the
stroke. Practise to blow out through
the nostrils as the body is being pulled
onward through the water.
DR. HOWARD'S NEW AND DIRECT METHOD
FOR RESTORING THE APPARENTLY DEAD FROM DROWNING
OR SUFFOCATION AS APPROVED OF BY THE HUMANE
SOCIETIES AND LIFEBOAT INSTITUTIONS OF GREAT BRITAIN
AND THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.
1. — To Pump and Drain Fluids from
Lungs and Stomach. — This is done by
placing the patient face downward over
a hard roll of clothing, so that the pit
of the stomach is the highest point,
while the mouth is the lowest. The
operator supplements the pressure of
his hands upon the back of the patient,
above the roll, if necessary, with all the
weight and force at his command.
2. — For Artificial Breathing. — The
patient, whose clothing is ripped open
from the waist, is laid upon his back,
and the pit of the stomach is made the
highest point by a hard roll of clothing
beneath the back, while the head is the
lowest part. The wrists are crossed
behind the head: these a second person,
if present, pins to the ground with one,
while with the other the tongue is held
forward by a piece of dry rag (a pocket
handkerchief will do). The greatest
possible expansion of the chest is thus
obtained. The operator, kneeling astride
the patient, grasps the most compressible
part of the chest, on each side of the
pit of the stomach, and, using
his knees as a pivot, throws forward,
slowly and steadily, his whole weight,
until his mouth nearly touches the face
of the patient. Then, by a final push,
he throws himself back to his first
erect kneeling position. By the sudden
removal of the compressing force the
elastic ribs spring back to their original
position, and by this bellows action the
air rushes into and is forced out of the
chest alternately, as in natural breathing.
Success may attend this process
in a few minutes, but hope of a favourable
result ought not to be given up
under an hour.
This method has a conspicuous advantage
of unequalled simplicity, can
easily be understood by the most
illiterate person, and may be carried
into execution anywhere, with or without
a doctor.
THE CLYDE
FLOATING SWIMMING BATH
(Under Management of Mr. and Mrs.
Wishart)
Is situated in the pure water of the Firth
of Clyde below Greenock, and approached by
a long pier stretching into the sea.
Perfection of Sea - Bathing — Safety —
Comfort — Purity — Bathing at all states of
the tide or weather.
Ladies' Hours —
Daily (except Saturdays), 10.30 A.M. till 2 P.M.
Gentlemen's Hours —
At all other hours, from daylight till dark,
and on Sunday Mornings till 9 A.M.
The TRAMWAY CARS between Gourock
and Greenock pass the gate leading to the
Floating Bath.
For information as to Season Tickets for
1880, application should be made to WELSH
WALKER & MACPHERSON, Secretaries to the
Clyde Floating Swimming Bath Co., Limited.
JOHN H. STOKER,
Jeweller & Medallist
85 Queen Street,
GLASGOW.
SWIMMING and ATHLETIC CLUBS supplied
with every description of Medals and Badges
at Wholesale Prices.
THE NEW
SCOTCH TWEED WATERPROOF,
Our new process
of Vulcanizing enables
us to Waterproof every
description of woollen
material, and coats are
now made by placing a
thin layer of Pure Para
Rubber between two
plies of tweed or other
cloths. These have all
the appearance and fit
of an ordinary overcoat.
Large stock of
every colour, size, and
price to choose from.
THORNTON, CURRIE & CO.
India Rubber Manufacturers and Waterproofers,
43, 45, 47, JAMAICA STREET
2nd Shop North of Howard Street.
ARCH. LAUDER,
Wine and Spirit Merchant
84 & 86 Cowcaddens,
76 & 78 Sauchiehall Street,
AND
3 Clyde St., Port-Dundas.
ROYAL
Lochnagar Distillery Whiskies
FROM BALMORAL.
KEAN & WARDROP,
Ceramique, Mosaic, and Encaustic
PAVING TILE LAYERS,
WALL (Tile) DECORATORS,
142 BATH STREET
Between Wellington and West Campbell Streets.
Tiles of every description suitable for
Turkish Baths and Swimming Ponds.
K. & W. would draw special attention to
their new Metallo Ceramic Bath, unsurpassed
for its beauty, durability, and heat-retaining
qualities. Highly recommended by the
best authorities on the subject of Bathing.
To be seen in the Show Rooms at the above
address.
THE
ARGYLE BATHS,
366 ARGYLE STREET,
Is acknowledged to be the LARGEST,
CLEANEST, and BEST BATHING
ESTABLISHMENT in the City.
It contains 6100 square feet of floorage;
and 72,000 WARM and TURKISH. BATHS
were taken within them during last year.
30 Warm Baths always ready,
9d., 9d., and 1s. each.
TURKISH BATHS
FOR THE
ROBUST and INVALID, 2s.
These Baths are strongly recommended by the
Faculty.
SPECIAL NOTICE. — Gentlemen can have
the use of the Warm 9d. Baths, with Hot
and Cold Shower, daily, if required, for 12
months from date of issue, for the small
charge of 21/-
BATHS OPEN DAILY FROM 7 A.M. TO 9 P.M.
WALTER WILSON & Co.,
THE COLOSSEUM,
70 JAMAICA STREET,
GLASGOW.
The Largest Stock of Ladies' and
Gentlemen's Hats in the kingdom.
BOYS' HATS,
MISSES' HATS.
IMMENSE VARIETY.

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APA Style:

Hints on Swimming. 2021. In The Corpus of Modern Scottish Writing. Glasgow: University of Glasgow. Retrieved November 2021, from http://www.scottishcorpus.ac.uk/cmsw/document/?documentid=306.

MLA Style:

"Hints on Swimming." The Corpus of Modern Scottish Writing. Glasgow: University of Glasgow, 2021. Web. November 2021. http://www.scottishcorpus.ac.uk/cmsw/document/?documentid=306.

Chicago Style

The Corpus of Modern Scottish Writing, s.v., "Hints on Swimming," accessed November 2021, http://www.scottishcorpus.ac.uk/cmsw/document/?documentid=306.

If your style guide prefers a single bibliography entry for this resource, we recommend:

The Corpus of Modern Scottish Writing. 2021. Glasgow: University of Glasgow. http://www.scottishcorpus.ac.uk/cmsw/.

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Hints on Swimming

Document Information

Document ID 306
Title Hints on Swimming
Year group 1900-1950
Genre Instructional prose
Year of publication 1910
Place of publication Glasgow, Scotland
Wordcount 3084

Author information: Wilson, William

Author ID 322
Forenames William
Surname Wilson
Gender Male
Year of birth 1844
Place of birth London, England
Occupation Journalist, swimming instructor
Locations where resident Glasgow