The Only Sure Guide to the English Tongue
Author(s): Perry, William
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CN. 7 4
1. The firſt îs when a ſpeech is introduced
abruptly, without expreſs notice given oſ it; as,
"Both turn'd, and under open ſky ador'd
The God that made both ſky, air, earth, and
—Thou alſo mad'ſt the night,
Maker omnipotent! and thou the day!"
To this figure may be referred the leaving out
oſ He ſaid and He replied in dialogues, which
tends greatly to enliven the narrative.
2. The ſecond ſort oſ Tranſition is when a writer
ſuddenly ſtarts ſrom one ſubject to another,
which ſeems at ſirſt to have no ſort oſ relation to it,
but is, nevertheleſs, ſecretly connected with it, and
ſerves to place it in a ſtronger light. This kind oſ
Tranſition is moſt common in Lyric Poetry.
Q. What is Sentence?
A. Sentence is a pertinent obſervation, containing
much ſenſe in a ſew words: as,
"The calumny oſ enemies is leſs dangerous
than the flattery oſ friends."
Q What is Epiphonema?
A. Epiphonema is an exclamation, containing
a lively remark placed at the end oſ a diſcourſe or
"In heav'nly minds can ſuch perverſeneſs dwell!"
ONLY SURE GUIDE
NEW PRONOUNCING SPELLING-BOOK.
Upon the ſame Plan as
The Royal Standard Engliſh Dictionary.
Deſigned ſor the uſe oſ Schools, and private ſamilies.
To which is added,
By W. PERRY, Maſter oſ the Academy Edinburgh, Author oſ The
Man oſ Buſineſs, and Gentleman's Aſſiſtant, containing a Treatiſe of
Practical Arithmetic Book-keeping, and Engliſh Grammar, and oſ The
Royal Standard Engliſh Dictionary.
Printed by GAVIN ALSTON ſor the Author; and ſold by J.WILKIE,
St. Paul's church-yard, T. EVANs, Paternoſter-row, and J. MURRAY
fleet-ſtreet, London; A. DONALDSON, J. BELL, W. CREECH,
J. DICKSON, C. ELLIOT, and R. JAMIESON, Edinburgh; W.
CHARNLEY, Newcaſtle; C. ETHERINGTON, York; CRESSWELL,
Nottingham; NORTON, Briſtol; FREDERICK, Bath; and by the
AUTHOR at his Academy. (Price bound 1 s.)
Entered in Stationers Hall according to
Act of Parliament
TO HIS GRACE
HENRY DUKE OF BUCCLEUGH,
EARL OF DALKEITH AND DONCASTER, &c. &c. &c.
THE FOLLOWING SPELLING-BOOK,
INTENDED TO FIX A STANDARD FOR THE
PRONUNCIATION OF THE ENGLISH
CONFORMABLE TO THE PRESENT PRACTICE
OF POLITE SPEAKERS IN THE CITY OF
IS MOST HUMBLY INSCRIBED
AS A SMALL TESTIMONY OF ESTEEM,
BY HIS GRACE'S
Lately publiſhed, in One Volume large 8vo.PrIce In boards, 6s
Man oſ Buſineſs and Gentleman's AſſIſtant;
A TREATISE oF PRACTICAL ARITHMETIC, Including VULGAR
and DECIMAL FRACTIONS, in which are inſerted many conciſe and
valuable Rules, ſor the ready caſting up oſ Merchandiſe, never yet publiſhed
in this kingdom;
BOOK-KEEPING by SINGLE and DOUBLE ENTRY, the former upon
an entire New Plan, compriſing a modern and approved method oſ
keeping ſmall accompts Dr. and Cr. in the Waſte-Book only, calculated
for the eaſe and advantage oſ Retail Traders.
Together with an ESSAY ON ENGLISH GRAMMAR: — adapted to the
uſe of Gentlemen, Merchants, Traders and Schools. — By W. PERRY
Maſter oſ the Academy Edinburgh.
Edinburgh: Printed ſor the Author, and ſold by J. Murray, J. Wilkie
and T. Evans, London; J. Bell, Edinburgh; by the Author; and by
all the Bookſellers in Great Britain.
"THE variety oſ ſubjects which Mr Perry has here brought into
"the compaſs oſ a ſingle volume, has of neceſſity obliged him to treat
"ſome oſ them with brevity: in ſtudying conciſeneſs, however, he
"appears to have made proper choice of the materials contained in this
"comprehenſive and judicious compilation. That he has omitted nothing
"uſeful, we will not pretend to ſay; but that he has retained every thing
"which is moſt uſeful to young perſons deſigned ſor Buſineſs, is certain.
"His mercantile inſtructions, in particular, diſtinguiſh this work in prefe"rence
to all other ſchool-books we have ſeen. His grammatical precepts
"and directions ſor writing Engliſh, in which he very ſenſibly departs
"from the prejudices oſ his brethren the North-Britiſh pedagogues, with
"regard to that eſſential point, the dividing of words into ſyllables, do
"him alſo the more credit, as national profeſſions are the leſs eaſy to be
"ſurmounted. — On the whole, we venture to recommend this perform"ance,
not only as ONE of the BEST SCHOOL-BOOKS we have:met
"with, but as the beſt adapted to qualiſy grown perſons, who have not
"been bred accomptants, ſor becoming Men oſ Buſineſs."
LONDON REVIEW for March 1775
Juſt publiſhed, in OneVolume 12mo. Price neatly bound 3s.
(Dedicated, by permiſſion, to the Right Honourable
James Stodart, Eſq; Lord Provoſt oſ the City oſ Edinburgh)
The Royal Standard Engliſh Dictionary:
The Words are not only rationally divided into Syllables
accurarety accented, their Part oſ Speech properly diſtinguiſhed,
and their various ſignifications arranged in
one line: But likewiſe, by
A KEY TO THIS WORK,
Compriſing the various Sounds oſ the Vowels and Conſonants,
denoted by typographical Characters, and illuſtrated
by Examples which render it intelligible to the
weakeſt capacity, It exhibits their
According to the preſent practice oſ Men of Letters, Eminent
Orators, and polite Speakers in London; upon a
plan perſectly plain, and entirely new.
To which is prefixed,
A Comprehenſive Grammar oſ the Engliſh Language.
Edinburgh; Printed for the Author, and ſold by J. Wilkie,
T. Evans, and J. Murray, London; Donaldſon,
Bell, Creech, Dickſon, Elliot, Jamieſon, Edinburgh;
Charnley, Newcaſtle; Ethrington, York; Creſſwell,
Nottingham; Norton, Briſtol; Frederick, Bath; and
by the Author.
WHEN we reflect on the indefatigable ardour with
which youth labour to acquire a knowledge oſ the
dead languages; how few arrive at any degree of perfection,
eíther through want oſ time or capacity; and how
many entirely neglect the cultivation oſ their mother--
tongue, which ought always to be the principal ſtudy of
the natives of a country; I hope the public will, inſtead
oſ cenſuring, commend me, for havíng devoted a few
leiſure-hours in compiling the following Spelling book;
which is not only intended ſor children when they firſt
begin to read, but alſo for youth further advanced, who,
either through inattention, bad example, or for want of
opportunity, have been ill-grounded in the principles oſ
our language, or contracted a vicious mode oſ pronunciation.
Indeed ſrom the vaſt number oſ Engliſh Spelling--
books already extant, ſome, without a due examination,
may be apt to deem the preſent one ſuperſluous, and either
reproach the Author oſ vanity, or cenſure him
with plagiariſm. — Truſting however to its merit, I have
ventured to add one more to their number, convinced
that every attempt to facilitate the progreſs oſ youth, and
reconcile the difference between ſpeech and writing, muſt
be a laudable attempt.
Beſore I ſat down to write this ſmall treatiſe, I carefully
examined ſeveral ſpelling-books oſ Engliſh and Scotch
productions; and iſ the authors oſ any oſ them had had
the ſame object in view, or had treated the ſubject in a
more practical manner, I ſhould have ſaved myſelf the
trouble oſ this compilation.
It muſt be confeſſed, that the acquiring oſ a perfect
knowledge oſ any art or ſcience depends on our imbibing
juſt notions oſ its firſt elements or principles; and therefore
fore any errour there muſt be attended with the worſt oſ
This obſervation is more applicable to oral language,
as daily experience evinces how deficient the natives of
England in general are, oſ the eſtabliſhed mode oſ pronunciation.
To compile a Spelling-Book fit to be put into the hands
oſ youth, contaîning not only the different ſounds oſ the
vowels, and diphthongs, and conſonants, but alſo a
Grammar oſ the written language, is a taſk not ſo eaſy
as imagined; and yet, from the vaſt yearly increaſe wíth
which the public are ſerved, one might be apt to ſuppoſe
it a work only fit ſor a ſchool boy.
I was led into this reflection ſrom the peruſal oſ ſeveral
Spellíng Books of both Engliſh and Scotch authors,
moſt of whom, ſrom their defects and erroneous examples
laid down ſor the pronunciation of many words
fall under the above predicament.
Thus Dilworth in his Spelling-Book gives the words,
down, grown, town; alſo coſt, loſt, toſt, doſt: come,
ſome, home; cave, have, ſave; four, pour; deaf, leaf,
ſmall, ſhall, ſtall; and taunt, flaunt, vaunt, &c as having
the ſame quality of ſound, than which nothing can,
be more erroneous.
Now if Dilworth, and others, natives oſ England,
have committed ſuch egregious blunders with reſpect to
the ſounds oſ the Engliſh vowels and diphthongs, it is
leſs to be wondered iſ North Britiſh authors, ſuch as Maſon,
the late Mr Drummond, &c ſome of whom probably
never croſſed the Tweed, ſhould err in attempting to
convey the pronunciation oſ words of a ſoreign language.
In ſhort, no errour can be more flagrant to an Engliſh ear
than thoſe which the above authors have committed in
this reſpect. To prove my aſſertion, without taking any
notice oſ the imperfect definition oſ the various ſounds.
of the vowels, I ſhall firſt quote ſome words from
Maſon's Spelling-Book in which the following claſſes
are given as having the ſame ſound.
Aunt, daunt, flaunt, ſlaunt; death, deaf, bear; food,
good, mood, wood, look, crook; four, tour, hough,
plough wrought, drought, though, through, ſoul; load,
broad, road, goat, groat, &c.
And 2dly ſrom another author. Bowl, prowl, uncouth,
unſound; bear, beard, ſwear, yea; bread, dead,
dearth, earth, lead, realm, heard, ſearch; brood, coo,
cook, food; blow, borough a corporation, borrow to
take upon credit, brought, blow, ſought, ſnow.
The above are palpable errours oſ judgment; not errours
of the preſs; otherwiſe I would not on any account
have mentioned them. All mankind are ſubject to the
latter; but the ſormer in my opinion, deſerve reprehenſion,
as they tend maniſeſtly to eſtabliſh a corruption in
ſpeech, and to miſlead youth with reſpect to a proper
To take off any odium that may be thrown on the author,
ſrom the above remark, he begs leave to add, that he
does not mean to ſay, that his own countrymen the Engliſh,
are the only perſons who ſpeak with propriety. On the
contrary, he has the honour oſ being acquainted with
ſeveral gentlemen oſ this place, who are not only competent
judges oſ the language, but who alſo ſpeak it with a
degree of accuracy, that few of the Engliſh ever attain to.
Notwitſtanding the many Spelling-Books which have
been publiſhed ſince Dyche's, few, in my opinion equal
his, many fall greatly ſhort of it; and though critics, and
perſons acquainted with our language may find ſeveral errours;
yet, compared with others oſ later production it
will ever continue to meet with a diſtinguiſhing preference
ſrom an impartial and diſcerning public.
If any perſon oſ equal abilities with him in point of
learning, and who had made the Engliſh language both
in its oral and ocular ſtate, their peculiar ſtudy, (the ſormer
oſ which ſince his time, as it has been more generally
ſought aſter, muſt conſequently be greatly improv'd;) if
any of our preſent literati, I ſay poſſeſſed theſe two
neceſſary qualiſications had done the public ſo much ſervice
as to condeſcend to write a Spelling-Book for the uſe
oſ children, my feeble pen ſhould never have undertaken
the taſk, beīng well convinced of its inſufficiency when
put in competition with others.
The following work is executed on the ſame plan as
my Royal Standard Engliſh Dictionary, lately publiſhed
which teaches the pronunciation oſ the Engliſh language
according to the preſent practice oſ polite ſpeakers in the
city of London.
The advantage that will accrue to thoſe who make uſe
oſ either Dictionary or Spelling-Book is ſo great, that I
have no reaſon to doubt they will be generally introduced
into ſchools and private ſamilies, as ſoon as their merit
For beſides that this Spelling-Book, as well as my Dictionary,
conveys the true pronunciation of the words it
contains, youth may be taught to read and ſpell by them in
one third leſs time, and with more propriety, than by
Dilworth's, Maſon's, Drummond's, or any other work
oſ the kind executed after their manner.
This declaration I have alſo made in my dictionary for
the benefit oſ the public; and if the authors or proprietors
of any oſ the foreſaid works, think themſelves injured
by my aſſertion; or even ſhould the public doubt
the probability oſ it; I am ready to deſcend to the character
oſ an Abecedarian and prove the truth oſ my declaration
by engaging to teach a claſs oſ youth to read
and ſpell in one third leſs time than the authors themſelves,
or any teacher in England or Scotland, ſhall do for them
by their Spelling-Books.
Should any one think that I have obtruded an uſeleſs
performance on the public, out of oſtentation, or preſume
that I have been ſporting with the literary abilities
of individuals, or that I have ſtudied private advantage
more than public utility, (the contrary oſ which I aver),
it is juſt, I ſhould be cured oſ my vanity and inſolence.
— But iſ the diſcerning and impartial public, to whom I
appeal as to the juſtice and merit of the cauſe, ſhould, on
a candid examination, find this work preferable to my
contemporaries, then, and in this caſe only, I flatter myſelf
of having their encouragement and protection; as the
intereſt oſ both in the circumſtance alluded to will be
found to be inſeparable.
In my laſt publication I obſerved, that a rational diviſion
only of the words into ſyllables, (without certain characters
to denote the different ſounds of the vowels, and
the hard or ſoft ſounds oſ the conſonants) is not ſufficient
to convey the true pronunciation of our language, much
leſs the Spelling-Books juſt mentioned, in which the
words are very improperly divided.
I have therefore annexed a Key to this work compriſing
the various ſounds of both, denoted by typographical characters,
and illuſtrated by examples which render it intelligible
to the weakeſt capacity.
It ſhould however be particularly remark'd, that there
are many words which have no characters over the vowels
ſuch as ăb'ba, ſa-lūte', ſe-clūde', ĭn'do-lĕnce, &c. — Theſe
vowels have the ſame quality oſ ſound as ā, ē, ō, &c.
but are uttered quicker; that is they are the long ſounds
oſ ā, ē, ō, &c. contracted, and are in the ſame proporto
each other as gòod is to fôod, or hòok to rôok, which
have the ſame quality of ſound, but different in quantity
or length of tīme.
In my Dictíonary I took notice oſ the propriety oſ
a plurality of accents on words; but the ſame motive
which induced me to make uſe of one only in that work,
(to which I refer the reader), has influenced me in the
preſent. — All the words of pollyſyllables however, and
many of the leſſons, are not only divided as pronounced,
but alſo properly accented with the grave or acute accent,
according as the accented ſyllables are flat or ſlow, quick
or ſharp, the right underſtanding oſ which, is a circumſtance
oſ the greateſt importance, though hitherto neglected;
and which ſingular advantage is not to be met
with in any other ſpelling book.
To render this work as uſeful as poſſible, I have added
a Comprehenſive Engliſh Grammar, compriſing whatever
rules are neceſſary, for a perſect acquiſition of our
mother tongue; with a varîety oſ examples oſ bad
Engliſh, to be made înto good, ſor the exerciſe oſ the
learner, whîch by experīence is ſound to be a moſt excellent
method, oſ making youth acquainted with the rules
oſ Grammar. — I have alſo given an explanation of the
common Abbreviations uſed in buſineſs and writing, together
with proper directions, for addreſſing perſons of
every rank, and condition oſ life.
Laſtly, With reſpect to the manner to be purſued in,
teaching Children to read by this book, if my opinion
were aſked, I could not recommend any thing more proper,
than to follow the order in which the whole ſtands.
— Every teacher however, is at liberty to follow that method,
which his own private opinion may ſuggeſt. — But
there is one thing which I particularly recommend, and
that is, to make youth well acquainted with the different
ſounds oſ the Vowels, Diphthongs, and Conſonants; and
to be very particular in conveying to them the proper
ſound oſ all the words oſ Monoſyllables, as by obſervation,
I find, that people in general, oſtner give a wrong
pronunciation to theſe, than to words oſ Pollyſyllables.
The Only SURE GUIDE to the ENGLISH
Old Engliſh. Roman. Italic. The Names of
A a A a A a ay
B b B b B B b bee
C c C c C c cee, or * ek
D d D d D d dee
E e E e E e e (ee)
F f F f F f eff
G g G g G g jee, or * eg
H h H h H h hee, or aitch
I i I i I i i (eye)
j J j J j jay
K k K k K k kay
L l L l L l ell
M m M m M em
N n N n N n en
O o O o O o o
P p P p P p pee
Q q Q q Q q coo
R r R r R r ar
S ſ s S ſ s S ſ s eſs
T t T t T t tee
U u U u U u ou (oo)
V v V v V v vee
W w W w W w ou
X x X x X x ex
Y y Y y Y y wi
Z z Z z Z z zee, zed
ct ff ffi fi fl ſh ſk ſi ſl ſſ ſs ſſi ſt, &c.
* Note, When c and g ſound hard they may be called ek and eg.
Key to the only Sure Guide to the Engliſh Tongue.
Different Sounds of the Vowels.
1 2 3 4 5 6
ā ă â à á ‖ a ſounds i ſhort,
Liar cribbage, &c
hate, hat hall † waſh part
1 2 ;3 4 5
ē ĕ ê é ‖ e has the ſound oſ i ſhort in yet,
&c. & oſ à in Clerk and Serge only
mete met there her
1 2 3 4
ī ĭ î í
pint pin field ſhirt
1 2 3 4 5
ō ŏ ô ò ó
note not ‡ loſt prove book done
1 2 2 1 2
ū ŭ û w̄ ŵ
duke buck buſh new now
1 2 3
ȳ y̆ y̕
by beauty martyr
† Note, The a in
waſh, ſounds o, as in
not; and when this
ſound of a occurs
lables, ſuch ſyllab
iſ accented, will
quire the acute, not
the grave accent
‡ The o in loft
the ſound oſ á
Tab. IV. Page 15.
VOWELS not ſounded will be printed in Italics, as,
Lā'boŭr, prēach, beār, hĕad, dêign
Indiſtinct Sounds oſ VOWELS in Italics.
ā'ble, a-dŭlt'e-rĕſs, pàr'ſon, făt'ten.
Flat and ſlowly accented ſyllables will have the grave accent
Bŏr'dér, warn'ing, cêil'ĭng, cē'ruſe, ī'cĭ-cle.
Sharp and quickly accented ſyllables will
Bŏr'rōw, waſh'ĭng, hĕif'ér, bĕt'tér, ĭd'ĭ-óm.
‖Theſe ſounds of a and e occur ſo ſeldom, that I have fixed the
pronunciation oſ the words in which the ſound is peculiar, by varying
orthography. See my Royal Standard Engliſh Dictionary.
Note, a e and o, without any oſ the above characters, either alone,
before or aſter a Conſonant, have a ſhort, quick ſound, the ſame as,
nearly like thoſe oſ, ă ĕ and ŏ ſhort, See the Preface.
Key to the only Sure Guide to the Engliſh Tongue.
Different ſounds oſ the Conſonants.
ch c,h ch
cheeſe, charm c,haracters chaiſe, chevalier
ſ, hiſſing ſound ſ, hard like z
us, cuſtom, leſs, aſcenſion as, refuſ,e, muſ,e, occaſ,ion
x, ſharp like ks x, flat like gz
expence, extort, extract ex,ample, ex,amine, ex,ile
g, ſoft g, hard
g,elid, g,im, apolog,y, g,ybe g,eld, g,imp, bogg,y, g,yration
Note, g always ſounds hard before a and u.
gh, ph like f gh ſilent
làugh, cŏugh, phlĕgm althōugh, bŏûgh, dōugh
h mute h aſpirate
honour, hour, rheum hail, hear, annihilate
Conſonants not ſounded will be printed in Italics
Borrow, condemn, dumb, handſome, when, whole
th hard t,h ſoft
thin, thick, thought t,hine, t,hee, t,hoſe
Directions for the combined ſound oſ certain ſyllables.
fi-tion found fĭſh-ſhŭn pi-ti-ate pĭſh-ſhāte
fi-tion zĭſh-ſhŭn ſial zhăl
fi-cíal fĭſh-ăl ſia, cīa zhā, ſhā
fi-cient fĭſh-ſhĕnt ĭon yŭn
bî-tîous bĭſh-ſhŭs feous ſnŭs
gra-cīous grā-ſhŭs geous jŭs
ti-tious tĭſh-ſhŭs ciate ſhāte
ti-ſian tĭſh-ſhăn ſient ſhĕnt
ab eb jb ob ub
ac ec ic oc uc
ad ed id od ud
af ef if of uf
ag eg ig og ug
ak ek ik ok uk
al el il ol ul
am em im om um
an en in on un
ap ep ip op up
ar er ir or ur
as es is os us
at et it ot ut
av ev iv ov uv
ax ex ix ox ux
az ez iz oz uz
ya ye yi yo yu
ba be bi bo bu by
ca ça çi co cu cy
da de di do du dy
fa fe fi fo fu fy
ga ge gi go gu gy
ha he hi ho hu hy
ja je ji jo ju jy
ka ke ki ko ku ky
la le li lo lu ly
ma me mi mo mu my
na ne ni no nu ny
pa pe pi po pu py
ra re ri ro ru ry
ſa ſe ſi ſo ſu ſy
ta te ti to tu ty
va ve vi vo vu vy
za ze zi zo zu zy
bla ble bli blo blu
bra bre bri bro bru
cha che chi cho chu
cla cle cli clo clu
cra cre cri cro cru
dra dre dri dro dru
dwa dwe dwi
fla fle fli flo flu
fra fre fri fro fru
gla gle gli glo glu
gna gne gni gno gnu
gra gre gri gro gru
kna kne kni kno
pha phe phi pho
pla ple pli plo
pra pre pri pro
rha rhe rhi rho
ſca ſce ſci ſco
ſha ſhe ſhi ſho
ſka ſke ſki ſko
ſla ſle ſli ſlo
ſma ſme ſmi ſmo
ſna ſne ſni ſno
ſpa ſpe ſpi ſpo
ſqua ſque ſqui
ſta ſte ſti ſto ſtu
ſwa ſwe ſwi ſwo ſwu
tha the thi tho thu
tra tre tri tro tru
twa twe twi two
wha whe whi who
wra wre wri wro wru
phra phre phi pho
ſcra ſcre ſcri ſcro ſcru
ſhra ſhre ſhri ſhro ſhru
ſpla ſple ſpli ſplo ſplu
ſpra ſpre ſpri ſpro ſpru
ſtra ſtre ſtri ſtro ſtru
thra thre thri thro thru
TABLES of all the Words of one Syllable in the
Engliſh Language formed by ſingle Vowels, claſſed
together in Rhyme according to the Order oſ the Alphabet;
each Vowel in a ſeparate Table, and each Table compriſing
the various Sounds oſ that Vowel.
Oſ the Vowel a.
THE Vowel a has no leſs than ſix different Sounds,
four of which are ſound in Monoſyllables, and the
other two in Pollyſyllables. See the Key to this Work,
Firſt of ā, as in hate.
Ache bake brake cake drake fake flake jakes lake make
rake ſake ſhake ſlake ſnake ſpake ſtake take wake —
Age cage gage mage page rage ſage ſtage wage. — Change
grange mange range ſtrange — Ale bale dale gale hale
male pale ſale ſcale ſhale ſtale vale wale whale — Ape
cape chape crape drape gape grape nape rape ſcape ſcrape
ſhape tape trape trapes — Babe — Bane cane
crane fane lane mane pane plane ſane thane vane —
Bare care dare fare flare glare hare knare mare nare pare
phare rare ſcare ſnare ſpare ſtare ſware tare ware
yare — baſe baſs brace caſe dace face grace lace mace
pace place race ſpace trace vaſe — Rat, he lat, he ſwat, he
— Bate date fate gate grate hate mate pate plate prate
rate ſate ſcate ſkate ſlate ſtate — Blade cade fade glade
jade lade made ſhade ſpade trade vade wade — Blame
came dame ſame ſlame ſrame game lame name
ſame ſhame tame — Brave cave clave crave gave glave
grave knave lave nave pave rave ſave ſhave ſlave ſtave
thrave wave — Blaze braze craze daze gaze glaze
haze maze phraſ,e raſ,e raze — Chaſe ſafe —
haſte paſte taſte waſte — Plague vague — Scarce.
Secondly, oſ ă, as in hat.
Act fact fract pact ſtacte tract — Add bade brade
— Chad clad dad gad glad lad mad pad ſad ſcad ſhad —
Adze — Am clamm cram dam damn drachm dram flam
jamb kam lamb lamm mam pam ram ſham ſlam
an ban can bran clan fan man pan plan ran ſans ſcan
tan t,han van (*wan) — And band bland brand
grand hand land rand ſand ſtand ſtrand — Ant cant
plant rant ſcant — as, bas ſans, — aſh caſh
daſh flaſh gaſh gnaſh haſh laſh maſh paſh plaſh raſh
ſlaſh ſplaſh ſwaſh thraſh traſh — At ate bat brat cat chat
flat gat gnat hat mat pat plat rat ſat ſcrat ſpat ſprat t,hat
vat yacht — axe flax lax tax wax — Back black
clack crack hack jack knack lack mac pack rack ſack ſlack
ſmack ſnack ſtack tack thwack track wrack — Badge — Bag
brag cag crag drag fag flag gag hag jagg knag lag nag
ſag ſcrag ſhag ſlag ſnag ſtag tag wag — Bang clang
gang hang pang rang ſang ſlang ſprang ſtang tang
Bank blank brank clank crank dank drank flank frank
lank plank prank rank ſank ſhank ſhrank ſlank ſtank
thank twank — Batch catch cratch hatch latch match patch
ratch ſcratch ſlatch ſmatch ſnatch ſwatch thatch — Brab
crab dab drab knab nab ſcab ſhab ſlab ſtab
Camp champ clamp damp lamp ramp ſtamp ſwamp
Cap chap chaps clap flap gap hap knap lap map
rap ſap ſcrap ſlap ſnap ſtrap tap trap wrap —
Note, Such words as have an aſteriſk (*) before them, are variouſly pronounced;
as, *wan &c. which is alſo claſſed under the third ſound
phaſm plaſm ſpaſm — Claſs laſs maſs — Have —
Lapſe — Mall — Manſe — Naff — Rapt hath rath —
Sal — Scalp — Shall ſhalm ſhalt valve — *Waſt.
Thîrdly, oſ â, as in hall.
All ball call ſall gall hall mall pall ſmall ſtall tall thrall
wall — Bald ſcald — Balk (calk) cbalk ſtalk talk walk —
*Balm ſwarm warm — Halt malt ſalt ſmalt — Sward — Ward
— War — Warn — Warp — Wart thwart — Wharf dwarf
A, in the following words, ſounds like o in not, which
is the ſhort ſound oſ â;
Swan ſwap wad *wan wand want 'twas was waſh *waſt
Note. When any oſ theſe words become ſyllables or
parts oſ other words, as, want'ĭng, watcb'fŭl-neſs, &c.
the accented ſyllable will require the acute, not the grave
accent. See my Royal Standard Engliſh Dictionary.
Fourthly, à as in part.
Aft craft graft haft raft ſhaft waft — Arc ark bark
cark chark (clerk ſounded clàrk) dark hark lark mark park
ſark ſhark ſpark ſtark — Arm barm charm farm harm
— Art cart chart dart fart hart mart part ſmart ſtart
tart — Aſk baſk caſk flaſk maſk taſk — Waſp aſp claſp
gaſp graſp haſp raſp — *Balm calm palm (pſalm.) — *Bar
*barr car far jar mar par ſcar ſpar ſtar tar — Barb garb
Bard card hard lard nard pard ſhard yard — Barge
(ſerge pronounced ſarge) — Barn darn ſarn yarn —
Bath lath path ſwath *wrath — Blanch branch
hanch lanch ſcranch ſtanch — Blaſt caſt faſt gaſt
laſt maſt paſt ſnaſt vaſt — Braſs glaſs graſs laſs paſs —
Calf chaff draff graff ſtaff — Calve halve ſalve — Carve
ſtarve — Carle marl parle ſnarle — Carp harp ſcarp —
Chance dance glance lance prance trance tranſe — Chant
grant ſlant — Charge large marge targe — Farce parſe
— Czar — March parch ſtarch — Scarf.
Six EASY LESSONS of Words not excceeding three
MY Son in the Way oſ bad Men do not go.
I cry to God all the Day.
The Law oſ God is no ill Law.
In God is all my Joy, O let me not ſin.
The Way oſ God is not a bad Way.
The Law oſ God is not to be put off.
The Law oſ God is Joy to Men.
Men can not do as God can do.
Bad Men can not go to God.
My Son, do ill to no Man, ſor you are not out
of the Eye oſ God.
All the Day God is by us.
Let thy Eye be on me, O God.
Men who do Ill do not ſee God.
Do as Men bid; but iſ you are bid, do no ill
No Man can ſay he has no Sin.
Let me not go to the Pit by ſin.
Out oſ the Way oſ thy Law do not let me
Try me, O God; but if I am ill, do not cut me oſt
The Way oſ Man is ill, but not the Way oſ God
Aid me, O God, and do not let me ſin.
Go not far out of my Way, O God.
My Son, you are not to go out of the Way of God,
You can not go to God iſ you do Ill.
A bad Man is a ſoe to God.
Of the Vowel e.
The vowel e has five diſſerent ſounds. See the Key.
ſîrſt, oſ ē; as in mete.
BE he me ſhe t,he we ye — Cere here mere ſere
ſphere — Eke — Eve reve — Eves, t,heſe —
Glebe — Glede rede — Mete — Phleme ſc,heme
theme — Scene — Terce.
Secondly, oſ ĕ, as in met.
Beck check deck ſleck geck keck kecks neck peck reck
ſpeck wreck — Bed bred fed fled led ped red ſhed ſhred
ſled ſped ted wed zed — Beg dreggs egg keg leg peg
ſkeg — Belch — Bench blench clench drench French
ſtench tench trench wench wrench — Bell belle cell dell
dwell ell fell hell kell knell pells ſell ſhell ſmell ſpell ſwell
tell well yell — Belt ſelt gelt melt pelt ſmelt ſpelt ſwelt
welt — Bend blend fend hend lend mend rend ſend
ſhend ſpend tend trend vend wend — Bent cent lent
pent rent ſcent ſent ſplent ſprent tent vent went — Bet
bret debt fret jet let met net pet ſet ſpet tret wet whet
*yet — Bleb ebb neb ſneb web — Bleſs,ceſs cheſs dreſs
leſs meſs preſs ſeſs ſtreſs — Cenſe denſe fence hence
lens pence ſence tence t,hence whence — Cheſt creſt
dreſt heſt jeſt leſt neſt peſt preſt reſt teſt veſt weſt wreſt
zeſt — Clef nef — Cleſt eft heft left reft theft weft —
Crept kept ſept ſlept ſwept wept — delf delph elf pelf
ſelf ſhelf twelfth — Delve helve ſelves twelve —
Den fen hen ken men pen ten t,hen tren wen when
Deſk — Dredge edge hedge fledge ledge pledge
ſledge wedge — Eld geld held weld — Elk welk
Elm helm wbelm — Elſe — *Err ſerr—Etch
ketcb lech retch ſketch ſtretch vetch wretch — ſleſh ſreſh
meſh neſh pleſh — G,em hem phlegm ſtem t,hem wem
— Help kelp whelp yelp — Hemp (tempt) — Length
ſtrength — Nep ſkep ſtep — Next text — Sect
— Sex vex — Tenth — Venge.
Thirdly, oſ ê, (which is lîke ā in hate), as in there. See
Ere ne'er *were where — They — Stele —
Fourthly, of é, (which is like ŭ in buck) as in her.
Chert pert vert *wert — *Err her *were — Erſt
— ſern kern — Herb verb — Herd ſherd
ſwerd — Hers — Herſe ſperſe terſe verſe — Jerk
perk ſmerk yerk — Nerve ſerve ſwerve — Perch
Sperm term — Stern yern — Verge.
Fifthly, of e, ſounds ĭ, as in pin.
* Yes — Yeſt *yet.
Six EASY LESSONS of Words not exceeding four
THE Lord our God is a good God.
Fear the Lord all ye Sons oſ Men.
O Lord keep me in thy Way, and let me not
go down to the Pit.
Who but God can tell us who we are.
The Way oſ the Lord is a good Way; in it will
I keep all the Days of my Liſe.
Ye Sons oſ Men mind the Will oſ God.
Help me to mark the Man that doth well, that I
may do ſo too.
To the Lord will I go for Help, for he can tell
what is beſt for me.
Do to all Men as you would have them do to you.
To come to God, you muſt mind his Word.
The Word came ſrom God for the good of Men.
God is my Rock, I will not let him go out of
God is kind to all who cry up to him for Help.
The Man who cries to the Lord will find Aid.
Do no ill, but mind the Law oſ God.
The Lord will love them that fear him.
All Men are gone out of thy Way, O Lord.
The Lord is on High, and doth look down on
the Sons oſ Men.
He doth mind all we ſay and do.
O Lord, to thee will I liſt up my Soul.
Keep me out oſ the Way oſ ill Men, O Lord.
O Lord, my God, thou art my Aid.
The Lord doth love all good Men.
Keep me in thy Way, O Lord, ſo that at the laſt
I may come to Thee.
Oſ the Vowel i.
The vowel i has four different ſounds; See the Key.
Firſt; of ī, as in wine.
BICE dice grice ice lice mîce nice price rice ſlice ſpice
ſplice trice thrice twice tice vice — Bide bride
chide glide hide ides nide pride ride ſhide ſide ſlide
ſtride tide tride wide — Bile file ile isle mile pile ſmile
ſtile tile vile while wile — Bind blind find grind * hind
hind kind mind rind *wind — Bite blight bright cite
dight fight flight fright hight kite knight light might mite
night plight rite ſight ſite ſlight ſmite ſnite ſpite ſpright
ſprite tight trite white wight wright write — Blit,he
hit,the li,the ſit,he ti,the writ,he — Bribe g,ibe kibe
ſcribe tribe — Brine chine dine fine kine line mine nine
pine ſcrine ſhine ſhrine ſign ſine ſpine t,hine tine trine
twine vine whine wine — Child mild wild — Chime climb
clime crime grime lime mime prime rime ſlime thime
time — Chives, fives, lives, vives, wīves, — C,hriſt —
Dike like pike ſpike ſtrike tike — Dire fire bire mire
ſire ſpire tire wire — Dive drîve five hive live rive ſhive
ſhrive ſlive ſtive ſtrive thrive wive — Gripe gripes pipe
ripe ſnipe ſtripe tripe wipe — High nigh ſigh thigh —
Kniſe life rife ſtriſe wife — Ninth — Pint — Prize
riſe ſice ſiſ,e ſize wiſ,e — Whilſt.
Secondly, oſ ĭ, as in pin.
Bib crib ſib glīb nib rib ſnib — Bid did hid kid lid
mid rid ſlid thrid tid — Big dig ſig g,ig grig jig lig pig
prig rig ſprig ſwig twig whig wig — Bilge — Bilk milk ſilk
— Bill chill drill fill g,ill g,ill grill hill ill kill kiln mill nill
pill prill rill ſhrill ſill ſkill ſpill ſtill ſwill thill thrill till trill
vill will — Bin chin din ſfn g,in grin hin in inn kin pin ſhin
ſin ſkin ſpin thin tin whin win — Biſk briſk diſk friſk
riſk whiſk — Bit brit chit cit ſit ſlit ſrit grit hit it kit
knit lit nit pit ſhit ſit ſmit ſlit ſpit ſplit ſprit tit whit wit
writ — Bitch ditch fitch ſlitch hitch itch niche pitch
rich ſtitch ſwitch twitch which witch — Blink brînk chink
cinque clink drink ink link pink prink ſcink ſhrink ſink
ſhink ſlink ſtink ſwink think tink twink wink — Bliſs hiſs
kiſs miſs piſs ſpiſs t,his — Brick chick click crick kick klick
lick nick pick prick rick ſick ſnick ſpick ſtick ſtrick thick
tick trick wick — Bridge fidge mîdge rîdge — Brim dim
g,im,grim him limb limn nim prim rim ſkim ſlim ſwim
rim whim — Bring cling ding ſling king ling ring ſing ſling
ſpring ſting ſtring ſwing thing wing wring — Chints rinſe
— Chip clip dip drip flipp hip lip nip pip rîp ſcrip
ſhip ſip ſkip ſlip ſnip ſtrip tip trip whip — C,hriſm
priſm ſchiſm — Cliff if ſniff tiff whiff — Clinch flinch
pinch winch — Grimp g,imp imp limp pimp ſhrimp —
Cringe fringe hinge ſinge ſpringe ſwinge twinge tinge —
Criſp liſp wiſp — Dint flint hint lint mint print ſplint
ſtint tint — Diſh fiſh piſh fliſh wiſh — Drift giſt liſt
rift ſhift ſhriſt ſift ſwift thrift — Fiſth ſixth — Filch — Film
— Filth ſpilth tilth — Fiſt griſt twiſt whiſt (whiſt a game at
cards), wiſt — Fix ſlix mix pix ſix — Frith pith ſmith with
— G,ild fill'd, &c. — G,ilt hilt jilt milt ſtilt tilt — Give
live — His, is, phiz 'tis, viz whiz — Hiſt liſt miſt
wriſt — Midſt — Milch — Mince prince ſince wince — Minx
ſphinx — Mixt twixt — pict ſtrict — Plinth — Tinct
Tind *wind — Width.
Thirdly oſ î (like ee in meet) as in field.
Pique — Piſte — Shire tire — Slick.
Fourthly, oſ í, (lîke ŭ in buck) as in her.
Birch ſmirch — Bird gird third — Birt dirt flirt
ſhirt ſkirt ſpirt — Chirp ſtirp — Fir ſir ſkirr ſtir —
Dirge virge — Firk kirk ſmirk — Firm — ſirſt
thirſt — Girth — Thirl twirl whirl.
More EASY LESSONS oſ Words not exceeding ſour Letters
THE Law of God is good, in it will I walk all the
Days oſ my Liſe.
I will bow down my Head to the Duſt, and will hear the
Word oſ God, for it is for my Good.
Give Ear, O Sons of Men, and mark the Word oſ God
Lord, make my Days long and good, that at the End I
may come up to Thee.
Sin not, O Man, and then the Way oſ the Lord will be
good to thee.
Bow down thy Head to the Duſt, O Son oſ Man, and
mark what the Lord God doth ſay.
Keep out oſ the Way oſ bad Men, for they are all foes
In God will I put all my Hope.
My Son, pray to God and be will help thee.
0 Lord my God, I am full oſ no good Work.
I will cry to the Lord all the Day long.
My Son, take care you do no Ill, ſor God doth ſee all
you ſay and do.
My Son, pray to God and he wîll love thee; ſear him,
and no Ill wíll come near thee.
Go out oſ tbe Way oſ bad Men, and ſhun them that,
would do thee hurt.
All that we ſay and do īs ſeen by God.
Pray ſor them that hate thee, and love them that do not
The Word oſ the Lord hatb gone ſrom hîs Lips, and
it will come to paſs.
Look back to tby Ways, my Son, and îſ thou haſt done Ill
let that put tbee în mînd to mend.
O Lord, we are all oſ us ſull oſ Sin.
Time and Tide ſtay ſor no Man.
Lord, lead me in the Way that I may come to thee.
My Son, live well, and God will make thee dîe well.
Duſt we are and to Duſt we muſt all go back.
Do Good, hate Ill, and ſear the Lord thy God.
Oſ the Vowel o.
The vowel o has ſive diſſerent ſounds. See the Key.
ſirſt, oſ ō, as în note.
BLO RE bore core ſore gore lore more ore pore prore
ſcore ſhore ſnore ſore ſtore tore *wbore wore yore
— Blote dote ſlote mote note rote ſhote ſmote vote wrote
—Bo ſro go lo no oh pro ſo t,ho *to wo— Bode code mode
node ode rode trode— Bold cold ſold *gold bold old ſcold,
ſold old— Bole dole hole jole mole pole ſole ſtole tole vole
whole— Boll droll joll poll roll ſcroll toll troll— Bolt colt
dolt jolt— Bone cone drone hone lone prone ſtone throne
tone zone— Borne ſhorn torn worn— Botb ſloth— Brogue
rogue vogue— Choke coke joke (mokes) poke ſmoke ſpoke
ſtoke ſtroke yoke— Choſ,e eloſ,e doſ,e doze gloze hoſ,e hoſ,e
poze poſ,e proſ,e roſ,e t,hoſ,e toze— Clot,he cloth,es,— Clove
cove drove grove hove rove ſtove ſtrove throve wove—
Cope grope bope mope nope ope pope rope ſcope ſlope ſope
trope— Comb dome bome mome tome— Corſe ſorce ſcorce
— Doge ſolk yolk— ſord horde— ſorge— ſort port
ſport— ſorth— Ghoſt boſt moſt poſt— Globe lobe probe
robe— Holme— Porch— Pork— Won't.
Secondly, oſ ò, as in not.
Block brock cloek cock crock doek ſlock ſrock ſrock
knock lock mock nock pock rock ſhock ſlock ſmock ſock
ſtock ſtocks— Blot elot cot dot got grot bot jot knot
lot not nott plot pot rot ſcot ſhot ſtot ſnot ſot ſpot trot
wot bots— Blotch botch loch-notch potch ſcotch —Bob
gob ſob knob lob mob rob ſob throb— Bog clog cog dog
ſlog ſog ſrog hog log prog ſhog cogs— Bond ſond
pond ſtrond yond— Boſs droſs ſoſse gloſs moſs ſoſs toſs—
Box ſox hox ox pox— Bronze— Cbop crop drop ſlop ſop
hop knop lop mop pop prop ſhop ſlop ſop ſtop top—Clod
cod god hod nod odd (odds) plod pod rod ſhod ſod tod trod
— Copſe— Dodge hodge lodge podge—Doll knoll loll noll
—Don gone *none on (one pronounced won or wŭn) yon
— Dorr *nor *or— ſont— ſrom ſcomm— Long prong
ſong ſtrong thong throng tong wrong— Moſque— Nonce
ſconce—Oſ ſcoſſ ſoph— *Pomp *romp— Prompt—
Propt— Sord— To— *Tort— Toſt— Volt.
The ſollowing words and their derivations ſound like â
in hall, and words oſ polyſyllables compounded oſ them
require the grave accent.
Born corn horn lorn morn ſcorn thorn— C,hord cord
lord—Cloth ſroth moth troth— Corb orb (ſorbs)—Cork
ſork ſtork— Corps corpſe— Coſt ſroſt loſt—Croſt loſt
oſt ſoſt— Croſs loſs— Doſſ oſſ— ſorm ſtorm— Gorge—
Horſe morſe— *Nor *or— Nort,h— *Pomp *romp—
Scorch torch— Short ſnort ſort *tort— Solve.
Thîrdly, oſô, as in prove.
Do who— Loſe whoſe— Move prove— Tomb whom
ſourthly, oſ ò, as in wolſ.
Note, Thîs is tbe only word in wbíeh (o) has this ſound
but there are many words wîth (oo) wbich have tbe ſame.
See the Table oſ the Diphthongs and Triphthongs, Chap. 3.
ſîſtbly, oſ ó, as īn done.
Bomb come rhomb ſome— Coz— Done *none ſhone
ſon ton won— Dove glove love ſhove— ſront ront wont—
Monk ſponk— Month— Once pronounced wŭnce— *One
pronounced wŏn or— Work—
World— Worm— Worſe— Worſt— Wort— Worth.
More Easy LESSONS oſ Words not exceeding ſour Letters.
POUR out thine Ire on them that know thee not, O
God is my God, and I wîll ſay to hîm he īs my Stay,
and I will mind his Law.
The Lord did look down on tbe Sons oſ Men, to ſee iſ
they did look up to him ſor Help; but they were all
gone out oſ hís Way.
All the Sons oſ Men have gone out oſ thy Way, O Lord,
and love it not.
By the Word oſ the Lord was all made that is made
God is kind to all them that look up to him ſor Help;
but he doth hate all them that do not mind his Law.
Thou, O Lord, art what I long for.
The Word was with God, and the Word was God.
In him was Liſe, and the Life is the Joy oſ Men.
This is he who did ſhew Men the Way oſ Liſe.
Let us cry to the Lord, and be glad in him, with a Song
for he hath ſaid, All them that love and keep my Law
I will ſave.
That Man is bleſt who hath kept the Law oſ God, and
who doth not mind his own Will, but the Will oſ the
Hurt me not, O Lord, in thine Ire, for I am too weak to
keep thy Law.
We have all err'd ſrom the Way oſ the Lord, and gone
as our own Minds lead us.
We muſt all mind what we do with our Time, ſor the
Eye oſ the Lord is on us all the Day long.
The Lord is my Rock, how then can I want? He will
take my Feet out oſ the Net.
Be not far from me, O Lord, for Pain is near; for I
have none to help me.
Save, Lord, let the King bear us when we call.
Thou, Lord, art he who took me out oſ the Womb.
Oſ the Vowel u.
The vowel u has three dīſſerent ſounds. See the Key.
Firſt, oſ ū, as in duke.
BRUTE ſlute lute mute — Crude rude — Cube tube —
Cure dure lure pure ſure pronounced ſhure — Duke
luke puke ſtuke — Dupe ſtupe — Fume grume plume ſpume
— Fuſ,e muſ,e ruſ,e ſcruſ,e uſ,e — Gules, — Huge — June lune
prune tune — Luce pruce ſpruce truce — Mule pule rule
yule — Ruth truth.
Secondly, oſ ŭ as in buck.
Bluff buff chuff cuff gruff huff luff muff puff ruff ſcruff
ſnuff ſtuff — Blunt brunt burnt grunt hunt lunt runt
ſprunt ſtunt — Blur bur burgh burr cur fur knur pur
ſlur ſpur whurr — Blurt burt hurt ſpurt whurt — Bluſh
bruſh cruſh fluſh guſh huſh luſh pluſh ruſh thruſh tuſh —
Bub chub club cub drub dub fub grub rub ſcrub ſhrub
ſnub ſtub (trubs) tub — Buck chuck cluck duck luck
muck pluck puck ſtruck ſtuck ſuck truck tuck yuck —
Bud cud mud rud ſcud ſpud ſtud (ſuds) — Bug drug
dug hug jug lug mug plug pug rug ſhrug ſlug ſmug ſnug
ſug trug tug — Bulb — Bulge — Bum chum crum
crumb drum dumb glum grum (gums,) hum mum mumm
numb plum plumb rum ſcum ſtum ſum ſwum thrum
thumb — Bump chump clump crump (dumps) hump
jump lump mump (mumps) plump pump rump ſtump
thump trump tump — Bunch hunch lunch munch punch
— Bung clung dung flung hung (lungs) rung ſlung
ſprung ſtrung ſtung ſung ſwung wrung — Bun dun fun
gun nun pun run ſhun ſpun ſtun ſun tun — Burn churn
ſpurn turn — Burſe curſe nurſe purſe — Burſt curſt
durſt hurſt — Buſk duſk huſk muſk ruſk tuſk — Buſs
fuſs muſs puſs t,hus truſs us — Buſt cruſt duſt guſt juſt
luſt muſt ruſt thruſt truſt — But butt cut glut gut hut
jut nut *put rut ſcut ſhut ſlut ſmut ſtrut — Buzz furze
tuz— Church lurch — Churl curl furl hurl
purl — Clutch crutch grutch hutch much ſmutch
— Cull dull gull hull lull mull null ſcull ſkull ſull trull —
— Cup pup ſup tup up — Curb — Curd (hurds) furd
turd — Curve — Drudge grudge judge ſludge ſnudge
trudge — Drunk funk (hunks) junk punk ſhrunk ſhrunk
ſpunk ſunk ſtunk trunk — Duct — Dunce — Flux lux luxe
yux — Fund mund — Gulch — Gulf — Gulp — ſculp —
Gurge purge ſpurge ſurge urge — Hulk ſculk ſkulk — Lurk
murk ſturk — Mulct — Mulſe pulſe — Plunge ſpunge
Scurf turf — Tuft — Turm.
Thirdly, of û, as in buſh.
Bull ſull pull — Buſh puſh — Pugh Puſs— *Put.
Of the Vowel y.
The Vowel y has three ſounds.
Firſt, of y,̄ as in by.
BY bye cry dry fly fry fy hye *my ply pry rye ſhy ſky
ſly ſpy ſty *t,hy try tye why wry — C,hyle ſtyle G,yre
lyre tyre — G,yve — Rhyme thyme — Tyke— Type.
Secondly, oſ y̆, as in beauty, &c.
Cyſt — Hym hymn — Hyp — Lymph nymph —
Lynx — Pyx — Syb.
Thirdly, y ſounds in ŭ hyrſt myrrh, &c.
Note, This ſound of y ſo ſeldom occurs, that the true pronunciation
oſ theſe and other like words, are fixed, by
varying the orthography. See my Royal Standard Engliſh
*** My and thy have the ſound oſ y long only when
they are emphatical, except in very ſolemn diſcourſes.
Six EASY LESSONS of Words of Monoſyllables.
GOD doth know and ſee all that we do, and though
the Place where he dwells be far on high, yet doth
he look down on us here, in this low World, and ſee
all the Ways oſ the frail Sons oſ Men; Him will I fear
and love all the Days oſ my Life.
The firſt Thing that a Child ſhould learn, is to know and
fear the Lord; and that when young: ſor the Mind oſ
a Child, like young Plants, will bend which way you
pleaſe: To know God, is to love, keep, and mind his
Law, and his Word.
God will love and bleſs all thoſe who fear him.
Youth ſhould be taught to hate Vice, and love that which
is good; and they muſt not play with a Child who will
lie, ſwear, or do ill Things.
As a Child is like ſoft Wax, which will take the leaſt
Stamp you put on it, ſo let it be your Care, who teach,
to make the Stamp good, that the Wax may not be
God's Eye is on all his Works; ſo that when we go
out, or when we come in, he ſees all that we do,
and what we aim at; he knows our Thoughts, and
what we look for; in ſhort, he ſees, hears, and knows
all Things, both in this World, and in the World to
come. He is our Rock we muſt look to him for
Ye Sons of Men, how long will you love what is
and hate what is good? know, that you have one
deal with, who made you, and who will judge you
a right Way.
God made us, and not we ourſelves; we are his
and he doth guide us; in his Law we ſhould go
Day and Night.
The Ox knows who owns him; the Aſs knows his Crib;
but the Son oſ Man hath not where to lay his Head,
That Man is bleſt who lives on Earth, as if in thy
Sight, O Lord; him wit thou keep.
God ſaid, Let there be Light, and there was Light,
God ſaw that that Light was good.
Oſ the various ſounds of the diphthongs and triphthongs,
which are to be found in all words of one ſyllable.
Of the Diphthong ai.
The diphthong ai has three diſſerent ſounds: 1ſt, ā
(like a in hate); 2dly, ă (like a în hat), as in plaid only;
3dly, ĕ (like e in met,) as in ſaid only.
Firſt, of ai, like ā in hate.
Air chair fair glaire hair lair pair ſtair — Ail aisle
bail (brails,) fail flail frail ſnail hail jail mail nail pail rail
ſail ſnail tail trail vail wail — Aim claim maim — Aid
braid maid paid ſtaid — Bait blait gait plait ſtraight
ſtrait trait wait — Baize chaiſ,e maize praiſ,e raiſ, —
Brain. chain drain fain gain grain (grains) main pain
plain rain ſlain ſprain ſtain ſtrain ſwain train twain vain
wain — Laird — aint paint plaint ſaint (ſpraints)
taint — Plaice — Traipſe — Waif — Waiſt.
Ao ſounds ā in this word only g,aol pronounced jail.
Au has three different ſounds: 1 ſt, â (like a in hall);
2dly, à (like a īn part); and, 3dly, ā (like a in hate.)
Firſt of au like â in hall.
Auf cauf — Aught caught haught naught taught —
Cauſ,e clauſ,e gauze pauſ,e — Daub — *Daunt gaunt
*haunt taunt vaunt — Fault vault — Fraud laud —
Haul maul — Haum — *Haunch maunch *paunch —
Maund — Sauce.
Secondly, of au, like à in part.
Aunt *daunt flaunt jaunt — Craunch *haunch ſcraunch
*paunch — Draught — Laugh.
Thirdly, of au, like ā in hate.
Gauge — Alſo in many words oſ polyſyllables.
Aw has but one uniform ſound, viz. â as in hall.
Awe chaw claw craw draw flaw gnaw haw jaw kaw
law maw paw pſhaw raw ſaw ſcraw ſhaw ſpaw ſtraw taw
thaw — Awl bawl brawl crawl ſcrawl ſpawl wawl yawl
— Bawd — Brawn dawn drawn fawn lawn pawn prawn
ſpawn yawn — Hawk.
Ay has but one uniform ſound, viz. ā as in hate; except
in ay or aye which is pronounced ày̆.
Bay bray clay day dray fay fray gay gray hay jay lay
may nay pay play pay ray ſay ſlay ſpay ſpray ſtay (ſtays)
ſtray ſway tray way. — Mayor prayer.
Ea has five different ſounds; viz, ā à ē ĕ and ŭ.
Firſt, of ea like ā in hate.
Bear pear ſwear tear wear — Great — Steak.
Secondly, like à in part.
Heart — Hearth — and in words oſ polyſyllables
Thirdly, like ē in mete.
Beach breach each peach pleach preach reach teach —
Bead glead knead lead mead plead read — Beak bleak
break or (breāk) creak leak meak peak ſcreak ſneak ſpeak
ſtreak tweak weak wreak — Beal deal heal meal neal
peal ſeal ſheal ſteal teal veal weal wheal zeal — Beam
bream cream dream fleam gleam ream ſcream ſeam ſteam
ſtream team — Bean clean glean lean mean ſean wean
yean — Beard (or beárd) ſheard — Beaſt eaſt feaſt leaſt
— Beat bleat cheat eat feat heat meat neat peat reat
ſeat treat wheat — Breat,be meat,he ſheat,he ſmeat,h
wreat,h — Ceaſe creaſe greaſe leaſe peace — Cheap
heap leap neap reap ſneap — Blear clear dear drear ear
fear gear hear near rear ſear ſhear (ſhears) ſmear ſpear
(tear water which flows from the eyes) year — Cleave
heave leave reave weave — Greaves, leaves, — Eaſ,e
greaſ,e meaſ,e peaſ,e pleaſ,e teaſ,e — Flea lea pea plea ſea
tea yea — Heath ſheath — League teague tweague —
Leaf neaf ſheaf — Leaſh — Searce.
Fourthly, like ĕ in met.
Bread dead dread head lead read ſtead ſpread thread.
tread — Breadth — Breaſt — Breath death — Cleanſ,e
— Deaf — Health ſtealth wealth — Meant — Preaſe
— Realm — Sweat threat.
Fifthly, like ŭ in buck.
Dearth earth — Earl pearl — Earn learn yearn —
Heard — Hearſe — Search.
Note, ea ſound ĭ in Teat only.
Ee has but one uniſorm ſound like ē in mete.
Bee fee flee free glee knee lee ree ſee t,hee three tree
wee — Beech breech leech ſcreech ſpeech — Beef —
Been gleen green keen preen ſc,reen ſkreen ſeen ſheen
ſpleen ſteen teen (teens,) ween — Beer cheer deer ſleer
jeer leer meer peer pheer ſneer ſheer (ſheers,) ſteer er
— Beet feet fleet gleet greet leet meet ſheet ſleet ſtreet
ſweet — Bleed breed creed deed feed heed meed
need (needs,) reed ſeed ſpeed ſteed weed — Breeſ,e breeze
cheeſ,e freeze greeze neeſ,e pheeſ,e ſneeze — Check
creek eek gleek leek meek reek ſeek ſleek week — Creep
deep keep peep ſheep ſleep ſteep ſweep weep — Deem
ſeem teem — Eel feel heel kneel peel reel ſeel ſteet
weel wheel — Fleece g,eeſe Greece — Reeve ſleeve
Ei has five different ſounds, viz. ā ē ĕ ī and ĭ.
Firſt, of ei, like ā in hate.
Deign feign reign rein (reins) ſkein vein — Eigh neigh
weigh — Eight freight weight — Feint — Heir t,heir — Veil
Secondly, like ē in mete.
Bleit reit — Ceil — Meine ſeine — Neif — Seize.
Thirdly, ĕ as in heifer, pronounced hĕſér.
Fourthly, ī long, as in pint.
Fiſthly, ĭ ſhort, as in pin.
Teit — Teint.
Eo has but two different ſounds, viz. ē and ĕ
Firſt, of eo, like ē in mete (as in peo'ple pronounced pēe'ple).
Secondly, of eo, lîke ĕ in met, (as feof).
Eu has only one ſound, viz. ū as in duke.
Deuce — Feud — Rheum.
Ey has four different ſounds, viz, ā ē ī and ĭ.
Firſt, of ey, līke ā in hate.
Hey prey ſley trey whey.
Secondly, like ē in mete, as in key.
Thirdly, like ī in pint.
Eyre — Eye.
Fourthly, like *ĭ.
* It has this ſound in the laſt ſyllables oſ words, as in par-ley, &c.
Ew has two different ſounds, viz. ū and ō.
Firſt, ū, as in auke.
Blew brew chew clew crew dew few flew grew hew
knew mew new (news,) pew ſcrew ſhrew ſlew ſnew ſpew
ſtew ſtrew yew — Lewd ſhrewd — Mewl — Newt.
Secondly, ō, as in note.
Obſervation 1ſt, Ew (in diſſyllables) and ewe occur only
in theſe three words, ewer pronounced yū'ér; ewry pronounced
yū'ry; and ewe pronounced yō or yū.
Obſervation 2d, Eau ſounds ō in beau.
Ie has four diſſerent ſounds, ē ĕ ī and ĭ.
Fīrſt, of ie like ē în mete.
Bier pier tier — Brief chief fief grief lief theif —
field ſhield wield yield — Fiend — Fierce pierce tierce
— Frieze — Gleik ſhriek — Grieve thieve — Lie
(any thing impregnated with ſome other body, as ſoap or
Secondly, like ĕ in met, as friend.
Thirdly, like ī in pint.
Die ſie hie lie pie rie tie vie.
Fourthly, like ĭ in pin, as ſieve.
Note, ieu and iew ſound ū, as in adieu, lieu, view
Oa has but two different ſounds, viz. â and ō
Firſt, oſ â, as in hall.
Broad — Groat — Groats.
Secondly, of ō, as in note.
Bloat boat coat ſloat gloat goat moat ſcoat ſtoat throat
troat — Boar gloar hoar oar roar ſoar — Board
hoard — Boaſt coaſt roaſt toaſt — Broach coach
poach roach — Cloak croak oak ſoak — Coal foal
goal ſhoal — Coarſe hoarſe — Coax — Foam
loam roam — Goad load road toad — Groan
loan moan roan — Loaf oaf — Loathe oath —
Loat,he — Loaves — Soap.
Oe has three different ſounds, viz. ō ô and ā.
Fīrſt, of oe like ō in note.
Doe foe hoe roe ſloe ſoe throe o'er.
Secondly, of oe like ô in prove, as ſhoe.
Thirdly, of oe like ā in hate, as *oeliad, a glance.
*Note, oe in the beginning of words derived ſrom the Greek, ſound
e long. As the combination of theſe two letters do not properly belong
to our language, it is better to write economy, &c. than œconomy, &c.
Oi is a perſect diphthong, being compounded oſ â and ĭ.
— It has but one uniform ſound, as in coin, except
the word doit, which is pronounced as if written dīte.
Boil broil coil foil moil oil ſoil ſpoil toil — Choice
voice — C,hoir — Coif — Coin ſoin groin join
loin proin — Coit — ſoiſt hoiſt joiſt moiſt roiſt
— Joint oint point— Noiſ,e poize — Void
Oo has four different ſounds, viz. ō ô ò and ó. See the.
Firſt, of ō, as in note.
*Door — *ſloor.
Secondly, of ô, as in prove.
Bloom boom broom coom coomb doom gloom
loom room ſpoom — Boon loon moon noon ſoon
ſwoon — Boor *door *floor moor poor — Booſ,e
nooſ,e ooze — Mooſe nooſe looſe — Boot coot hoot moot
root ſhoot — Brood ſood mood rood — Coo loo too
— Cool ſool pool ſc,hool ſpool ſtool tool — Coop
hoop (to ſhout) loop poop.ſcoop ſloop ſtoop ſwoop
whoop — Flook nook rook — *Gold — Gooſe looſe
Groove — Hoof loof proof roof
— Smoot,h ſoot,h — Sooth tootb.
Thirdly, ò, as in book, wolf.
Book brook cook crook hook look ſhook took —
Good (goods) hood ſtood wood — (Hoop a bandage
Fourthly, ó, as in done.
Blood flood — Soot.
Oy, a perſect diphthong, has the ſame ſound as oi
Boy cloy coy hoy joy poy toy troy — Moyle
Ou has no leſs than eight different ſounds; 1ſt, â,
hall; 2dly, the compound ſound oſ â and û, as in t,hone;
3dly, ō, as in note; 4thly, ŏ, as in not; 5thly ô, as in
prove; 6thly, ò, as in book; 7thly, ū, as in duke; and
8thly, ŭ, as in buck.
Firſt, of ou, like â in hall.
Bought fought nought ſought thought wrought — Lough.
Secondly; the combined ſound of â and û, as in thou.
Bough chough plough ſlough ſough t,hou — Bounce
flounce frounce ounce pounce trounce — Bound found
ground hound mound pound round ſound ſtound *wound
— Bout clout drought flout glout gout grout lout out
pout rout route ſcout ſhout ſnout ſpout ſprout ſtout trout
— Chouſe douſe grouſe houſe louſe mouſe *ſous ſouſe
— Cloud loud proud ſhroud — Couch pouch ſlouch
vouch — Count fount mount — Foul — Gouge —
Hour our ſcour ſour — Houſe louſe — Houſ,e louſ,e rouſ,e
ſpouſ,e touſ,e trouſ,e — Jouſt — Lounge — Mounch — Mouth
ſouth — Mout,he — Noun.
Thīrdly, of ō, as in note.
Dough hough t,hough — Four — Fourth — Mould —
Moult poult — Mourn mourne — Soul troul.
Fourthly, oſ ŏ, as in not, which is the ſhort ſound of â
Clough cough hough ſhough trough.
Fiſthly, oſ ô, as in prove.
Bouſ,e — Courſe ſcourſe ſource — *Court — Croup group
ſoup — Fourbe — Gourd — Gout *ſous through — Ouſt —
Ouch — Ouphe — Pour tour — Rouge — *Wound.
Sixthly, of ò, as in book.
Could ſhould would — *Court.
Seventhly, oſ ū, as in you, your, youth, &c.
Eightly oſ ŭ as in buck.
Rough tough — Scourge — Touch — Young.
Ow has two ſounds, 1ſt, ō, as in note; and 2dly,
pound ſound of â and û, as in t,hou.
Firſt, of ow lîke ō īn note.
Blow bow crow ſlow grow know low (mow to cut down)
owe row (*row to drive ſorward by oars) ſhow ſlow ſnow
ſow ſtow ſtrow throw tow trow — Blowth growth — Blowze
browze — Bowl (*bowl to play at bow s) prowl ſtrowl
thowl — Flown grown own ſhown ſown — Owre.
Secondly, the compound ſound oſ â and û, as in t,hou.
Bow brow cow glow how low (mow a loſt for hay or
corn) now prow (*row to drive ſorward by oars) (*ſow a female
pig) vow — (*bowl to play at bowls) cowl fowl growl
howl owl ſcowl ſowl — Brown clown crown down (downs)
drown frown gown lown town — Crowd— Dowſe ſowce—
Drowſ,e — Flowk — Lowt.
This table contains all the different ſounds oſ the diphthongs
and triphthongs ua ue ui uo uy; uea uee uei
SECTION I. Of ua.
Firſt, oſ ua, the combined ſound oſ û and ă
Quake — Square
Secondly, of ua, the combined ſound oſ û and ă
Quab ſquab — Quack — Quaff — Quaſh — Squat
Thirdly, oſ ua, the combined ſound oſ û and â
Quart — Squall
Fourthly, oſ ua, the combīned ſound oſ û and à.
ſîſthly, oſ ua, like, à īn part.
SECTION II. Of ue.
Firſt, of ue, the combined ſound oſ û and ē.
Secondly, of ue, the combined ſound oſ û and ĕ.
Quell — Quench — Queſt — Squelch.
Thirdly, oſ ue, like ū in duke.
Blue cue due flue glue hue mue rue ſkue ſue true.
Fourthly, of ue, the combined ſound oſ û and é.
Fifthly, oſ ue, lîke ĕ in met.
Gueſs — Gueſt.
SECTION III. Oſ ui and uy.
ſîrſt, oſ ui and uy, like ī in pint.
Secondly, ui, like ĭ in pin.
Buīld guîld — — Built guilt.
Thirdly, ui, lîke ū in due.
Bruiſ,e cruiſ,e — Bruit fruit ſuit — (Cruiſe a ſmall cup)
juice ſluice (cruiſ,e a voyage in ſearch of plunder).
Fourthly, oſ ui compounded oſ û and ī.
Fiſthly, oſ ui compounded oſ û and ĭ.
Quib ſquib — Quick — Quill ſquill — Quilt — Quince
Quinch — Quint ſquint — Quip — Quit (quits).
Sixthly, oſ ui compounded oſ û and ŭ
Quirk — Squirt.
SECTION IV. Of uo
Uo ſounds ō in quote quoth.
SECTION V. Of uea.
Uea has but one ſound, viz, compounded oſ û
Quean — Squeak — Squeal.
SECTION VI. Of uee
Uee has the compound ſound of û and ē.
Queen — Queer — Queeſt — Squeeze.
SECTION VII. Of uoi and uoy.
Uoi and uoy have the compound ſound of â
Buoy — Quoif — Quoil — Quoit.
Six EASY LESSONS oſ Words not exceeding one Syllable
MY Son, iſ you would come to God, you muſt mind
the Rules which he gave to you and all the Sons
You muſt not caſt an ill Eye on Goods which are not
your own; nor muſt you go in the Ways oſ bad Men.
You muſt love all Men as you love yourſelf.
You muſt not love the World, nor what is in the World.
To love, fear, and ſerve God, ſhould be thy ſole Aim, Day
Keep one Day oſ the Week for God, and let that be for
his Uſe, for ſix Days ſhalt thou work, and do all that
thou had to do, but on that Day God hath ſaid, Thou
ſhalt not work.
Thou muſt not take the Name oſ the Lord in vain.
Let it be your ſole Aim to love and pleaſe thoſe who have
the Care of you, ſor you may be ſure they will not bid
you do what is ill.
Shun all thoſe who would do you Hurt, and do Hurt to
none, then will you be lov'd by all who ſee you.
You muſt not take the Things which are not yours, for
that is a bad Deed.
The firſt Thing that you ſhould do when you go to Bed,
is to pray to God, and when you get up do the ſame.
My good Child, iſ you have done a fault, take care to do
ſo no more, ſor it is a bad Thing to be chid twice for
the ſame Crime.
Let your Life be good, that your Death may be ſo too.
When you come to School be ſure to mind your Book,
and ſit ſtill in your Place, and make no Noiſe.
Let not the Time you are in School be ſpent in Play and
Talk, but mind what is ſaid to you; and when you
come out, do not go with Boys that will curſe, ſwear,
tell Lies, and do all bad Things.
The Lord made the Ear oſ Man, he needs muſt hear
what is right and what is wrong.
He made the Eye, all Things muſt be plain and clear in
That Man, O Lord, is ſafe and in the right Way, whom
thou doſt keep in Awe, and thou doſt guide him in the
Way oſ thy Law, to make his Life pure.
Oſ Diſſyllables and Polyſyllables.
Diſſyllables accented on the firſt Syllable
Note, The grave accent is put on flat and ſlowly accented
ſyllables, and the acute on quick and ſharp. See the Key
SIX LESSONS, in which the Words are not only divided
into Syllables, but alſo properly accented with the Geave
or Acute Accent.
THERE was a Day, when the Sons oſ God came to
pre-ſent' them-ſelves' beſore' the Lord, and Sa'tan
came al'ſo a-mong' them, to pre-ſent him'ſelf beſore'
And the Lord ſaid to Sa'tan, from whence com-eſt
thou? And Sa'tan ſaid, ſrom go'ing to and fro in the
Earth, and walk'ing up and down in it.
And the Lord ſaid to Sa'tan, Haſt thou ob-ſerv'd' my
Ser'vant Job, that there is none líke him in the Earth,
a perſect and an up'right Man, one who fear‘eth God,
and ſhun'neth E'vil, and ſtill hold'eth faſt his Pure-neſs
al though' thou mov'edſt me a-gainſt' him, to de-ſtroy
him with-out' a Cauſe.
And Sa`tan ſaid unto the Lord, Skin ſor Skin, yea all
that a Man hath, will he give ſor his Life.
But put forth thine Hand now, and touch his Bone and
his Fleſh, and be will curſe thee to thy face.
And the Lord ſaid unto Sa'tan, Be-hold', he is in thine
Hand, but ſave his Life.
So Sa`tan went forth from the Preſ'ence oſ the Lord, and
ſmote Job with ſore Boils, ſrom the Sole of his foot
to the Crown of his Head.
And Job took a Piece oſ an earth'en Pot to ſcrape hîmſelf,
and ſat down among the Aſh'es.
Then ſaid his Wife, doſt thou ſtill re-tain' thy Pure'neſs,
curſe God, and die.
But he ſaid to her, Thou ſpeak'eſt like a fool'iſh Wom'an;
what? ſhall we re-ceive' Good at the Hand oſ God,
and ſhall we not re-ceive' E`vīl? In all this did not
Job ſin with his Lips.
Now when Job's three friends heard of all this E'vil
which was come up-on' him, they came each from his
own Place; for they had all a-gre'ed to come to mourn
with him and, to comfort him.
And when they ſaw him afar` off, they knew him not;
and they lift'ed up their Voiç'es and wept, and they
rent their Man'tles, and ſprink'led Duſt up-on' their
Heads to-ward' Heav'en.
So they ſat down with him up-on' the Ground ſev'en
Days, and ſev'en Nights, and none ſpake a Word to
him: for they ſaw that his Grieſ was ver'y great.
Aſter this Job o'pen-ed his Mouth, and curſ'ed his Day.
Let the Day per'iſh where-in' I was born, and the Night,
in which it was ſaid, there is a Man-child brought
Lo, let that Night be ſin'gle, let no joy'ful Voice come
More Words oſ two Syllables, accented on the firſt
Diſſyllables accented on the laſt Syllable.
*Note, Reſpecting the pronunciation oſ com and con, in theſe and all
other words, See my Royal Standard Engliſh Diactionary.
SIX LESSONS, in which the Words are divided, and properly
BOW down your Heads to the Duſt, O ye Chil'dren
oſ Men! be ſi'lent, and re-ceive' with Rev'e-rence'
In'ſtruc-tion from on high.
God ſit'teth on his Throne in the Cen'tre, and the
Breath oſ his Mouth giv'eth Liſe to the World.
He touch'eth the Stars with his ſîn'ger, and they run
their Courſe re-joic'ing.
The Shad'ow oſ Knowl'edge paſ'ſeth o'ver the Mind
oſ Man as a Dream: He ſe'eth as in the Dark; he
rea`ſon-eth and is de-ceiv'ed.
But the Wiſdom oſ God is as the Light oſ Heav'en
he rea`ſon-eth not; his Mind is the ſoun'tain oſ Truth
Who is like to the Lord in Glo`ry? Who in Pow'er
ſhall con-tend' with the Al-might'y? Hath hean'y e'qual
in Wiſdom? Can an'y in 'Good'neſs be com-par'ed
It is God, O Man! who hath cre-at`ed thee; thy
Sta`tion on Earth is fix`ed by his Ap-point'ment.
The Powers oſ thy Mind are the Giſts oſ his
Good'neſs, the Won'ders oſ thy Frame are the Work oſ
Hear then his Voice, ſor it is gra'cious; and he that
o-bey'eth ſhall eſ-tab'liſh his Soul in Peace.
Com-mune' with thyſelf, O Man! and con-ſider'
where'fore thou wert made.
Con-tem'plate thy Pow`ers, con-tem'plate thy Wants
and thy Con-nec'tíons; ſo ſhalt thou diſ-cov'er thy
Du`ties oſ Liſe, and be di-rect'ed in all thy Ways.
The thoughtleſs Man bri'dleth not his Tongue; he
ſpeak'eth at ran'dom, and is en-tang'led in the fool'iſhneſs
oſ his own Words.
The firſt Step to-wards' be'ing wiſe, is to know that
thou art ig'no-rant; and iſ thou wouldſt not be eſ-teem'ed
fooliſh in the Judg'ment oſ oth'ers, caſt off the fol'ly of
be'ing wiſe in thine own Con-ceit'.
As the Cam'el bear'eth La'bour, and Heat, and
Hun'ger, and Thirſt, through Deſ'erts oſ Sand, and
faint'eth not; ſo the For`ti-tude of a Man ſhall ſuſ-tain`
him through all Per'ils.
Iſ thy Soul thirſt'eth ſor Hon'our, if thy Ear hath any
Pleaſ'ure in the Voice oſ Praiſe, raiſe thyſelf from the
Duſt where-of' thou art made, and ex-alt' thy Aim to
ſomething that is praiſe-wor'thy.
The Oak that now ſpread'eth its Branch'es to-wards'
the Heav'ens, was once but an A`corn in the Bow'els
of the Earth.
Words oſ three Syllables, having the Accent on
Words oſ three Syllables, having the Accent on the ſecond.
Words oſ three Syllables, having the Accent on the laſt.
SIX LESSONS, in which the Words are divided, and properly
THERE is but one God, the Au`thor, the Cre-a`tor
and the Gov'ern-or of the World.
The Sun is not God, though his no'bleſt Im'age. He
en-light'en-eth the World with his Bright'neſs, His
Warmth giveth Liſe to the Prod'ucts oſ the Earth:
Ad-mire' him as the Crea`ture, the In'ſtru-ment of
God; but wor'ſhip him not.
To the One who is ſu-preme, moſt wiſe and be-nefi'-
cent, and to Him a-lone' be-long' Wor'ſhip, Adora`tion,
Thankſ-giv'ing and Praiſe.
The Providence oſ God is o'ver all his Works;
rul'eth and di-rect'eth witb in'fi-nite Wiſ'dom.
He hath in'ſti-tut-ed Laws for the Gov'ern-ment of the
World; he hath won'derful-ly va`ri-ed them in all
Be'ings; and each, by his Na`ture, conform'eth to His
The Crea`tures oſ his Hand de-clare' his Good'neſs, and
all their En-joy'ments ſpeak his Praiſe; he cloth'eth
them with Beau`ty, he ſup-port'eth them with food
he preſerv'eth them with Pleaſ'ure from Gen-er-a'tion
If we lift up our Eyes, to the Heav'ens, God's Glory
ſhin'eth forth; if we caſt them down up-on' the
Earth, it is full oſ his Goodneſs: the Hills and the
Val'leys re-joice' and ſing; Fields, Riv'ers, and Woods
re-ſound' his Praiſe.
But thee, O Man! he hath diſ-tin`guiſh-ed with pe-cu'liar
Fa`vour; and ex-alt'ed thy Sta`tion a-bove' all Creatures.
Pay, there'fore, to bis Wiſ'dom all Hon'our and Ven-era'tion;
and bow down thy-ſelf' in hum'ble and ſub--
miſ'ſive O-be'di-ence to his ſu-preme' Di-rec'tion.
The Lord is juſt and right`eous, and will judge the
Earth with Eq'ui-ty and Truth.
Hath he eſ-tab'liſh-ed Laws in Good'neſs and Mer'cy,
and ſhall he not puniſh the Tranſ-greſ'ſors there-of'?
O praiſe his Good'neſs with Songs oſ Thankſ-giving,
and med'i-tate in Silence on the Won'ders oſ his
Love: let thy Heart o-verflow' with Grat'i-tude and
Ac-knowl'edg-ment, let the Lan'guage oſ thy Lips
ſpeak Praiſe and Ad-o-ra'tion, let the Ac'tions oſ thy
Liſe ſhew thy Love to his Law.
O think not, bold Man! be-cauſe thy Pun'iſh-ment is
de-lay'ed, that the Arm oſ the Lord is weak'en-ed
nei`ther flat'ter thy-ſelf' with Hopes that he wink'eth
at thy Do'ings.
His Eye pierc'eth the Secrets oſ ev'e-ry Heart, and he
re-mem'ber-eth them for ev'er; he re-ſpect'eth not
the Per'ſons or the Sta`tions oſ Men.
The High and the Low, the Rich and the Poor, the Wiſe
and the Ig'no-rant, when the Soul hath ſhak`en off the
cum'brous Shack'les oſ this mor`tal Liſe, ſhall e'qual-ly
re-ceive ſrom the Sen'tence oſ God, a juſt and ev-er--
laſting Ret-ri-bu`tion ac-cording to his Works.
The Wick'ed ſhall trem'ble and be afraîd`; but the
Heart oſ the Right'eous ſhall rejoice' in his Judg'-
O fear the Lord, there'fore, all the Days oſ thy Liſe, and
walk in the Paths which he hath o'pen-ed beſore'
thee! Let Pru'dence ad-mon'iſh thee, let Tem'per-ance
re-ſtrain', let Juſ'tice guide thy Hand, Be-nev'o-lence
warm thy Heart, and Grat'i-tude to Heav'en inſpire
thee with De-vo'tion.
Theſe ſhall give thee Hap'pi-neſs' in thy preſſ'ent State,
and bring thee to the Man'ſions oſ e-ter'nal Fe-lic'i-ty
in the Par'a-diſe of God.
Words oſ ſour Syllables, having the Accent on the ſecond.
Words oſ ſour Syllables, having the Accent on the third.
Words oſ ſour Syllables, having the Accent on the
Six more LESSONS, in which the Words are divided, and
properly accented, as beſore.
VAunt not oſ thy Bod'y, be-cauſe` it was ſirſt ſorm'ed;
nor oſ thy Brain, be-cauſe` there-in' thy Soul reſid'eth.
Is not the maſ`ter oſ the Houſe more hon'or--
a-ble than its Walls?
As the breatb oſ Heav'en ſay'eth to the Wa`ter oſ the
Deep, This Way ſhall thy Bil'lows roll, and no oth'er;
thus high, and no high'er, ſhall they raiſe their ſu'ry:
ſo let thy Spir'it, O Man, ac'tu-ate and di-rect' thy
ſleſh; ſo let it re-preſs' its Wild'neſs.
Thy Soul is the Mon'arch oſ tby ſſrame; ſuſ'ſer not its
Sub'jects to re-bel' a-gainſt' it.
The Bleſſings, O Man! oſ tby ex-ter'nal Part, are Health
Vigour, and Pro-por'tion. The great'eſt oſ theſe is
Health. What Health is to tbe Bod'y, e'ven that is
Hon'eſſ-ty to the Soul.
Per-ceiv'eth not the Coek the Hour oſ Mid`night?
alt'etb be not his Voice, to tell thee it is Morn'ing
Know'etb not tbe Dog tbe ſooeſteps oſ his Maſ`ter
and ſli'eth not the wound'ed Goat to the Herb that
heal'eth him? Yet, when theſe die, their Spirit return'eth
to the Duſt: tbîne a-lone ſur-viv'eth
'As the Eye oſ Morn'ing to the Lark, as the Shade oſ
E'ven-ing to the Owl, as Hon'ey to tbe Bee, or as the
Car`eaſe to tbe Vul'ture; e'ven ſuch is Liſe to the
Heart oſ Man.
Say not that it were beſt not to have been born; or, iſ
born, tbat it had been beſt to die early: nei`tber dare
tbou to aſk oſ thy Cre-a'tor, Where had been the E‘vil
had I not ex-iſt'ed? Good is thy Power; the Want
oſ Good is E'vil; and iſ tby Queſt'ion be juſt, lo! it
In-con'ſtan-cy is power`ſul in the Heart oſ Man; in
tem'pe-rance ſway'eth it whith'er it will; Deſ-pair' engroſſ'eth
much oſ it and ſear pro-claim'eth, Be-hold;
I ſit un-ri`val-led tbere-in': but Van'i-ty is be-yond'
Weep not there'ſore at the Ca-lam'i-ties oſ the hu'man
State, rath'er laugh at its ſol'lies, In the Hands oſ
the Man ad-dict'ed to Van'i-ty, Liſe is but the Shad'ow
oſ a Dream.
Do well while thou liv'eſt; but re-gard' not what is ſaid
oſ it. Con-tent' thyſelſ' with deſerv'ing Praiſe, and
thy Poſ-ter'i-ty ſhall re-joice' in hear`ing it.
Vain and in-con'ſtant as thou art, O Child oſ Im-perſec'tion! how can'ſt thou be but weak? Is not in-eon'--
ſtaney con-nect'ed with ſraíl`ty? Can tbere be Van'i-ty
wíth-out' Inſirm'i-ty? A-void' the Dan'ger oſ the
one, and thou ſhalt eſ-cape the Miſ'chieſs oſ the
Where'ſore loſ'eth the Pleaſ'ure that is beſore' thee its
Rel'iſh? and why ap-pear`eth that which is yet to
come the ſweet`er? Be-cauſe' tbou art wea'ri-ed with
the Good oſ this, be-eauſe' thou know`eſt not the E'vil
oſ that wbich is not with thee. Know, that to be con--
tent' is to be bappy.
The Soul oſ the chearſul ſorc'eth a Smile upon the ſace
oſ Aſſlic'tiōn; but the deſ-pond'ence oſ the ſad dead'en-eth
e'ven the Brigbe'neſs oſ Joy.
What is the Source oſ Sad'neſs, but a ſee'ble-neſs oſ the
Soul? wbat giv'eth it Pow`er but the Want oſ Spir'it?
Rouſe thy-ſelſ' to the Com'bat, and ſhe quit'teth the
ſîeld beſore' thou ſtrik`eſt.
She is an En'e-my to thy Race, tbere'ſore drive her ſrom
thy Heart; ſhe poi`ſon-eth the Sweets oſ thy Liſe,
there'ſore ſuſ'ſer her not to en'ter thy Dwel'ling.
Words of five Syllables, having the Accent on the firſt.
Words oſ five Syllables, having the Accent on the ſecond.
Words oſ five Syllables, having the Accent on the third.
Words oſ ſive Syllables, having the, Accent on the
The TROUTS. Divided into Six LESSONS.
ON the other Side of yonder Hill there runs a mighty
clear River, and in that River, on a Time, there
lived three Silver Trouts, the prettieſt little fiſhes
that any one ever ſaw. Now God took a great Liking and
Love to theſe pretty Silver Trouts, and he let them want
for nothing that ſuch little Fiſhes could have Occaſion
for. But two of them grew ſad and diſcontented; and
the one wiſhed for this Thing, and the other wiſhed for
that Thing, and neither of them could take Pleaſure in
any Thing that they had, becauſe they were always longing
for ſomething that they had.
Now, you muſt know, that all this was very naughty
in thoſe two little Trouts; for God had been exceedingly
kind to them; he had given them every Thing that
was fitteſt for them; and he never grudged them any
Thing that was for their Good: but, inſtead of thanking
him for all his Care and his Kindneſs, they blamed him
in their own Minds for refuſing them any Thing that
their ſilly Fancies were ſet upon. In ſhort, there was no
End of their wiſhing, and longing, and quarrelling in
their Hearts, for this Thing and the other.
At laſt God was ſo provoked, that he reſolved to puniſh
their Naughtineſs, by granting their Deſires, and to
make the Folly of theſe two little ſtubborn Trouts an Example
to all the fooliſh Fiſh in the whole World.
For this Purpoſe he called out to the three little Silver
Trouts, and told them, they ſhould have whatever they
Now, the eldeſt of theſe Trouts was a very proud little
Fiſh, and wanted, forſooth, to be ſet up above all
other little Fiſhes. May it pleaſe your Greatneſs, ſays
he, I muſt be free to tell you, that I do not at all like
the Way in which you have placed me. Here you have
put me into a poor narrow and troubleſome River, where
I am ſtraitened on the right Side, and ſtraitened on the
leſt Side, and can neither get down into the Ground,
nor up into the Air, nor go where, nor do any one
Thing I have a-mind to. I am not ſo blind for all, but
that I can ſee well enough how mighty kind and bountiful
you can be to others. There are your favourite little
Birds, who fly this Way and that Way, and mount up
to the very Heavens, and do whatever they pleaſe, and
have every Thing at Command, becauſe you have given
them Wings. Give me ſuch Wings alſo as you have given
to them, and then I ſhall have ſomething for which I
ought to thank you.
No ſooner aſk than have. He felt the Wings he wiſhed
for growing from either Side, and in a Minute he
ſpread them abroad, and roſe out of the Water. At firſt
he felt a wonderſul Pleaſure in finding himſelf able to fly.
He mounted high into the Air, above the very Clouds,
and he looked down with Scorn on all the Fiſhes in
He now reſolved to travel, and to take his Diverſion
far and wide. He flew over Rivers and Meadows, and
Woods and Mountains, till growing faint with Hunger
and Thirſt, his Wings began to fail him, and he thought
it beſt to come down to get ſome Refreſhment.
The little Fool did not conſider that he was now in a
ſtrange Country, and many a Mile from the ſweet River
where he was born and bred, and had received all his
Nouriſhment. So, when he came down, he happened
to light among dry Sands and Rocks, where there was
not a Bit to eat, nor a Drop oſ Water to drink; and ſo
there he lay faint and tired, and unable to riſe, gaſping
and fluttering, and beating himſelf againſt the Stones, till
at length he died in great Pain and Miſery.
Now the ſecond Silver Trout, though he was not ſo
high-minded as the firſt little proud Trout, yet he did not
want for Conceit enough, and he was, moreover, a narrow-hearted
and very ſelfiſh little Trout, and provided he
himſelf was ſnug and ſafe, he did not care what became
of all the Fiſhes in the World: So, ſays he to God:
May it pleaſe your Honour, I don't wiſh, not I, for
Wings to fly out of the Water, and to ramble into ſtrange
Places, where I don't know what may become of me,
I lived contented and happy enough till the other Day
when, as I got under a cool Bank from the Heat of the
Sun, I ſaw a great Rope coming down into the Water,
and it faſtened itſelf, I don't know how, about the Gills
of a little Fiſh that was baſking beſide me, and he was
lifted out oſ the Water, ſtruggling and working in great
Pain, till he was carried, I know not where, quite out
of my Sight: ſo I thought in my own Mind, that this
Evil, ſome Time or other, might happen to myſelf, and
my Heart trembled within me, and I have been very ſad
and diſcontented ever ſince. Now, all I deſire of you is, that
you would tell me the Meaning of this, and of all the other
Dangers to which you have ſubjected, us poor little mortal
Fiſhes; for then I ſhall have Senſe enough to take Care
of my own Safety, and I am very well able to provide for
my own Living, I warrant you.
No ſooner ſaid than done God immediately opened
his Underſtanding, and he knew the Nature and Meaning
of Snares, Nets, Hooks, and Lines, and of all the
Dangers to which ſuch little Trouts could be liable.
At firſt he greatly rejoiced in this his Knowledge, and
he ſaid to himſelf, Now ſurely I ſhall be the happieſt of
all Fiſhes; for as I underſtand, and am forewarned of
every Miſchief that can come near me, I am ſure I love
myſelf too well not to keep out of Harm's Way.
From this Time forward he took Care not to go into any
deep Holes, for fear that a Pike, or ſome other huge
Fiſh, might be there, who would make nothing oſ ſwallowing
him him up at one Gulp. He alſo kept away
from the ſhallow Places, eſpecially in hot Weather, left
the Sun ſhould dry them up, and not leave him Water
enough to ſwim in. When he ſaw the Shadow of a Cloud
coming, and moving upon the River, Aha! ſaid he to
himſelf, here are the Fiſhermen with their Nets, and immediately
he got on one Side, and ſkulked under the
Banks, where he kept trembling in his Skin till the Cloud
was paſt. Again, when he ſaw a fly ſkimming on the
Water, or a Worm coming down the Stream he did not
dare to bite, however hungry he might be; No, no, ſaid
he to them, my honeſt friends, I am not ſuch a Fool as
that comes to neither; go your Ways and tempt thoſe
who know no better, who are not aware that you may
ſerve as Baits to ſome treacherous Hook, that lies hidden
for the Deſtruction of thoſe ignorant and ſilly Trouts that
are not on their Guard.
Thus this over-careſul Trout kept himſelf in continual
Frights and Alarms, and could neither eat, nor drink,
nor ſleep in Peace, leſt ſome Miſchief ſhould be at Hand,
or that he might be taken napping. He daily grew poorer
and poorer, and ſadder and ſadder, for he pined away
with Hunger, and ſighed himſelf to Skin and Bone; till
waſted almoſt to nothing with Care and Melancholy, he
he at laſt died for fear of dying, the moſt miſerable of
Now, when God came to the youngeſt Silver Trout,
and aſked him what he wiſhed for; Alas! (ſaid this darling
little Trout), you know, may it pleaſe your Worſhip,
that I am but a very fooliſh and good-for-nothing
little Fiſh, and I don't know, not I, what is good for
me, nor what is bad for me, and I wonder how I came to
be worth bringing into the World, or what you could
ſee in me to take any Thought about me. But if I muſt
wiſh for ſomething, it is, that you would do with me
whatſoever you think beſt; and that I ſhould be pleaſed to
live or die, even juſt as you would have me.
Now, as ſoon as this precious Trout made this Prayer
in his good and his humble little Heart, God took
ſuch a Liking and a Love to him as the like was never
known; and God found it in his own Heart, that he
could not but take great Care of this ſweet little Trout,
who had truſted himſelf ſo wholly to his Love and good
Pleaſure, and God went whereſoever he went, and was
always with him and about him, and was to him as a
Father, and Friend, and Companion, and he put Contentment
into his Mind, and Joy into his Heart; and ſo
this little Trout ſlept always in Peace, and wakened in
Gladneſs; and whether he was full or hungry, or whatever
happened to him, he was ſtill pleaſed and thankful,
and he was the happieſt of all Fiſhes that ever ſwam in
The following Fables were tranſlated by Maſter John Marjoribanks,
a Youth of fifteen Years of age, from "Fables
Choiſies à l'uſage des Enfans par L. Chambaud;" after
five Weeks ſtudy in the French Language under the tuition
of Mr Perry, who thought he could not do the young
Gentleman nor himſelf more honour, than by inſerting
them verbatim as he wrote them. Mr Perry preſumes
the Public will not only excuſe any little inaccuracies
that may appear in the Diction, &c. but that the Juvenility
of their Author will diſarm them of Criticiſm.
The ANT and the FLY.
THE Ant and the Fly were once contending together
with great heat, each aſſerting that her condition
was the moſt excellent and happy. Vile crawling Inſect,
ſaid the Fly, haſt thou the aſſurance to compare thyſelf
with me, who am an Animal of ſo noble a Nature, and
who enjoy ſo many and ſo great privileges. I fly like the
Birds; I live in the palaces of Kings; I enter at pleaſure
into the Temples of the Gods; I am even at liberty
to place myſelf upon their Altars; I partake of the moſt
magnificent Banquets; I eat of the moſt exquiſite Diſhes;
I drink of the moſt delicious Liquors; in a word, not
only all the conveniencies, but all the pleaſures, all the
elegancies of Life fall to my Share, without my taking
the leaſt Trouble, or even Thought, to procure a livelihood.
Go, poor Wretch, what haſt thou to boaſt of like
The Ant replied to her thus: My great Madam, have
you ſo ſoon forgotten your mean Origin? You fly, 'tis
true, but there was a Time when you crept as well as I.
Vain Fool, it becomes you well indeed to boaſt! That
delicious Living which you prize ſo much, is only a lazy
dependence upon others, and which is ſo little to be relied
on, that the greateſt part oſ your Liſe you are ſtarving
You have the aſſurance, I grant you, to intrude yourſelf
every where: this you call a privilege; but it is a
privilege that you are not ſuffered quietly to enjoy. You
are always driven away; nay, your temerity is often puniſhed
with Death. On the contrary, I am a burden to
no Perſon. If I have a little Trouble at a certain Time,
at leaſt I afterwards enjoy in tranquility the Fruits of
my labour. Stay till Winter before you prefer yourſelf
to me; we ſhall then ſee which of the Two has the beſt
Reaſon to be content with their Condition. But what do
I ſſay? you will before then periſh with Hunger, Cold,
and Miſery. Adieu! Go and divert yourſelf, and for
the future leave me to manage my own Affairs.
The DOG, the SHEEP, and the WOLF.
A DOG once demanded of a Sheep a Loaf, which he
affirmed he had formerly lent her. She denying
the Debt, and the Dog being obliged to prove the juſtice
of his Claim, he ſuborned for a Witneſs a villainous
Wolf, who made Oath that the Loaf was really due. The
Sheep was condemned, upon this falſe Teſtimony, to pay
what ſhe did not owe. Some time after, ſeeing ſome
Dogs who were worrying the Wolf, ſhe comforted herſelf
for the Injury that had been done her, by reflecting,
that Villainy always meets with the Reward it merits.
The innocent are never ſecure from the oppreſſion of
falſe Witneſſes: but let the Wicked remember, that there
is a juſt, and all-ſeeing God above, who always puniſhes
Villainy and Crimes, however ſecretly committed; and
that, though his Vengeance may for a while be delayed,
yet ſooner or later it will ſurely overtake them.
The BAT and the WEAZEL.
A BAT being caught by a Weazel, moſt humbly
prayed him to ſpare her Life. No, no, ſays the
Weazel, I never give Quarter to Mice; it is a Race very
much an Enemy to ours. Well, be it ſo, replies the
other; but I am no Mouſe; that is a curſed Breed: No,
thanks to the Almighty Creator of the Univerſe, I am
a Bird, behold my Wings; long live the Animals that
The Weazel believed her, and gave her her liberty. It
happened ſome time after, that this unlucky Wretch was
made priſoner by another Weazel Seeing herſelf again
in danger of her Life, ſhe made uſe of the moft earneſt
intreaties to prevail upon her Enemy not to put her to
death. No, no Mercy for Birds, replied the Weazel.
Am I a Bird, ſaid the other? Indeed you uſe me very ill
to ſay ſo. Take a better look of me. What is it that
makes a Bird, I pray you? Is it not the feathers? I am
a Mouſe; ſucceſs to the Mice; confuſion to the Cats.
The Weazel let her go. So this ambiguous Animal by
her duplicity twice ſaved her Life.
It is lawful to prevaricate in certain Caſes to ſave our
Lives. So ſhips hang out falſe Colours to elude the vigilance
of the Enemy.
THE frogs enjoyed perfect freedom in their Moraſſes,
but they grew diſcontent with their condition, and
prayed to Jupiter to give them a King to rule over them.
The God threw them a Log; which made ſo much Noiſe
in falling into the Water, that the poor Frogs, who are
naturally timorous, were very much terriſied, and hid
themſelves among the Reeds, and in the Holes of their
Marſh, not daring for a long Time to look upon their
King. At laſt, one more hardy than the reſt, adventured
to put his Head out of the Water, to ſee what the King
was about. At firſt his gravity ſtruck him with awe
he however, advanced to take a nearer view of the Monarch.
Another followed him; then another; at length
they all appeared before their Sovereign, to pay their
Court to him. His Majeſty did not ſtir. What a droll
King it is, cried they! What is he good for? They ſoon
paſſed from reverence to contempt, from ſcorn to inſolence;
and loſing all reſpect, jumped upon the good King,
and abuſed him.
They then intreated Jupiter to give them another King,
but one who was briſk, and had Spirit: the other ſtirred.
no more than a Poſt, and was to all appearance quite dull.
Jupiter granted their requeſt, but at the ſame time inſlicted
upon them a Puniſhment due to their Folly, by ſending
them a Serpent, who began immediately to devour
them. Great God! what a Tyrant, cried they; the
Race of Frogs is going to be exterminated. What ſhall
we do? O Jupiter! we beſeech thee, take pity upon
thy Creatures; we moſt humbly pray thee to give us
another King. But the God replied to them; You
ſhould have kept your original form of Government.
What need had you for a King? at leaſt you ought to
have accommodated yourſelves to him whom I had given
you. He was calm and mild. You would have another;
be content with him, ſuch as he is, for fear that you
meet with worſe.
MERCURY and the WOODCUTTERS.
A WOODCUTTER, one Day following his occupation
upon the Side of a River, by accident let his
Axe fall into the Water. Not knowing what method
to take to recover it, and in deſpair at his loſs, he threw
himſelf upon the Bank, and deplored his misfortunes.
Mercury being informed of the ſubject of his Grief, had
compaſſion upon him. He firſt ſhewed him a golden
Axe, and aſked him if that was not his. The Woodcutter
anſwered honeſtly that it was not. Is that it then,
ſaid Mercury, ſhewing him a ſilver one. No, my Lord,
replied the Woodcutter with the ſame ſincerity as beſore,
that is not it neither. At laſt Mercury ſhewed him his
own: That is mine, cried he, in raptures at ſeeing it
again; that is the one which I loſt. The God to reward
the honeſty oſ this poor Man, gave him all the Three.
The Woodcutter went his way overjoyed at this lucky
Adventure; and immediately related it to others who
were working thereabouts. One of them, envying his
good fortune in order to try if the like ſhould not happen
to him, threw his Axe into the Water, and immediately
began to weep moſt bitterly Mercury coming as
before, pulled out of the Water a golden Axe. Good
Man, ſays he, is this the Axe which you have loſt? The
other, full of Joy, replied, that it was; and that he knew
it very well. Mercury enraged at the audacity of this Villain,
neither gave him the golden Axe nor his own,
which he had with that view thrown into the Water.
This is but a Fiction; for there can be no other God,
but the only true God, the Creator and Governour of the
Univerſe; but this Fable teaches us that his Providence
always aſſiſts the Good and Virtuous; and, that, on the
contrary, it generally diſconcerts the Deſigns of thoſe who
make uſe of criminal means to become rich. Nothing
is truer than this Maxim, Honeſty is the beſt Policy.
The PEACOCK complaining to JUNO.
THE Peacock complained to Juno that he had a
moſt diſagreeable Voice; whereas the Nightingale,
that little Bird, which is not much bigger than a Nut,
had ſo melodious a one, that her Singing charmed all
that heard her. Thou envious Bird, ſaid Juno in a Paſſion,
doſt thou not ſurpaſs all other Birds in the beauty
of thy feathers? Is there any other under Heaven that
gives ſo much delight to the Beholders as thou? Does
not thy finely variegated Neck preſent to the view all the
Beauties of the Rainbow? Thy ſumptuous tail ſeems to
be ſtudded with Diamonds; and thou art not content
with thy condition! The Gods have beſtowed upon
every animal ſome qualification peculiar to itſelf. Thee
they have made to excel all others in beauty and ſhape
to the Nightingale they have given a fine Voice;
ſtrength to the Eagle; ſwiftneſs to the Fawn; the Raven
has the Talent of foreſhowing lucky Events; the
Crow that oſ preſaging Misfortunes. Every one ought
to be content with his condition, and patiently to ſubmit
to the Will of the Gods.
Men would be happy, if they would only be content
with their Condition; inſtead of which they are continually
tormenting themſelves, by comparing the Inconveniencies
of their Situation, with the Happineſs which
they imagine others enjoy in theirs.
The Fox and the LEOPARD.
A VERY beautiful Leopard was one day in Company
with ſome Animals of different Species; he looked
upon them with an air of Contempt, and boaſted very
much of the Variety and fine Colours of the Spots upon
his Skin. A Fox, an Animal which does not want
Senſe, coming up to him, whiſpers in his Ear, Boaſt as
much of your Skin as you pleaſe; we all agree that it is
finer than ours; but are you on that account the wiſer
Little Minds avail themſelves of the Advantages of
Fortune; but let them learn, that nothing is equal to the
beauty of the Mind.
The ANIMALS called before JUPITER.
ESOP tells us, that Jupiter one Day ſummoned all
the Animals before him, with a Deſign to remedy
what every one of them ſhould find defective or diſagreeable
in his Figure When they were all aſſembled, he
began with the Ape, and aſked him if he was content
with his. Without doubt, Great God, anſwered he:
Who can find any Fault with my Shape? have I not the
fineſt Face in the World? It ſeems that Nature has been
more favourable to me than any other Animal: but my
Brother the Bear is very clumſy; he is nothing but a
ſhapeleſs Lump. The Bear came ſorward; it was thought
he was going to make a complaint; ſo far from that, he
was very well pleaſed with his Shape. It is the Elephant,
ſaid he, that is a droll Figure; his Tail is too ſhort, and
his Ears too long. The Elephant was of opinion that
the Whale was too big. The Ant thought the Hand--
worm too little. In ſhort, every one of them was
very well content with himſelf, but none of them with
We ſee plainly the Faults of our Neighbours, but are
entirely blind to our own. It may alſo be obſerved, that
there is no Perſon ſo ugly or deformed, but that he is
very well pleaſed with himſelf.
The Power of FABLE.
THE great Demoſthenes, one Day, when the Liberty
of his Country was in danger, mounted the Roſtrum,
and made a very pathetic ſpeech upon the danger
of the State, in order to incite his Countrymen to take
up arms againſt Philip King of Macedon. But ſeeing
that he was not attended to, but that on the contrary,
the People were looking elſewhere, and wholly taken up
with the Sports of the Children; he changed his Tone,
and went on thus: Ceres had undertaken a Journey in
company with a Swallow and an Eel, but meeting with
a River in their Way, the Eel ſwam acroſs, the Swallow
ſlew over it - The Orator ſtoping at theſe Words,
the whole Aſſembly cried out, And what did Ceres do?
What did ſhe do, anſwered Demoſthenes; Ceres, full of
Indignation at ſeeing her People attend to idle Stories,
and entirely regardleſs of the Danger that threatens
them, has reſolved henceſorth to withdraw from them
her Protection. Why did you not rather enquire by
what means you might prevent yourſelves from becoming
the Slaves of Philip? The Aſſembly, aſhamed at this
Reprooſ, during the remainder of the Harangue attended
to nothing but the Orator.
GRAMMAR is the art oſ ſpeaking and writing
any language with propriety.
An art is a rational method, a ſyſtem of rules,
digeſted into convenient order, for the teaching and
learning of ſomething; and the methodical collection of
obſervations made upon the particular cuſtom of a nation,
in the inſtitution, order, and uſe of words, by which
they are uſed to expreſs their thoughts, is what is meant
GRAMMAR is divided into four parts; Orthography,
Etymology, Proſody, and Syntax.
Orthography teaches the right combination of letters
into ſyllables, and ſyllables into Words; the true pronunciation
of which is called Orthoepy.
Etymology teaches the deduction of one word from
another, their endings, change, and likeneſs to one another.
Proſody compriſes Orthoepy, or the right pronouncing
of words, according to their long or ſhort ſyllables; and
Orthometry, or the art of making verſes.
Syntax is the due conſtruction or connection of the
words of a language into ſentences or phraſes.
Of Orthography, or True Spelling.
A LETTER is a mark or character, denoting a diſtinct
or inarticulate ſound, which cannot be divided into
other ſimple ſounds; and, the complete ſet oſ letters in a
language is called the Alphabet, which, in the Engliſh
tongue, contains twenty-ſix.
A vowel is a letter which makes a full and perfect
ſound by itſelf.
There are ſeven vowels, viz. a, e, i, o,u†, y|| and w||
for the different ſounds of which, ſee the key to this
Of Double Vowels.
A diphthong or double vowel, is the junction oſ two
vowels, pronounced by a ſingle impulſe of the voice.
Diphthongs are divided into proper and improper.
A proper Diphthong, is one ſound, partaking oſ two
different qualities, making a diſtinct articulation.
An improper Diphthong, is the meeting of two vowels
making but one ſyllable, one of which is only heard.
There are twenty-five diphthongs, viz. ai, ao, au, aw
ay; ea, ee, ei, eo, en, ey, ew; ie, oa, oe, oi, oo, ou, ow, oy
ua, ue, ui, uo, and uy.
A triphthong, is the aſſemblage of three vowels in the
ſame ſyllable, forming one diſtinct articulate ſound.
† u has the nature of a diphthong, when the ſound is protracted, as in
due, rue, &c. otherwiſe it is a vowel, as in truth.
|| y and w are conſonants when they begin a word.
of which there are nine, viz. eau, eye, ieu, iew, uai, uea,
The ſingle and double vowels are again diſtinguiſhed
by ſhort and long; ſor which reaſon, ſharp and quickly
accented ſyllables require the acute, and flat and ſlowly
accented the grave accent.
[For the different ſounds of the Diphthongs and Triphthongs, ſee
pages 22,. 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34.]
Of the Conſonants.
A Conſonant is a letter which cannot be ſounded, or
but imperfectly, without the coalition of a vowel; as m,
whoſe ſound is em, by prefixing the vowel e; and p
ſounds pe, by placing the ſame vowel after it.
The conſonants are divided into mute, aſpirate, ſibilant,
and liquids, or half-vowels.
The mutes are b, c, d, g, k, t, and q; the aſpirate, h;
the ſibilant, c, s, z; and the liquids, l, m, n, r.
Theſe are again ſubdivided, into labial, dental, palatine,
Of the different ſounds of the Conſonants.
B has one unvaried ſound, is uſed before all the vowels,
and before the conſonants l and r; it is the ſoft ſound of
p, being pronounced with leſs force. In the following
words it is mute; as debt, debtor, ſubtle, doubt, lamb, limb,
dumb, thumb, climb, comb, womb, &c.
C ſounds hard like k, before a, o, u, l, and r; but before
e, i, y, or an apoſtrophe, it is ſounded ſoft; as in cement,
city, cypher, plac'd, &c.
Ch have three different ſounds: 1ſt, like tſh, as in
church, crutch. 2dly, Like ſh in the French derivatives,
chaiſe, machine. And, 3dly, Like k in words derived
from the learned languages; as. chord, chymiſt, archangel.
D, which is the ſoft ſound of t, as b is to p, uſed
before all the vowels, and the conſonants r and w, has
but one uniform ſound; as draw, dwell.
F, which is the hard ſound of v, requiring only a
quicker and ſtronger aſpiration, has but one uniform
G is always ſounded hard before a, o, u, l, r, and at
the end of words, unleſs it be ſoftened by d or e. It has
a ſound leſs ſharp, but more guttural, than c, k, or q;
and is ſometimes hard and ſometimes ſoft, before e,
G beſore n, is alſo ſilent, but lengthens the ſyllable; as
ſign, condign, &c.*
Gh at the end of words ſometimes ſound like ff; as in
cough, laugh, tough, rough, trough; in moſt other words,
gh are ſilent, ſerving only to lengthen the ſyllable; as
although, through, high, nigh, thigh.
Ph are always ſounded like f, except in phthiſic, phthiſical,
where they are ſilent.
Th have two ſounds; hard, as in t,hin; and ſoft, as in
H is a note of aſpiration, and ſhews, that the vowel
following it, muſt be ſounded with a ſtrong emiſſion of
breath; as in hoſe, horſe; ſometimes it has no ſound at
the beginning, middle, and end of words; as, an honeſt
man, an hour, rhetoric, Meſſiah. It is undoubtedly a
conſonant, as it gives form to a ſucceeding vowel.
J is ſounded like a ſoſt g.
K has the ſound of c hard. This letter is never
doubled, but has c often beſore it, to ſhorten the preceding
L is doubled at the end of monoſyllables; as in kill,
fall; but in compound words, one of the l's is ſuppreſſed;
as in ſkilſul. It is mute in ſome words; as in
calf, half, could, would, ſhould, walk, talk, ſalmon.
M has one invariable ſound.
* Some orators pronounce g at the era of words; as, loving; and others
ſay it ſhould be ſilent, as ſpeaking.
N has always the ſame ſound; and after an m at the
end of a word it is mute; as damn, hymn, condemn, &c.
P always retains the ſame ſound; it is mute in tempt,
and its derivatives. See B.
Q is always followed by u. In French derivatives, it
ſounds like k; as in conquer, liquor, lacquer, riſque,
Re, at the end of words derived from the Greek or
French, are pronounced like er; as in theatre, metre, ſepulchre.
S has naturally a ſharp hiſſing ſound; as in ſiſter: when
it ends a word, it is ſounded like z; as ſees, bees, &c.
except in this, thus, us, yes, where ſ retains the hiſſing
S has the ſound of z before ion, if a vowel go before
it; as in confuſion: but that oſ ſ ſharp, if it follows a
conſonant; as in diverſion. Before e mute, it ſounds
like z; as in deviſe; and before y at the end of words;
as in daiſy. But note, That ſs almoſt always retain the
V is the ſoft ſound of f; as in vain.
W is either a vowel or a conſonant. See the preface of
my Royal Standard Engliſh Dictionary, page 10.
X has two ſounds, ſharp and flat: ſharp, like ks; as
in extreme; and flat like gz, as in ex,ile.
Z has nearly the ſound of ds.
A ſyllable conſiſts of one or more vowels, joined to one
or more conſonants, ſo as to make a complete ſound in
One breath; as, a, pen, pen-kniſe, deſk, &c. but, without
a vowel, no ſyllable can be formed; for pn, dſk, are not
ſyllables of themſelves; whereas, by the aſſiſtance of the
vowel e, they make two diſtinct words: as, pen, deſk.
From this we may obſerve, that reading is only a quick
ſpelling; and ſpelling is the art of reading by naming the
letters ſingly, and dividing words correctly into their
Syllables in ſpeaking, are ſounds, of which words are
compoſed and formed; and in writing, they are parts of
the ſame words, compoſed of characters, which repreſent
thoſe ſounds; as, an-ni-hi-late, which has four parts
four ſounds, and four ſyllables.
A general Rule for the Diviſion of Syllables.
1. A conſonant between two vowels, muſt be joined
to the former, to make the firſt ſyllable; as, bal-ance
2. A double conſonant muſt be divided; as in ſup-per,
3. When two vowels come together, both diſtinctly
ſounded, they muſt be ſeparated in ſpelling; as, co-e-qual,
4. Grammatical terminations, or endings, muſt be ſeparated
in ſpelling; as, lov-ed, mov-ing, per-for-mance,
5. Conſonants not proper to begin a word, muſt be
divided; as log-man, lob-ſter, lock-ram.
6. Conſonants which may begin a word, are to be divided,
whenever their ſeparation conveys the ſound
each ſyllable of the word the neareſt to true orthoepy
as, rep-ro-bate, ret-ro-grade, un-der-ſec-re-ta-ry.
7. *All compounds and derivatives muſt be divided
into their ſingle or primitive words; as mor-al, mor-al--
i-ty, guilt, guilt-i-neſs, guilt-y.
8. The endings, cial, tial, cious, tious, ſion, tion, cheon
ſounded ſhal, ſhus, ſhun, chin, are never to be ſeparated
as they ſorm but one ſyllable.
*This rule is liable to exception; for example, if morality, (from moral)
be divided mo-ral-i-ty, inſtead of mo-ral-i-ty, it agrees beſt with the
ſtandard- pronunciation; ſo that in this work, as well as in My Royal Standard
Engliſh Dictionary, I have ſometimes deviated from this general good
rule, for the above reaſon.
ETYMOLOGY explains the derivation of words, in
order to arrive at their firſt and primary ſignification;
and teaches the various modifications by which the ſenſe
of the ſame word is diverſified: as, I write, I wrote, man,
A primitive word, is that which.comes from no other,
either in the ſame, or any other language.
A derivative word, is that which comes from ſome
other word in the ſame language, or from another language.
A ſimple word is that which is not mixed or compounded.
A compound word, is that which is made up of two or
There are five ſorts of derivations among words purely
1. Adjectives from ſubſtantives as, night, nightly;
2. Subſtantives from adjectives: as, nice, niceneſs;
delicate, delicateneſs; muddy, mud, &c.
3. Adverbs from adjectives: as, mortal, mortally; ſinful,
4. Verbs from adjectives: as, ſtraight, ſtraighten;
ſoft, ſoften, &c.
5. Participles from verbs: as, place, placing, placed.
Words, divided into claſſes, are called parts of ſpeech
of which there are nine different kinds, viz, article, noun,
adjective, pronoun, verb, adverb, conjunction, prepoſition,
1. The article is a word prefixed to ſubſtantives when
they are common names of things, to point out the extent
of their ſignification.
2. A noun, or ſubſtantive, is the name of any perſon,
place, or thing.
3. An adjective is a word which expreſſes ſome quality,
or other accident belonging to the ſubſtantive.
4. A pronoun is put inſtead of a noun, to point out
ſome perſon or thing.
5. A verb expreſſes action, or being in ſome ſituation
6. An adverb is joined to a verb, adjective, or another
adverb, to qualify and reſtrain the latitude of their ſigniſication.
7 A conjunction joins words and ſentences together.
8. A prepoſition, which is put before nouns and pronouns,
expreſſes the relation or connection between different
9. An interjection is uſed to expreſs ſome ſudden emotion
of the mind.
Of the Article.
The article is prefixed to ſubſtantives, to extend or limit
There are two articles, a and the; a becomes an before
a vowel; and before a ſilent h preceding a vowel.
A, * the indefinite article, uſed before ſubſtantives of
the ſingular number only, leaves the ſenſe of the word
to which it is prefixed in a large, that is, undetermined
ſenſe: as, a houſe, i. e. any houſe, or one houſe.
The,† the definite article, uſed both in the ſingular
and plural number, points out and determines the ſenſe
of the word before which it is placed, to ſome particular;
* The indefinite article a, is joined to the adjective, few, many; the
latter with great before it; and alſo to the words, dozen, ſcore, groſs, &c.
as a few men, a great many men; I have ſeen many a tall man; a ſcore
of sheep, &c.
† The definite article the, is ſometimes applied to adverbs, and to adjectives
of the comparative and ſuperlative degrees, to render them the
more nervous and preciſe; as, the more difficult a thing is, the more honourable;
this is the leaſt of all.
as, The rule I gave you is invariable, i. e. that particular
A ſubſtantive without an article to limit it, is taken in
its wideſt ſenſe: as, man is mortal, i.e. all mankind.
Of the Noun or Subſtantive.
A noun, or ſubſtantive, is the name of any perſon,
place, or thing: as, Thomas, Edinburgh, a table, education.
There are two ſorts of ſubſtantives, ‡ common and proper
Common, or appellative names, are ſuch. as expreſs
whole kind; as, man, animal, bird, fiſh.
Proper names, are thoſe which expreſs a particular
perſon, place, or thing, &c. ſo as to diſtinguiſh them from
all others of that kind; as, William, Edinburgh.
Number is the diſtinction of one from many.
A noun has two numbers, the ſingular and the plural.
The ſingular number expreſſes one perſon or thing
as, a boy, a book, a houſe; or a number of them conſidered
as united together; as, an army.
The plural expreſſes more than one, and is generally
formed from the ſingular, by adding s, or, when the pronunciation
requires it, es; as, boys, books, houſes, armies.
Nouns ending in ch, ſh, ſs, x form the plural, by adding
es; as, church, churches; bluſh, bluſhes; kiſs, kiſses;
Thoſe in f, † or fe are changed into ves; as, calf, half,
knife, leaf, loaf ſheaf, ſhell, ſelf, thief, wife, wolf, make
‡ All nouns to which one cannot add the word thing, with propriety,
are ſubſtantives; and thoſe to which thing may be added are adjectives.
† Except hoof, reef, grief, dwarf, chief, handkerchief, relief, ſcarf,
wharf, reproof, ſtrife, ſcoff, ſtuff, and others ending in ff, which are. made
plural by the addition of s.
calves, halves, knives, leaves, loaves, ſheaves, ſhelves, ſelves,
thieves, wives wolves.
Nouns ending in y, make their plural in ies; as, glory,
glories; &c. except when y is preceded by a vowel; as,
joy, day, delay, make joys, days, delays, &c.
The following Words form their Plural irregularly.
Some nouns are uſed only in the ſingular number; as,
barley, wheat, learning, pride, gold, ſilver. Others are
the ſame in the ſingular and plural; as, deer, fern, wine,
Some in the plural only; as, annals, Alps, arms, aſhes,
bellows, bowels, breeches, trees, creſſes, dregs, goods, entrails, ides,
lungs, ſciſſors ſhears, ſnuffers, thanks, wages, news.
The names of cities, countries, rivers, mountains;
the names of virtues and vices; the names of herbs, (excepting
nettle, popy, lily, colewort, cabbage, &c.) bread,
wine, beer, ale, honey, oil, milk, butter, want the plural;
but when ſome of theſe ſtand for individuals, or
ſeveral ſorts, they then admit of a plural; as, wines,
Gender is a diviſion of nouns, or names, to diſtinguiſh
the two ſexes.
There are three genders, the maſculine, feminine, and
Words which relate to males, are of the maſculine gender;
as, man, boy, bull, prince.
Thoſe which ſignify females; are feminine; as, woman,
girl, cow, princ-eſs.
Thoſe which expreſs things without life, are neuter,
that is, of neither maſculine nor feminine gender; as,
pen, ink, paper, deſk.
Cafes imply the different inflexions or terminations of
nouns, ſerving to expreſs the different relations they bear
to each other, and to the things they repreſent.
Engliſh ſubſtantives have properly but two caſes; but
I ſhall ſuppoſe three, the nominative, poſſeſive, and objective.
The nominative, which is put before verbs, expreſſes
ſlimply the name of a perſon, place, or thing; as, man,
The poſſeſive denotes property, or belonging to; as,
The objective follows verbs, ſhewing, that the action
of the perſon, or nominative placed before the verb, paſſes
to or falls upon the noun or word after the verb as its
object; as, I love Thomas. *
Examples of Nouns declined according to Gender, Number,
Cafe, and Article.
Nom. man, a man, or the man men, men, the men
Poſſ.man's, † a man's, or the man's men's, † men's, the men's
Obj. man, a man, or the man men, men, men.
Nom. a queen, the queen queens, the queens
Poſſ. a queen's, † the queen's queens', † the queens'
Obj. a queen, the queen the queens, the queens
Nom. liberty liberties, or the liberties
Poſſ. liberty's of liberties , or of the liberties.
Obj. liberty liberties, or the liberties.
*The objective caſe may be allowed with ſome degree of propriety, if we
do but attend to the above ſentence; for, inſtead of the noun Thomas, let
us ſupply its place with the perſonal pronoun, and then the ſentence will be
I love him; where him is in the objective caſe. See the decleſion of the
†††† Or, by a circumlocution, with the prepoſition of; as, of a man, of
men, or, of the men, of a queen; of queens, or of the queens
1ſt, The ſex is diſtinguiſhed by different words.
Batchelor maid, virgin
whoremonger whore, or
2dly, Some nouns diſtinguiſh their feminine, by ending
Others are known, by adding another word, by way
of epithet or adjective, when there are not two different
words to expreſs both ſexes.
cock-ſparrow hen ſparrow
a country man a country woman,
a godſon a god daughter
male-child female child.
And, laſtly, in ix; as, adminiſtrator, adminiſtratrix;
executor, executrix; teſtator, teſtatrix, &c.
Of the Adjective.*
An adjective is a word which expreſſes ſome quality or
accident belonging to the ſubſtantive; as, a good pen, a
Adjectives are never varied on account of gender,
number, or caſe; the only variation they admit of, is
that of degrees of compariſon.
Of the Compariſon of Adjectives.
Compariſon., in a general ſenſe, is the conſideration of
the relation between two perſons or things, when oppoſed
or ſet againſt each other, by which we judge of their
agreement or difference, and find out wherein the one
has the advantage of The other: but by grammatical
compariſon, we mean the comparing of two or more
* In order to diſtinguiſh whether a word be an adjective or a ſubſtantive,
add thing to it: if it make good ſenſe, it is an adjective; if the contrary;
it is a ſubſtantive.
qualities, whereby we are able to affirm, that the one
more or leſs, or poſſeſſed of any quality in the higheſt degree;
ſo, of three ſoft things, we, by comparing them
together, find three degrees of ſoftneſs, the ſecond being
ſofter than the firſt, and the third the ſofteſt of the three.
Hence we have
Three Degrees of Compariſon; the Poſitive, the Comparative,
and the Superlative.
The poſitive expreſſes the quality of a thing ſimply
without comparing it with any other of that kind; as
this paper is white.
The comparative enlarges or decreaſes the quality of
the thing, a degree from the poſitive: as, that paper is
whiter than this.
The ſuperlative heightens the ſenſe of the poſitive
the higheſt, or diminiſhes it to the loweſt degree poſſible:
as, this paper is the whiteſt of all; that deſk is the
The comparative is formed from the poſitive, when
the word has but one ſyllable, by adding er, if it end with
a conſonant, and r only, if it end in e; as, long, longer
wiſe, wiſer. Sometimes, though rarely, it is diſtinguiſhed
by prefixing the adverb more, before the poſitive;
wiſe, more wiſe; long, more long.
The ſuperlative is formed of the poſitive, by ſt, adding
or eſt; as, wiſeſt, longeſt. It is alſo diſtinguiſhed by
prefixing moſt, very, or exceeding.
Words of two ſyllables, having the accent upon the
laſt, and a few others, admit of er and eſt, in forming
their compariſons; as, polite, politer, politeſt; noble, nobler,
Words of more than two ſyllables, and thoſe of two
which end in l, form their comparative and ſuperlative
degrees, by placing more and moſt before the poſitive;
excellent, more excellent, moſt excellent; frugal, more ſrugal,
moſt frugal, &c.
Some few words form their ſuperlative, by adding the
adverb moſt to the end of them; as, foremoſt, nethermoſt,
uttermoſt or utmoſt, undermoſt, uppermoſt.
The following form their degrees irregularly:
Poſſ: Comp. Sup.
good better beſt
ill worſe worſt
Poſſ. Comp. Sup.
little leſs leaſt
many more moſt
Note, Double comparatives and ſuperlatives are improper,
and muſt not be uſed; ſuch are, more braver, moſt worſt,
worſer, leſſer, &c.
Of the Pronoun.
A pronoun is a part of ſpeech, which is put inſtead of
a noun, to prevent the repetition thereof.
Pronouns have perſons, numbers, genders, and caſes.
There are ſix kinds oſ pronouns, viz.
Perſonal, Relative, Demonſtrative, Interrogative, Indeſinite,
There are five perſonal pronouns; I, thou, he, ſhe, it †.
When a perſon ſpeaks of himſelf, he uſes,the word I,
which is the firſt perſon.
If he ſpeak to another, he uſes the word thou*, which
is the ſecond perſon.
When an abſent perſon or thing is ſpoken of, we make
uſe of he, ſhe, or it, which are all of the third perſon.
But as the ſpeakers, the perſons ſpoken to, and the
others ſpoken of, may be many, ſo each of theſe pronouns
has the plural number, we, ye, they.
There are four pronouns relative, who, which, what,
† The perſonal pronouns, I, thou, he, ſhe, it, are by ſome grammarians
called ſubſtantive, by others, demonſtrative pronouns.
* You is uſed inſtead of thou, in common converſation.
The uſe of relative pronouns, is to connect ſentences
together; and they always relate to ſome preceding ſubſtantive,
called the antecedent. Bleſſed is the man who
Who is uſed in ſpeaking of perſons, and is either maſculine
or feminine; which, when we ſpeak of things, and
is therefore neuter.
What is likewiſe applied to things only, and includes
both the relative snd the antecedent: This is what I
wanted; that is the thing which I wanted.
That is applied, by many writers, equally to perſons
and things, and has no variation: The man that he beat.
The book that I loſt.
There are two demonſtrative pronouns; this that †.
This is made uſe of in ſpeaking of a thing which is
near us. This book is mine; its plural is theſe. Theſe
pens are mine.
That, refers to a thing at a diſſtance from us. That is
your book; its plural is thoſe. Thoſe pens are yours.
There are three interrogative pronouns; who, which,
Their name imports their uſe; which is to aſk a queſtion.
Indefinite pronouns expreſs nothing diſtinct or determined;
ſuch are the eight following, ſome, any, whoever,
one*, other*, who †, which †, what †.
Thy‡,. my‡, his, her, its, our, your, their, are pronominal
adjectives, expreſſing poſſeſſion, being always followed
by a noun ſubſtantive.
† See the firſt note on page 95.
** The poſſeſſive of one, is one's; of other, other's. The nominative
plural of which, is others, and poſſeſſive, others.
††† The reader may eaſily diſtinguiſh the above from relative pronouns,
as there will be no antecedent in the ſentence, to which theſe can refer;
nor are they indefinite pronouns, if a queſtion be aſked.
‡ My and thy, become mine and thine, when the noun following begins
with a vowel or an h mute; as, mine honour, thine honour, mine ears, &c.
Own and ſelf, in the plural ſelves, are joined to the above
pronominal adjectives, to mark their meaning more
ſtrongly; as, I did it, my own ſelf. §
The Engliſh language with ſingular beauty and propriety,
admits, in an elevated or poetical ſtyle,.any inanimate
thing to aſſume perſon or ſex; which perſonification
is therefore marked by the maſculine or feminine
pronouns, he or ſhe, his or her.
"Soon as the light of dawning ſcience ſpread
"Her orient ray, and wak'd the muſes' ſong,"&c.
"Low walks the ſun, and broadens by degrees,
"Juſt o'er the verge of day. The ſhifting clouds
"Aſſembled gay, a richly gorgeous train,
"In all their pomp attend his ſetting throne." Ibid.
Perſonal pronouns have three caſes, a nominative, poſſeſſive,
and objective. The nominative is placed before
the verb; as, I write. The poſſeſſive ſignifies poſſeſſion,
or belonging to; as, whoſe book is this? 'Tis mine. The
objective caſe follows verbs and propoſitions; as, I ſaw
him; I ran before him.
Declenſions of Pronouns.
Of the perſonal I, thou, he, ſhe, it.
Firſt Perſon Sec. Perſon Third Perſ.
Singular. Singular. Singular. Maſc. Fem. Neut.
Nom. I thou he ſhe it
Poſſ. mine thine his hers its
Obj. me thee him her it
Nom. we ye or you Plural. they they they
Poſſ. ours yours theirs theirs theirs
Obj. us you them them them
§ Ourſelf, not ourſelves, is peculiar to the regal ſtyle; as, "Why, 'tis
a loving and a fair reply: be as ourſelf in Denmark."
firſt, ſecond, and third perſons of the relative, who.
Nom. who who
Poſſ. whoſe whoſe
Obj. whom whom
All nouns and pronouns whatever, in grammatical
conſtruction, are of the third perſon, and conſequently
govern the verbs to which they are agents or nominative
caſes, in the third perſon ſingular or plural, according to
the number of the noun; except, 1ſt, Thoſe pronouns
which have the firſt and ſecond: and, 2dly, When an addreſs
is made to any one; for then the noun is of the
Of the Verb.
A verb expreſſes action or event; as,
I write. I am very cold.
I endure hardſhips. I was much fatigued.
There are four kinds of verbs; ſubſtantive, paſſive, active
A verb ſubſtantive, expreſſes the being or exiſtence of
a thing: as, I am, thou art.
A verb active, or tranſitive, expreſſes an action, which
neceſſarily implies an agent, and an object acted upon
as, I love Edward. In this ſentence, the pronoun I
the agent, love the verb, and Edward the object acted
upon. When the verb is active, the agent takes the
in the ſentence.
A verb paſſive, expreſſes a paſſion or ſuſſering, or the
receiving of an action; and implies an agent and an object,
like the verb active; but with this diſſerence; thus
the object oſ a verb paſſive takes the lead, and is followed
by the agent: as, Thomas is loved by me. Here the pronoun
me is the agent, and Thomas the object.
A verb neuter, is that which ſignifies an action that
has no particular object whereon to fall, but which of
itſelf takes up the whole idea of the action: as, I ſleep,
he ſnores, you run, they ſtand, I am come, you are ſallen.
Verbs have tenſes or times, numbers, perſons, modes,
There are three* principal diſtinctions of time, the
preſent paſt, and future, called indefinite or undetermined
time. But, to expreſs an action with ſome particular limitation
and diſtinction, ſix other times are uſed, by the
aſſiſtance of The auxiliaries, am, be, can, let, do, may, muſt,
ought, could, would, ſhould, might, did, ſhall, and will.
There are two numbers, the ſingular and the plural.
There are three perſons in each mode.
There are four modes; the indicative, imperative, conjunctive,
The indicative mode affirms, or elſe aſks a queſtion:
as, I teach; Do you know him?
The imperative bids or commands; as, Do that immediately:
The conjunctive or ſubjunctive is expreſſed under a
doubt, condition, &c. with a conjunction prefixed; as,
I could do it, if he were willing.
The infinitive expreſſes the action, without reſpect to
number or perſon: as, To ſpeak and to write well is commendable.
* Engliſh verbs of themſelves have only two times; the preſent and
paſt: the future is made by the auxiliary verb ſhall or will, and the verb
as, I ſhall write.
Of the Participle.
There are two participles, the preſent and paſt; the
former is called the active, the latter the paſſive participle.
Variations of the Subſtantive Verb, To be.
Preſent time 1 I am we are
2 thou art ye or you are
3 he is they are.
Or, 1 I be we be
2 thou beeſt ye be
3 he it they be
Paſt time. 1 I was we were
2 thou waſt ye were
3 he was they were.
Fut. time. 1 I ſhall or will be we ſhall or will be.
2 thou ſhalt or wilt be ye ſhall or will be
3 he ſhall or will be they ſhad or will be.
1 let me be 1 let us be
2 be thou, or do thou be 2 be ye, or do ye be
3 let him be 3 let them be.
† The preſent participle is formed of the verb, by adding ng or ing;
and the paſt by d or ed: as, love, loving, loved; preſent, preſenting
preſented. Participles having no relation to time, become adjectives.
Preſent time. 1 I be we be
2 thou be ye be
3 he be. they be.
Paſt time. 1 I were we were
2 thou wert ye were
3 he were. they were.
Preſent time. To be Paſt. To have been.
Preſent. being Perfect. been Paſt having been
Preſent time. 1 I have we have
2 thou haſt ye have
3 he bath or has they have
Paſt time. 1 I had we had
2 thou hadſt ye had
3 he had. they had
Fut time. 1 I ſhall or will have we ſhall or will have
2 thou ſhalt or wilt have ye ſhall or will have
3 he ſhall or will have they ſhall or will have.
1 let me have let us have [have
2 have, have thou or do thou have have, have ye, or do ye
3 let him have. let them have.
Preſent time. 1 I have we have
2 thou have ye have
3 he have they have.
Preſent time. to have. Paſt. to have had
Preſent. having. Perfect. had. Paſt. having had.
The following is an example of a regular active Verb,
completely declined, with auxiliaries through all its
Verb, To Place.
Preſ. indefinite. 1 I place we place
2 thou placeſt ye or you place
3 he placeth or places. they place.
Preſ. imperfect. 1 I am placing we are placing
2 thou art placing ye are placing
3 he is placing. they are placing.
Or, 1 I do place we do place
2 thou doſt place ye do place
3 he does place. they do place.
Preſent perfect. 1 I have placed we have placed.
2 thou haſt placed ye have placed
3 he has placed. they have placed.
Or, 1 I have been placing we have been placing
2 thou haſt been placing ye have been placing
3 he has been placing. they have been placing.
Paſt indefinite. 1 I placed we placed
2 thou placedſt ye placed
3 he placed. they placed.
Paſt imperfect 1 I was placing we were placing
2 thou waſt placing ye were placing
3 he was placing. they were placing.
Or, 1 I did place we did place
2 thou didſt place ye did place
3 he did place. they did place.
Paſt perfect. 1 I had placed we had placed
2 thou hadſt placed ye had placed
3 he had placed. they had placed.
Or, 1 I had been placing we had been placing
2 thou hadſt been placing ye had been placing
3 he had been placing. they hadbeen placing.
Fut. indefinite. 1 I ſhall or will place we ſhall or will place
2 thou ſhalt or wilt place ye ſhall or will place
3 he ſhall or will place. they ſhall or will place
Fut. imperf. 1 I ſhall or will be placing we ſhall or will be placing.
2 thou ſhalt or wilt be placing ye ſhall or will be placing
3 he ſhall or will be placing. they ſhall or will be placing.
Fut. perfect. 1 I ſhall have placed we ſhall have placed
2 thou ſhalt have placed ye ſhall have placed
3 he ſhall have placed they ſhall have placed
Preſ. indefinite. 1 I place we place
2 thou place ye place
3 he place. they place.
Or I may or can place, thou mayeſt or caneſt
place, he may, &c.
Preſ. imperfect 1 I may be placing we may be placing
2 thou mayeſt be placing ye may be placing
3 he may be placing. they may be placing.
Or, I can be placing, thou canſt be placing, &c.
Preſent perfect. 1. I may have placed we may have placed
2 thou mayeſt have placed ye may have placed
3. he may have placed. they may have placed
Or, I can have placed, thou canſt have placed, &c.
Paſt indefinite. 1 I might place we might place
2 thou mighteſt place ye might place
3 he might place. they might place.
Or, I could, would, or ſhould place; thou couldſt, &c.
Paſt imperf. 1 I might have been placing we might have been placing
2 thou mighteſt have been placing ye might have been placing
3 he might have been placing. they might have been placing
Or, I could, would, or ſhould, have been placing, &c.
Paſt perfect. 1 I might have placed we might have placed
2 thou mighteſt have placed ye might have placed
3 he might have placed. they might have placed.
Or, I could, would, or ſhould have placed; thou, &c.
1 let me place [place let us place [place
2 place, place thou, or do thou place, place ye, or do ye
3 let him place. let them place.
Preſent. to place. Paſt. to have placed.
Preſent. placing. Paſt. placed.
The Paſſive Voice of the preceding Verb.
time. 1 I am placed we are placed
2 thou art placed ye are placed
3 he is placed. they are placed.
Paſt indef. 1 I was placed we were placed
2 thou waſt placed ye were placed
3 he was placed. they were placed.
Preſ. perf. 1 have been placed we have been placed
2. thou haſt been placed ye have been placed
3 he has been placed they have been placed.
Paſt perf. 1 I had been placed we had been placed
2 thou hadſt been placed ye had been placed
3 he had been placed. they had been placed.
Fut, imp. 1 ſhall or will have placed we ſhall or will have placed
2 thou ſhalt or wilt have placed ye ſhall or will have placed
3 he ſhall or will have, placed. they ſhall or will have placed,
1 I may be placed we may be placed,
2 thou mayeſt be placed ye may be placed
3 he may he placed they may be placed.
Or, I can be placed, thou canſt be placed, &c.
Paſt indef. 1 I might be placed we might be placed
2 thou mighteſt be placed ye might be placed
3 he might be placed. they might be placed.
Or, I could, would, or ſhould be placed, &c.
Paſt per. 1 I might have been placed we might have been placed
2 thou mighteſt have been placed ye might have been placed
3 he might have been placed. they might have been placed.
Fut. per. 1 I ſhall have been placed, we man have been placed
2 thou ſhalt have been placed ye ſhall have been placed
3 he ſhall have. been placed, they ſhall have been placed
1 let me be placed let us be placed.
2 be thou placed be ye placed
3 let him be placed. let them be placed.
Preſent. to be placed. Paſt. to have been placed.
Preſent. being placed. Paſt. having been placed.
Note, Neuter verbs are varied in the ſame manner as active;
ſome of which, ſignifying motion, or change of
place or condition, are varied like paſſive verbs; as,
I am come.
Of irregular Verbs.
Irregular, or anomalous verbs, are ſuch as have ſomething
ſingular in the terminations or ſormations of their
tenſes. Thus verbs which do not form their paſt time
active, and perfect participle, by the addition of ed to the
verb, or d only, if the verb end in e, rare called irregular;
yet we often contract even our regular verbs; as, moved,
placed, which are pronounced mov'd, plac'd: and movedeſt,
placedeſt, &c. become moveaſt, placeſt.
Verbs ending in ch, ck, p, x, ll, ſs, change ed into t,
in the paſt time active, and perfect participle; and alſo
drop one oſ the double letters; as, ſnapt mixt, dwelt,
paſt, for ſnapped, mixed, dwelled, paſſed. Likewiſe, thoſe
which end in l, m, n, p, after a diphthong, ſhorten the
diphthong, or change it into a ſingle ſhort vowel; as,
deal, dealt dream, dreamt; mean, meant; feel, felt; ſleep,
ſlept, &c. Ve are changed into f; as, leave, 1eft, &c.
A complete Table of all the Irregular Verbs, alphabetically
Thoſe marked thus, *are defective.
Preſent. Paſt. Participle
bare, or bore
beat, or beaten
Preſent. Paſt. Participle.
beſeech beſought beſought
bid bade bidden
bind bound bound, or bounden
bite bit bitten,
bleed bled bled
blow blew blown
break brake, or broke broken
breed bred bred
bring brought brought
build built, builded built, builded
buy bought bought
burſt burſt burſt, or burſten
Can * could (defective)
catch caught caught
caſt caſt caſt
chide chid chidden
chute, or chooſe choſe choſen
cleave clave, or clove cloven
climb clomb climbed
cling clang, or clung clung
come came come
clothe clad, clothed clad, clothed
creep crope, creeped crept
coſt coſt coſt
crow crew crowed
Dare durſt dared
deal dealt dealt
dig dug, digged digged
do did done
draw drew drawn
dream dreamed, dreamt dreamt
drink drank drunk, or drunk
drive drove driven
dwell dwelt dwelt
Eat ate eaten
Fall fell fallen
feed fed fed
Preſent. Paſt. Participle.
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
flee, from an enemy fled fled
fling flung flung
fly, as a bird flew flown
fold folded folden, folded
forſake forſook forſaken
freight fraught, freighted fraught, freighted
freeze froze frozen
Geld gelded, gelt gelded, gelt
get gat, or got gotten
gild gilded, gilt gilded, gilt
gird girded, girt girded, girt
give gave given
go went gone
grind ground ground
grave graved graven, grated
grow grew grown
Hang hung, hanged hung, hanged
have had had
hear heard heard
heave heaved, hove heaved, hoven
help helped holpen, helped
hew hewed hewen, hewn
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held holden
hurt hurt hurt
Keep kept kept
knit knit knit
know knew known
Lay, to place laid layed, laid
lade laded laden
lead led led
lend lent lent
let let let
Preſent. Paſt. Participle.
lie, to lie down lay lien, or lain
lift lifted lift, lifted
light light, lighted, lit lighted, lit
loſe loſt loſt
load loaded loaden, loaded
Make made made
may* might (defective)
mean meant meant
meet met met
melt melted molten
mow mowed mown, mowed
muſt (defective) (defective)
Owe owed, ought owen, owed
Put put put
Quit quitted, quit quitted, quit
quoth * quoth (defective)
Read read read
rend, to tear rent rent
rent, to let or hire rented rent
rid, rid rid
ride rode, or rid ridden
riſe roſe riſen
ring rang, or rung rung
rive rived riven
run ran run
Say ſaid ſaid
ſaw ſawed ſawn, ſawed
ſee, ſaw ſeen
ſet ſet ſet
ſeek ſought ſought
ſeethe ſod ſodden
ſend ſent ſent
ſell ſold ſold
ſhake ſhook ſhaken
ſhave ſhaved ſhaven, ſhaved
ſhear ſhore ſhorn
Preſent. Paſt. Participle.
ſtraw, ſtrew, ſtrow ſtrawed, &c. ſtrown,ſtrawed,&c
ſtrike. ſtruck ſtricken, ſtrucken
ſtring ſtrung ſtrung
ſtrive ſtrove, ſtrived ſtriven, ſtrived
ſtride ſtrode ſtridden
ſwear ſwore ſworn
ſweep ſwept ſwept
ſwell ſwelled ſwollen
ſwim ſwam ſwum
Take took taken
tear tore torn
teach taught taught
tell told told
think thought thought
thrive throve thriven
throw .threw thrown
thruſt thruſt thruſt
tread trode trodden
Waſh waſhed waſhen, waſhed
wax waxed waxen
weet, wit, or wot wot (deſective)
wet wet wet
weep wept wept
win won won
wind wound wound
wear wear, wore worn
weave wove woven
wis wiſt (defective)
work worked wrought
wring wrung wrung
write wrote written
writhe writhed writhen
Of the Adverb.
An adverb* is a word joined to a verb, adjective, or
another adverb, and applied ſolely to the uſe of qualifying
and reſtraining the latitude of their ſignification.
The principal adverbs are thoſe of time, place, order,
quantity, quality, manner, affirmation, negation, doubting,
compariſon, demonſtration, and interrogation. They admit
of no variation in.Engliſh, except ſome few, which have
the degrees of compariſon: as, ſoon, ſooner, ſooneſt; oſten,
oftener, ofteneſt; well, better, beſt.
Of the Prepoſition.
Prepoſitions, ſo called, becauſe they are commonly put
before the words to which they are applied, expreſs the
relation or connection between them.
There are two ſorts of prepoſitions, ſeparable and inſeparable.
The ſeparable are above, about, after, againſt, among,
amongſt, at, before, behind, beneath, below, between, betwixt,
beyond beſide, by, concerning, for, from, in, into, out of,
on, over, till, to, through, until, unto, upon, under, with,
within, without .
The inſeparable or prepoſitions in compound, are, a,
ab, abs, ad, ana, ante, anti, amphi, be, circum, co, con,
contra, counter, de, diſ, e, ex, en, enter, extra, in, inter,
intro, miſ, meta, over, out, for, fore, op, per, poſt, pre, pro,
preter, peri re, retro, ſe, ſub, ſubter, ſuper, ſyn, tranſ, un,
up, and with.
The prepoſitions often change their laſt conſonant, into
the conſonant with which the word begins as, commaterial
for conmaterial; &c.
*Moſt of the adverbs may be diſtinguiſhed from adjectives, by this
rule: If you put a ſubſtantive after them, they will make nonſenſe whereas,
being joined to an adjective, or a verb, they will make good ſenſe. A
great number of them are formed from adjectives by adding ly: as like,
likely; wiſe, wiſely; ſincere, ſincerly; &c.
Prepoſitions†, in Engliſh, always govern the objective
Of the Conjunction.
A Conjunction* is an indeclinable word, which ſerves
to join words and ſentences together, and thereby ſhews
their relation and dependence one upon another.
Conjunctions are of ſeveral kinds.
1ſt, Adverſative; ſuch as are reſtrictive, or expreſſive
of contrarities: as, but, notwithſtanding, although.
Cauſal; ſuch as expreſs the reaſon of ſomething advanced:
as, for, becauſe inaſmuch as, ſeeing that.
Concluſive; ſuch as ſhew that a conſequence is drawn:
as, for which reaſon, but then, ſo that, &c.
Conditional; thoſe which denote a condition: as, on
condition that, if, if not, in caſe of, provided that.
Copulative; ſuch as ſhew, a compariſon, or expreſs a
relation of union between two things: as, and as much
as, in the ſame manner as, inaſmuch as, but alſo, neither
more nor leſs.
Disjunctive; ſuch as import a relation of ſeparation or
diviſion: as, neither, whether, or.
Dubitative; ſuch as expreſs ſome doubt or ſuſpenſion
of opinion; as, if, that is to ſay, &c.
Subjunctive; which ſubjoins a latter ſentence to ſome
word in a former: as, that
Some conjunctions are uſed diſtributively, or in pairs:
the firſt is placed before the former ſentence or word, the
other before the latter: as,
A .prepoſition may be known, by adding a noun or pronoun in the
objective caſe to it: if it make good ſenſe, it is undoubtedly a prepoſition.
Cojunctions have ſometimes a government of modes. Some require
the indicative, ſome the conjunctive or ſubjunctive after them: others have
no influence at all on the mode.
The conjunctions if, though, unleſs, except, leſt, that, whether, expreſſing
doubt, condition &c. govern the conjunctive mode: if nothing con-tingent
or doubtful, they are followed by the indicative.
Whether, or: Whether did you ride or walk?
Neither, nor: Neither your love nor hatred affects me.
Either, or: Either you or he ſhall do it.
Both, and: Both the old and the new regiments have
Though, yet, or nevertheleſs: Though you ſay it, yet
will not believe it.
As, as: As white as ſnow.
As, ſo: As the ſtars, ſo ſhall thy ſeed be.
So, that: His rules are ſo dark, that they cannot be
Of the Interjection.
An interjection is made uſe of in ſpeech, to denote ſome
ſudden paſſion, or emotion of the mind.
Joy, grieſ, wonder, praiſe, contempt, mirth, ſurpriſe,
incitement to attention, deſire of ſilence, languor, deliberation,
exultation, ſalutation, pain, &c: as, hey! brave!;
ah! alas!; O ſranger!; well done! 0 brave!; away! begone!
fy! tuſh! piſh! pſhaw! foh! avaunt pugh!;
ha, ha, he!; heyday! aha!; hark! lo! ſee! hallow!; huſh!
hiſt! peace! ſilence!; heigh ho!; hum!; heigh! huzza!;
hail! all hail!, oh! &c.
Noun ſubſtantives, and adjectives, are ſometimes uſed
for interjections: as, O ſhame! O ſad! i.e. oh, this is a
PROSODY compriſes Orthoepy, or the right pronouncing
of words, according to their long or ſhort ſyllables;
and 0rthometry, or the art of making verſe.
Of Due Pronunciation.
Due Pronunciation conſiſts in giving every letter its
proper ſound, and every ſyllable its proper accent.
Accent is the due pronunciation of a ſyllable in a word,
according to its quantity, whether it be long or ſhort, by
a greater ſtreſs of the voice, without lengthening or ſhortening
Quantity is the time in which it is pronounced; and
the proportion between a long and ſhort ſyllable, is as.
two to one: hence accent and quantity muſt be two diſtinct
N. B. For the laws of verſification, I refer the reader to
My Royal Standard Engliſh Dictionary.
SYNTAX is the due conſtruction or connection of the
words of a language, into ſentences or phraſes.
A ſentence is a period or ſet of words, comprehending
ſome perſect ſenſe or ſentiment of the mind; and may
be either ſimple or compound.
A ſimple ſentence conſiſts, at leaſt, of a noun and a
verb: as, I write.
A compound ſentence is when two or more ſentences,
are joined together: as, The providence of God is over all
his works; he ruleth and directeth with infinite wiſdom.
There are two kinds oſ Syntax; the one of concord,
in which the words are to agree in gender, number, perſon,
and caſe: the other of regimen or government,
wherein one word governs another, and occaſions ſome
The following general rules, with the notes under each,
comprehend whatever is neceſſary for the true writing or
ſpeaking of the Engliſh language.
A verb* muſt agree with its agent or nominative †, in
number and perſon: as, I inſtruct, they learn, he plays,
thou art diligent.
Adjectives ‡, in Engliſh, having no variation of gender,
number, &c. cannot but agree with their ſubſtantives,
in theſe reſpects; except! ſome of the adjective ||
pronouns, which muſt agree in number with their ſubſtantives:
as, this book, thoſe books.
The relative* muſt agree with its antecedent, in gen*A
verb may be put either in the ſingular or plural number, to a noun
of multitude: as, the public is, or are, diſpleaſed.
Every verb, except in the infinitive mode, has a nominative expreſſed or
underſtood: as, ſpeak now or never, that is, ſpeak ye, &c.
† To find the nominative to a verb, aſk the queſtion, Who is? who does?
who ſuffers? what is? what does? what ſuffers? and the word which anſwers
to the queſtion, is the nominative to the verb.
Every nominative caſe, except the caſe abſolute, and when an addreſs
is made to a perſon, belongs to ſome verb, either expreſſed or underſtood
as, To whom thus Eve, yet ſinleſs; that is, to whom thus Eve ſaid, &c.
‡ Every adjective relates to ſome ſubſtantive, either expreſſed or implied:
as, the great, the wiſe, the choſen; that is, perſons.
Adjectives ſometimes become ſubſtantives, and are joined to another adjective:
as, the chief good.
|| Each, every, either, agree with the nouns and verbs of the ſingular
* The relative is often omitted: as, the book which] I read.
Every relative has an antecedent to which it refers either expreſſed or
underſtood, and with which it agrees in perſon: as, who injures me ſhall
be puniſhed; that is, the man who, &c.
der, number, perſon *, and caſe: as, happy is the man
who hath ſown in his breaſt the ſeeds of benevolence.
A verb active or tranſitive, governs the noun or pronoun
which follows it, in the objective caſe: as, John
loves me, and I eſteem him. Thomas beat William; that
The ſubſtantive verb to be, governs a nominative after
it: as, I am he; except, when it is in the infinitive mode
as, I took it to be him.
The preſent † participle governs the ſame caſe after it
as the verb from which it is derived: as, love your enemies;
for in loving them, you fulfil the law.
When two ſubſtantives ‡ come together, which belong
to one another, the thing to which the other belongs, is
* Perſonal pronouns, as they relate to ſubſtantives, and by ſome grammarians
called, not improperly, relatives, are included uuder, this rule:
† Verbs ending with a ſingle conſonant, preceded by a ſingle vowel, and
thoſe of two or more ſyllables, having the accent upon the laſt ſyllable
double the ſinal conſonant of the verb in the preſent participle and in every
other part oſ the verb, in which a ſyllable is added: as, ſhut, ſhutting,
ſhutteth; beſet, beſetting, beſetteth.
‡ A ſubſtantive put before another ſubſtantive, becomes an adjective: as,
lime-water, ſea-fiſh. Two ſubſtantives joined together, ſignifying the
ſame thing, are put in the ſame caſe, in appoſition to each other: as,
Every poſſeſſive caſe ſuppoſes ſome nominative to which it belongs: as,
Paul's, that is, St Paul's church.
placed firſt, in the poſſeſſive caſe: as, the king's troops:
or elſe laſt, by a circumlocution, with the prepoſition of
before it as, the troops of the king.
The preſent * participle, having the definite article the
before it, becomes a ſubſtantive, and governs the prepoſition
of after it: as, the loving of your enemies is the
command of God.
When one verb immediately follows or depends upon
another, the latter is put in the infinitive mode, with the
prepoſition to before it: as, Good boys love to learn: except
the following verbs, which have others after them,
without the ſign to: bid, dare, feel, hear, let, make, need,
ſee; and ſometimes have, not uſed as an auxiliary: as,
I bade him come; he dares not do it; I feel it run; we
heard him come; you let him; they will have him
come; I made him hear me; they need not go; I ſaw
Prepoſitions † always govern the objective caſe after
them: as, he did it for William, i. e. for him; take it
from her, and give it to him.
* Participles having no relation to time become really adjectives, and
admit of the degrees of compariſon: as, a learned man, a more loving
father, the moſt loving boy.
† The prepoſitions to and for, are often underſtood, chiefly before the
pronoun: as, give me; that is, to me: procure me a pen; that is, for me.
Alſo in or on before nouns expreſſing time: as, this morning; that is,
on this morning: laſt week; that is, in the laſt week.
The prepoſition is often inelegantly ſeparated from the relative: as,
whom will you give it to? that is, to whom will you give it?
Two * or more nouns of the ſingular number joined together
by a conjunction copulative, require verbs, nouns
and pronouns of the plural number: as, greatneſs and
goodneſs are ſeldon companions.
The relative † is the nominative to the verb, when no
other nominative comes between it and the verb: as, the
man who writes.
When there is a nominative caſe between the relative
and the verb, the relative muſt be put in that caſe whith
the verb, or the noun following, or the prepoſition going
before it, uſed to govern: as, the man whom I eſteem;
he whoſe bounty relieved me; the man to whom you ſpoke.
When the relative ‡ comes after two words of different
‡ perſons, it may agree in perſon with either.
*Note 1. In ſentences like the following, the verb is put in the ſingular
number, and agrees with each of the foregoing ſubſtantives: as "Pain
"and want, and even death itſelf, is eaſier to bear, than private ſtabs
"given to one's reputation." 2dly, When the ſingular numbers joined
together are of ſeveral perſons, in making the plural pronoun agree with
them in perſon, the ſecond perſon takes place of the third, and the firſt of
both: "He and you and I are to blame you and he concerted the plot."
† Every relative has an antecedent to which it refers, either expreſſed or
underſtood: as, who loves me, loves my dog; that is, the man who, &c.
But, note, It is often omitted: as, the reaſon I rely upon: that is, which
‡ ‡ Note, When the perſon of the relative is fixed, it ſhould be continued
through the whole ſentence: as, I eſteern you who love and give me good
counſel; not, who love and giveſt me good counſel.
I am the man who command you; or, I am the man who
Conjunctions * copulate like caſes, and the ſame mode
and time oſ verbs: as, I ſaw him and her together, and
they were talking of me.
The infinitive † mode frequently does the office of a
ſubſtantive: as, 1ſt, In the nominative, to walk is healthful;
2dy, In the objective: as, boys love to play.
If a queſtion be aſked, the nominative is placed after
the principal verb, or after the auxiliary: as, was it he?
did he write it?
In an imperative affirmative ſentence, when a thing is
commanded to be, to do, or to ſuffer, the nominative caſe
follows the auxiliary: as, go thou traitor; do thou go:
or the auxiliary let, with the objective caſe after it, it is
uſed: as, let him ſubmit; let them be puniſhed.
* The conjunction that, is often omitted and underſtood: ſee [than]
thou tell no man. When it expreſſes the end or motive, it governs the
verb in the conjunctive mode. In comparing the qualities of things, the
latter noun following than, or as, is not governed by either of the cunjunction,
but agrees with, or is governed by, the verb, or the prepoſition expreſſed
or underſtood: as he is wiſer than you [are]; I am as tall as
† It likewiſe frequently ſtands abſolute, or independant of the reſt of
the ſentence: as, to confeſs the truth, I was in ſault; that is, that
But in a negative*, imperative, interrogative, or explicative
ſentence, the adverbs †, not, there. muſt be placed
in the following manner: go not; do not go; let
us not go; there was not a man; was there not a man?
do you believe it? do not you believe it? or don't you believe
EXERCISES of BAD ENGLISH, under all the RULES Of
SYNTAX, to be made good.
Examples under RULE I.
A verb muſt agree with its agent or nominative, in
number and perſon.
I loves ſtudy.—James do not.—Thou is playing.—We
is writing our theme.—I has ſaid my leſſon.— He art repeating
his.— We has done.—A wicked ſon are a
reproach to his father. —fortune favour the brave.—
Pains endures long.—Pleaſure are ſhort.
Examples under RULE II.
Adjectives in Engliſh, having no variation of gender,
number, &c. cannot but agree with their ſubſtantives in
theſe reſpects: except ſome of the pronominal adjectives;
which, having the plural number, muſt agree in number
with their ſubſtantives.
Thoſe is a pleaſant garden.—This are my pens.—
Which of this books is your's?— Thoſe.—Every trees is
known by its ſruit.—Each men ſhall repent it.—Either
* Two negatives deſtroy each other, or are equal to an aſſirmative: as
will not have none, is as much as to ſay, I will have ſome.
† The adverbs when, while, after, &c. being left out, the phraſe
formed with the participle, independently on the reſt of the ſentence, and
is called the caſe abſolute: as, he coming in, I went away; that is, where
he came in, I went away.
friendſhip or ſelf-love have made him do it.—White and
black is oppoſite colour.
Examples under RULE III.
The relative muſt agree with its antecedent in gender,
number, perſon, and caſe.
Which art thou, O man! that preſumeſt on thine
The thoughtleſs man bridleth not her tongue.
The man of which he complains, is an honeſt man.
He will not hear of the miſcry to whom I am reduced.
I know which relation ſhe is —The reaſon whom I rely
upon.— That is a beautiful woman he has fine black
eyes —He is the wife of Mr Goodman, with which I is
well acquainted.—The miſery to whom you have reduced
me, are inſupportable.—Cyrus aſked him, Which
that God was, of which he begged aſſiſtance?—He has
procured the place to whom ſhe aimed at.
Examples under RULE IV.
A verb active or tranſitive, governs the noun or pronoun
following it, in the objective caſe.
Truſt no man before thou haſt tried he.—Many people
have ſeen they:— I like ſhe very well. —Let they ſubmit
to the laws.—What will you have I do?— I cannot
pleaſe ſhe and thou both,— I eſteems that man better
Examples under RULE V.
The ſubſtantive verb to be, governs a nominative after
it: except when it is in the infinitive mode.
Who is there?—It is me.—I am him which did it —
'Tis them which have ſeen it.—Xenophon was a learned
philoſopher.—Who is thee?—Ye are them. It was him
that did it.
Examples under RULE VI.
The prefect participle governs the ſame caſe after it, as
the verb from which it is derived.
I excuſe you from ſeeing they.—He was accuſed of not
uſing he well; and I commends him for juſtifying his-ſelf.
He is incapable of treating ſhe ill.—He art quite diſcouraged,
ſeeing they againſt him.—He am ſure of ſucceeding
in him undertaking.— In obeying they, you
Examples under RULE VII.
When two ſubſtantives COme together, which belong to one
another, the thing to which the other belongs, is placed
firſt, in the peſſeſſive caſe, or elſe laſt, with the prepoſition
of before it.
Diana anger was Acteon death; and Helen beauty
was the deſtruction ofſ Troy's.—Socrates wiſdom, Ulyſſes
cunning, and Achilles valour, are famous in poets
works, and hiſtorians writings.
Give that to Cæſar which is Cæſar, and to God that
which is God.
Shew me the way to St Paul.—This is the way to St
The river's Thames is not comparable to the Seine.
Tomyris's Queen of the Scythians, ordered Cyrus head
to be cut off.
Examples under RULE VIII.
The preſent participle, having the definite article the
before it, becomes a ſubſtantive, and governs the prepoſition
of after it.
Learning of languages are very difficult.—The learning
languages is diſſicult. The Romans enlarged their
country by defeating of their neighhours. By exerciſing
of our faculties, they is improved.—Wearing of lace
are not very ancient.
Examples under RULE IX.
When one verb immediately follows or depends upon another,
the latter is put in the infinitive mode, with the prepoſition
to before it: except before the following verbs;
bid, dare, feel, hear, let, make, need, ſee, and ſometimes
He deſerves be encouraged.—Try comfort ſhe.—He
cannot to tell.
She let him to go away —I ſaw he to come.—She
would have he to come.—He were obliged do it.—I dares
not to ſtay.
He is quite diſcouraged ſee ſhe againſt him.—He hadſt
rather to ſtarve than to work.—I have not any deſign
wrong him.—I am uſed walk every days.
Examples under RuLE X.
Prepoſitions always govern the objective caſe after them.
We walked from Canterbury to Rocheſter. They go
from ſtreet to ſtreet. I ſhall arrive before he. Walk
before I, or ſtay behind he.—He drank to they, and not
to I.—I ſhall wait upon ye to the park's.
Examples under RULE XI.
Two or more nouns, of the ſingular number, joined together
by a conjunction copulative, require verbs and pronouns
oſ the plural number.
Virtue and vice has different conſequence.
Neither your love nor your hatred concern I.
The king, the parliament, and the whole nation wiſhes;
The princes of Germany, the emperor, and the Queen
of Hungary, is for peace; but the maritime powers and.
the king of France is againſt it.
He and you is to blame.—Drinking, eating, and ſleeping,
is neceſſities eſſential to man.
Wiſdom and courage is finer ornament.
John and James was both here this morning.—He art;
very honeſt man.
I and William has give him that.
Examples under RULE
The relative is the nominative caſe to the verb, when no
other nominative comes between it and the verb.
The dog who have followed you is mine.—The watch
whom you gaveſt me is loſt.— The man who ſoldeſt it to
ye is a rogue.
I ſees nothing to whom he can apply his-ſelf.
I ſee a man whom is going to fall.
They play whom they acted did not take.
I eſteems that man which is my friend.
Examples under RULE XIII.
When there is a nominative caſe between the relative and
the verb, the relative muſt be put in that caſe which the
verb, or the noun following, or the prepoſſition going before
it, uſed to govern: as the man whom I eſteem; he whoſe
bounty relieved me; the man to whom you ſpake.
The ladies which you want to ſee is in the country.
You ſee the perſon who you has harboured and ſed,
and to who you has lent ſo much money.
Old age are a tyrant whom forbid upon pain of death
all the pleaſure of youth.
He whom you hate am your friend.
An affront is but an imaginary evil to he whom ſuffers
it, and can only truly offend he which offers it.
Give to they you loves.— 'Tis he ſays ſo.
It is not what I thoughteſt.
Examples under RULE XIV.
When the relative comes after two words of different
perſons, it may agree in perſon with either: as, I am the
man who command you; or, I am the man who commands
I am the perſon who declare and affirms the truth.
Thou art the man who toldeſt me that news, and who
ſaid thou waſt preſent.—I am he who dare tell thou thy
faults, and who fears not your reſentment. —I believe you
not.—Go thy way.—Thou art an impoſtor, and you deſerve
Examples. under RULE xV.
Conjunctions copulate like caſes, and the ſame mode and
time of verbs: as, I ſaw him and her together, and they
were talking of me.
People forgives as long as them love.—You and he is
to blame.—I and him am alſo culpable.—He came and
told me that you and him was gone into the country.
I wonderedſt he had done that.
Do thou think thou can find a woman without fault?
— It are very certain we can make our own happineſs, and
that it was within ourſelf.
I came yeſterday, and tell him I will not to do it.
He is ſo experienced a ſoldier as a cunning ſtateſman.
Auguſtus were not perhaps a greater man as Anthony;
but he was more fortunate than him.
She has as much fortune and beauty as her couſin.
She is not as cunning as him.
The Loire is longer as the Seine; but it is leſs rapid
ſo the Rhone.—The Thames is not as rapid than the
It is ſo eaſy to do good than to do evil.
Your ſather is richer as my.
He is leſs to be pitied as if he had loſt his health, or
the uſe of his limbs, ſo his brother has.
I am older as you than ten years.
He is ſo tall than me; but not as tall ſo his brother.—
He is taller as I.—The richer you is, the more covetous
you art.—He is not as tall as you than three inches.
Examples under RULE XVI.
The infinitive mode frequently does the office of a ſubſtantive:
as, 1ſt, in the nominative, to walk is healthful
2dly, In the objective; as, boys love to play.
To be good are to be happy.—To ſeek revenge is painful
—To praiſe princes for virtue whom they has not,
are abuſing them with impunity.—To remember paſt
pains are pleaſant.
Examples under RULE XVII.
If a queſlion be aſked, the nominative is placed after the
principal verb, or after the auxiliary, when uſed with one.
What crime has done the man? The wiſe man has he
always virtue for his mobile?—What one can do in ſuch
Is come the woman of which you told me?— What
one can do in this caſe?
Examples under RULE XVIII.
in an imperative ſentence, &c.
Let ſtay me here, I pray you— Let go us immediately,—
Come do thou hither.—Do let go him.—Let not us go
not thither.—Let not me ſee it.—Let not they ſee it.—
Believe it do they not.—Was a man there who ſaid ſo?—
A man there was who told it me.
Commune with thyſelf, O Man! and conſider wherefore
you wert made.
Juſtice and mercy waits before God throne; benevolence
and love enlighteneth his countenance.
Who art like the Lord in glory! Who in power ſhall
contends with the Almighty?
All thing proceedeſt from God; order, grace, and
beauty ſprings from his hand.
The voices of wiſdom ſpeak in all his works; but the
human underſtanding comprehended it not.
The thoughtleſs men bridle not his tongue: She ſpeak
at random, and art entangled in the fooliſhneſs of his own
The firſt ſteps towards being wiſe, art, know that thou
is ignorant; and if you wouldeſt not to be eſteemed fooliſh
in other judgment, caſt you off a folly of being wiſe
in your own conceit.
It are notorious to philoſophers, that joy and grief can
to haſten and to delay time.—Mr Locke are of opinion,
that a man in greater miſery mayeſt ſo far loſe her meaſure,
that to think the minute a hour; or in joy makes
the hour an minute.
God have endue thou with wiſdom to maintains your
dominion; he haſt fit thou with language, to improveth
by ſociety; and exalt your mind with the powers of meditation;
contemplate and adores him inimitablē perfections.
And in the laws he haſt ordain than the rule of thy
life, as kindly has him ſuit your duty to thy nature, as
obedienee to him precepts are happineſs to yourſelf.
The higher and the low, the rich and the poorer, the
wiſe and the ignoranter, then the ſoul ſhall have ſhook off
the cumbrous ſhackles of that mortal lifes, ſhall received
from the ſentence of God the juſt and everlaſting retribution
according to his works.
Vaunt not of thy body, becauſe it were firſt form; nor
of your brain, becauſe wherein your ſoul reſideth —Not
is the maſter honourabler as its walls?
The ground muſt be prepare before corn is plantedſt
A potter muſt build his furnace before ſhe can makes his
Thee man alone can to ſpeak.—Wonder at your glorious
prerogative; but pay to he which give thou it a
rational and welcome praiſe, teaching your children's
wiſdom, inſtructing the offspring of thy loins with
Simonides ſaidſt, the more longer he conſider the nature
of God, the more obſcurer a thing ſeem to he.
A fool mocks the moſt wiſeſt philoſopher.
We has no morer as an hundred pound Sterling, and
him have little leſſer but two hundred guinea.
There is no fool as troubleſome than him which haſt wit.
Them be of leſſer ſize as your —Trier is the moſteſt
cities in all the Germany.—The right hands art more
ſtronger as a left; but a middle fingers is the moſt
longeſt.—I will neither tell he or you that I thinks.
It is indifferent whether a man can dance or no; but
there is an abſolute neceſſity that his mind is formed.
They has been threaten with the prince reſentment.
I teaches he French, and him learned very well.
Death pity none; neither rich or poor.
If he outlives his brother, he is to have the place.
Never promiſe to do the thing, when it not is to your
power to do them.
He preſume think his-ſelf more wiſer as his betters.
I has cauſe not to be angry with he; but he is not wont
to be idle
Men do not diſtinguiſhed enough between a demonſtration,
the proof, and the probability.—A demonſtrations
ſuppoſe the contradictory idea impoſſible.— A proof
of the fact are when all a reaſons inclines we believe,
without any pretence of doubting.—A probability art
when a reaſons for believing are more ſtronger as them
To demonſtrate, are not only prove that a thing are,
but beſides a impoſſibility of it not being.
Sovereignty and ranks is more neceſſary evil to keeps
paſſions within bounds.
Commonalty oughteſt to is contented to deſerve a inward
eſteem of men by his ſimple and modeſt virtue
and the great ought be convince, that outward reſpect
only will be pay they, unleſs they has true merit. By
that mean, a former will be not exaſperated to their low
eſtate; neither will the others prides theyſelves in his
greatneſs.—Men will he ſenſible, that kings is neceſſary
and kings ſhall not forgotten, that them is man.
No ſtate cannot to ſubſiſt without ſubordination.
The ſupreme authority, of what nature forever it is, are
the neceſſary evils, to prevent a more greater evils.
There nothing is as common than to find a man, who
in the general obſervation of her carriage, you takes to be
of a uniform tempers, ſubject to ſuch a unnaccountable
ſtarts of humour and paſſion, as he is ſo much unlike
himſelf, and diſſers ſo much from a man you firſt thoughteſt
him to be, as any two diſtinct perſon can to differ
from each others.
One would thinks, as the larger a company is in whom
we are engage, the more greater variety of thought and
ſubjects would be ſtarted in diſcourſe.
The vain delight to ſpeak of his-ſelf; but he not ſaw
that other likes not hear him.
If he has did any things who is praiſe worthy; if he
poſſeſſeth that are worthy of admiration, his joy are to
proclaim it, his pride art to hear it report. The deſire
of ſuch a men defeat itſelf. Men not ſays, behold, he
have done it; or ſee, he poſſeſs it; but, mark, how
proud he are of it.
If there is the vice more great as the hoarding up
riches, it is employing of them to uſeleſs purpoſes.
It were more difficulter to be well with riches, as to be
at eaſe under a want of they. Man govern his-ſelf much
more eaſier in poverty as in abundance.
He which give away their treaſure wiſely, gave away
his plagues: he that retain their increaſe, heap up ſorrow.
The feeling an injury muſt to be previous to revenging
of it but the noble mind diſdain ſay, it hurts I.
If the injury is more below thy notice, he which do
to thou, in that make his-ſelf ſo: would enter thou the
the liſts of your inferiors?
Diſdain a man that attempteth wrong thou: contemn
he which wouldeſt give thee diſpleaſure.
Revenge are more deteſtable: What cruelty then is?
Lo, it poſſeſs a miſchiefs of the other; but he want even
a pretence of its provocations.
Man diſown it, as not of their nature; them is aſhamed
of it as a ſtranger to his hearts; do not it they call inhumanity?
The hero lift their ſword againſt the enemy which reſiſt;
but no ſooner do he ſubmit, as he are ſatisfied.
The more nobleſt employment of a mind of man, are a
ſtudy of works of his Creator.
To he who the ſcience of nature delight, all object
bringeth a proofs of his God:—Every things who proveth
it, give cauſe of adoration.—We muſt manage fortune,
ſo health:—Enjoy him when ſhe is good: to take
patience when he is bad; and never uſed greater remedies
without extreme need.
Punctuation is the art of pointing, or of dividing a diſcourſe
into periods by points, expreſſing the pauſes to be
made in the reading thereoſ, and regulating the cadence
or elevation of the voice.
The ſix following, are the principal ſtops* or pauſes *
in a ſentence: viz. the comma (,) the ſemicolon (;) the
** The modulation of the voice, in reading, is affected by theſe points,
demanding a cadence or elevation, in correſpondence with the ſenſe.
To give certain, invariable rules for this purpoſe, is what I do not pretend
to; but the following, inſerted occaſionally under the pauſes as they
occur, I have found to be pretty general, in the courſe of my teaching.
colon (:) the period or full point (.) the note of admiration (!)
and the note of interrogation (?).
1. The comma † (,) is a pauſe in reading, 'till you may
tell one, and is moſtly uſed to diſtinguiſh nouns, verbs,
adjectives, and adverbs: as, It is very difficult to make fine
pictures, handſome ſtatues, good muſic, good verſes.
2. It likewiſe prevents ambiguity in the ſenſe: as, Epiſtolary
writing, by which a great part of the commerce of
human life-is carried on, was eſteemed by the Romans a liberal
and polite accompliſhment.
3. When an addreſs is made to a perſon, anſwering to
the vocative caſe in Latin, a comma is placed before and
after the noun: as, Commune with thyſelf, O man! and
conſider wherefore thou waſt made.
The ſemicolon ‡ (;) a pauſe double in duration of the
comma, is uſed to diſtinguiſh the different members or
parts of a ſentence: as, A vain hope flattereth the heart
of a fool; but he who is wiſe, purſueth it not. Be grateful
to thy father, for he gave thee life; and to thy mother, for
ſhe ſuſtained thee.
The colon §, (:) a pauſe triple in duration of the comma,
ſhews the preceding ſentence to be perfect and entire;
only that ſome remark, farther illuſtration, or other matter
connected therewith, is ſubjoined: as, He who giveth
away his treaſure wiſely, giveth away his plagues: he who
retaineth its increaſe, heapeth up ſorrow.
When an example, or a ſpeech, is introduced, and particularly
before things compared, or contraſted, the colon.
† In reading proſe, or verſe, the voice muſt be almoſt always elevated at
‡ In comparative and ſubjunctive ſentences, (the latter being introduced
by the adverb when), whether the members be ſeparated by a ſemicolon,
or colon, the voice muſt be elevated as at a comma.
§ In other caſes, the ſemicolon very often demands a depreſſion or cadence
of the voice.
§ The colon, except in comparative ſentences, always require a full cadence
of the voice, equal to that of the period.
is uſed as, Poorneſs of ſpirit will actuate revenge; greatneſs
of ſoul deſpiſeth it: Nay, it doeth good unto him who intended
to have diſturbed it. As the tulip, which is gaudy
without ſmell, conſpicuous without uſe: ſo is the man who
ſetteth himſelf up on high, having no merit.
The period or full point, (.) a pauſe quadruple in duration
of the comma, and the longeſt pauſe, denotes a full
and perfect ſentence; which is always diſtinguiſhed by
this point: as, A noble ſpirit diſdaineth the malice of fortune:
his greatneſs of ſoul is not to he caſt down.
The note of admiration*, (!) is uſed to expreſs wonder,
or exclamation: as, Who art thou, O man! who preſumeſt
on thine own wiſdom?
The note of intrrrogation † (?) is uſed to ſhew when a
queſtion is aſked: as, What day of the month is this
It likewiſe diſtinguiſhes a real queſtion from a ſentence
in the imperative mode: as, Do you hear me?
Beſides the above points, there are other marks made
uſe of in books and writing, as references, or to point out
ſomething remarkable or defective: as,
1. Accent (') placed over a vowel, or the laſt conſonant
of a ſyllable, ſhews the ſtreſs of the voice in pronouncing
a word to be on that ſyllable, over, or immediately before
which it is placed
2. Apoſtrophe (') is a comma put at the top of a word,
to denote the omiſſion of a letter, for the ſake of a quicker
pronunciation: as plac'd for placed, ne'er for never.
3. Aſteriſm, or Aſteriſk (*) a ſtar, and parallel (||) direct
to ſome note at the foot of the page.
4. Obeliſk or dagger (†) refers likewiſe to ſome note in
* The note of admiration requires ſometimes an elevation, and ſometimes
a depreſſion of the voice.
† Interrogative ſentences require an elevation of the voice, except the
queſtion be aſked by the pronouns who, which, what, or the adverbs how,
how much, how many, where, when &c. for, in theſe caſes you muſt give
a moderate cadence to your voice, and let the pauſe be governed bythe
uſe of the ſubject.
the margin, &c. and in dictionaries, it commonly ſhews
the word to be obſolete.
5. The index or hand (☞) points to ſome very remarkable
6. Breve (˘) over a vowel, denotes that it ſounds
7. Circumflex (ˆ) is placed over a vowel, to denote
long ſyllable: as, Eu-phrâ-tes.
8. Diæreſis (¨) two points placed over two vowels
a word, parting them into two ſyllables.
9 Hyphen (-) a ſhort line, to join ſyllables or words
10. Parentheſis *, marked thus, ( ) ſerves to include
a ſentence which might be left out, without any prejudice
to the ſenſe of the ſentence; notwithſtanding it is
neceſſary for the explanation thereof: as, Pardon me,
(added ſhe, embracing me), I now believe what you ſay.
11 Bracket or crotchet, thus,  includes ſuch a word
from the ſentence as ſerves to explain the word immediately
preceding: as, A treatiſe of [concerning] Engliſh
12. Paragraph (¶) denotes the beginning of a new
ſubject — The pauſe here may be greater than at a period.
13. Section (§) is uſed to divide a chapter into leſs and
* The parentheſis requires a pauſe equal in duration of a ſemicolon; and
the words contained therein muſt be pronounced in a lower tone than the
foregoing part of the ſentence; at the end of which, the voice ſhould be
elevated as at a comma, and the following part of the ſentence begun in the
ſame tone as the former.
It is impoſſible to define the preciſe quantity or duration of each of the
foregoing pauſes, as a diſcourſe may be read in a quicker or a ſlower time
nor has any one ever attempted to lay down certain rules for placing a juſt
cadence in ſpeaking or reading. He who would learn to read properly,
muſt attend carefully to thoſe who are celebrated for reading and ſpeaking
well. If he have a good ear to muſic, there is no doubt but he will be
maſter of it in a reaſonable time.
14. Ellipſis, marked thus, (- - - - or —) denotes that
part of a word is left out: as, K—g for King.
15. Caret (‸) is placed underneath a line, to ſhew that
ſome letter, word, or ſentence, is left out by miſtake;
and muſt be taken in exactly in that place.
16. Quotation (") is a double comma reverſed at the
beginning of a line, which ſhews, that a paſſage is quoted;
or tranſcribed from ſome author in his own words.
Explanation of common Abbreviations or Contractions of
A. B. Artium BaccaIaureus,
Bachelor of Arts.
A. D. Anno Domini, in
the year of our Lord.
A. M. Artium Magiſter,
Maſſter of Arts; or,
Anno Mundi, in the
year of the world.
Aſt. P. G. C. Aſtronomy
Profeſſor of Greſham
B. A. Bachelor of Arts.
C. D. Baccalaureus Divinitatis,
Bachelor in Divinity.
B. V. Bleſſed Virgin.
C. C. C. Corpus Chriſti
C. Cent. Centum, a hundred.
C. P. S. Cuſtos Privati
Sigili, Keeper of the
D. S; Cuſtos Sigili, Keeper
of the Seal.
D. D. Doctor in divinity.
d. denarius, a penny.
Dec. or 10ber, December.
Do. ditto, the ſame.
E. g. Exempli gratia, as
R. S. Fellow of the Royal
G. R. Georgius Rex
George the King
Id. Idem., the ſame.
i. e. id eſt, that is.
I. H S. Jeſus Hominum
Salvator, Jeſus Saviour
J. D. Jurium Doctor, a
Doctor of Laws.
L. Liber, a book; and
L. D ady-Day.
L. L. D Legium Doctor,
Doctor of Laws.
L. S Locus Sigilli, the
place of the Seal.
m manipulus, a handful.
A Magiſter Artium,
Maſter of Arts
B Medicinæ Baccalaureus,
M. D: Medicinæ Doctor,
M S. Memoriæ Sacrum,
Sacred to the memory.
N. B Nota Bene, Mark
n. l. non liquet, it appears
Nov. or 9ber, November.
N. S. New Style.
Oct. or 8ber, October.
O. S. Old Style.
Per cent. per centum, by
Philom. Philomathes, a
lover of Learning or
Philomatheticus, a lover
P. M Poſt Meridiem,
P.M.G. Profeſſor of Muſic
at Greſham College.
Prof Th Gr. Profeſſor
Profeſſor of Divinity
at Greſham College
P. S. Poſtſcript.
q Quadrans, a farthing.
q. d quaſi dicat, as if he
q. l quantum libet, as
much as you pleaſe.
q. s. quantum ſufficit, a
R Rex, King
Reg Prof Regius Profeſſor,
Rt. Wpful. Right Worſhipful.
Rt hon. Right Honourable.
S South, and Solidus, a
S. or St. Saint.
S. A. Secundum artem,
according to Art.
Sept. or 7ber, September.
ſſ ſemiſſis, half a pound.
S. T. P. Sacro-ſanctæ
Profeſſor of Divinity.
v. vide, ſee, verſe.
viz. videlicet, that is to
& et and.
&c. et cetera, and ſo forth,
and the reſt.
DIRECTIONS concerning the CAPITALS.
The capitals or great letters, muſt never be written in
the middle of any word, but only at the beginning, and
in the following caſes.
1. At the beginning of any writing, book, epiſtle,
chapter, verſe, note, bill; and after a period or full ſtop,
and where a ſentence begins
2. At the beginning of all proper names of perſons and
places; ſhips, rivers, mountains, titles, profeſſions, and
callings. In ſhort, every ſubſtantive, whether proper or
common, may begin with a capital letter in writing, but
not in printing
3. At the beginning of every line in poetry and blank
4. All names belonging to the Trinity, and any word
which ſignifies God, muſt begin with a capital letter: as,
GOD the Father, GOD the Son, and GOD the Holy
Ghoſt: Jehovah, Almighty, Divine Being, &c.
5. At the beginning of any remarkable ſaying, quoted
from an author, though not after a full ſtop.
Directions concerning the Capitals, continued.
6. Articles, pronouns *, verbs, adjectives, adverbs,
conjunctions, and interjections *, muſt never be written
with a capital, unleſs ſuch words begin, or come immediately
after, a period.
Proper DIRECTIONS for addreſſing perſons of every rank
and denomination, either in writing or diſcourſe.
Beginnings of Letters.
To the KING. Sire, or Sir; or Moſt gracious Sovereign;
or, May it pleaſe your Majeſty.
To the QUEEN. Madam; or, Moſt gracious, &c.
To the PRINCE of WALES. Sir; or, May it pleaſe
your Royal Highneſs.
To the PRINCESS of WALES. Madam; or, May it
pleaſe your Royal Hightneſs.
To the PRINCESS DOWAGER. Madam; or, May it
Pleaſe your Royal Highneſs.
Note. All Sovereigns' ſons and daughters, brothers and
ſiſters, muſt have the title of Royal Highneſs. And
the reſſt of the royal family, Hightneſs.
To a DUKE. May it pleaſe your Grace.
To a DUCHESS. Ditto.
To a MARQUIS, EARL} My Lord; or, May it pleaſe
VISCOUNT, LORD. your Lordſhip.
To a MARCHIONESS, an Earl's: May it pleaſe your
wife, Viſcounteſs, or a Lord's wife. Ladyſhip.
To the Archbilhops. May it pleaſe your Grace; My
To the reſt of the Biſhops. My Lord, or, May it
pleaſe your Lordſhip.
To the Dean, Archdeacon,
or Chancellor. Reverend Doctor; Mr Dean.
** Except the pronoun I, and the interjection O, which muſt always
be written with a capital.
Beginnings of Letters.
To the reſt of the clergy. Reverend Sir.
Note, The ſons of Dukes, Marquiſſes, and the eldeſt
ſons of Earls, have, by courteſy, the title of Lord,
and Right Honourable: and the title of Lady is given
to their daughters; Madam; or, May it pleaſe
The younger ſons of Earls, the Sons of Viſcounts and
Barons, are ſtyled Honourable, and are Eſquires.
Their daughters are ſtyled Honourable.
The title of Honourable is likewiſe conferred on ſuch
perſons as have the king's commiſſion, upon thoſe
gentlemen who enjoy places of truſts and honour,
and on all incorporate bodies: as, the united Eaſt
India: Company, the South Sea, and Bank of England
The title of Right Honourable is given to no commoner,
except to thoſe who are members of his Majeſty's
moſt Honourable Privy Council, and the three Lord
Mayors of London, York, and Dublin, and the
Lord Provoſt of Edinburgh, during their office.
To a Member of Parliament. May it pleaſe your
To the Right Honourable
the Lord Mayor of London.} My Lord; or, May it pleaſe
Note, That Generals, Admirals, and Colonels, and
all Field-officers, are Honourable.
All other officers, either in the army or navy, have
only the title oſ the commiſſion they bear, ſet firſt
on the ſuperſcription of the letters, and at the beginning,
Sir; or, Honoured Sir; or, May it pleaſe
An ambaſſadour, May it pleaſe your Excellency; or,
Beginnings of Letters.
All privy Counſellors, and Judges
who are Privy Counſellors, are} Right Honourable.
The Whole Privy Council together, are ſtyled Moſt Honourable.
Baronets are, Honourable.
It is uſual to call a Knight, Honourable; and the wives
of Knights and Baronets, Ladies.
Juſtices of the Peace, Sheriffs, and Recorders, have
the title of Eſquire, and Worſhipful.
The Aldermen and Recorder of London, and all
Mayors of Corporations, except Lord Mayors, are Right
All Governours under his Majeſty, are ſtyled Excellency.
The Lords in Parliament. My Lords; or, May it pleaſe
The Commoners. May it pleaſe your Honours.
SUPERSCRIPTIONS or DIRECTIONS Of LETTERS.
To his Moſt Sacred MAJESTY; or, To the KING'S Moſt
To her Moſt Sacred MAJESTY; or, To the QUEEN'S
Moſt excellent MAJESTY.
To his Royal Highneſs the Prince of Wales.
To her Royal Highneſs the Princeſs, &c.
To her Royal Highneſs the Princeſs Dowager of Wales.
Sovereigns' ſons, daughters; brothers, and ſiſters, To
his, or her Royal Highneſs, &c.
To the reſt of the royal family, Highneſs.
To his Grace the Duke of R—b
To her Grace the Ducheſs of N—d.
To a Marquis, Earl,
Viſcount, Lord.}To the Right Honourable the Marquis
of —; Earl of —;
Lord Viſcount F—b; the
Superſcriptions or Directions of Letters.
To a Marchioneſs. To the Right Honourable the Marchioneſs
To an Earl, or Viſcount's wife. To the Right Honourable
the Counteſs of —; the Viſcounteſs of —.
To a Lord's wife. To the Right Honourable the Lady —.
To the daughter of a Duke,
Marquis, and Earl.} To the Right Honourable the
Lady Anne F—h—.
The wives of Vice and Rear Admirals,
Ambaſſadours, &c.} To the Right Honourable
The wives of Lieutenant-Generals, Major-Generals,
and Brigadier-Generals, are,} Honourable.
To the Parliament, (the Upper Houſe). To the Right
Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal in Parliament
Ditto, (the Lower Houſe). To the Honourable the
Knights, Citizens, and Burgeſſes in Parliament aſſembled.
To the ſpeaker of ditto. To the Right Honourable A. B.
Eſq; Speaker of the Houſe of Commons.
To an Archbiſhop. To his Grace the Archbiſhop of Canterbury;
or, To the Moſt Reverend Father in God, A. Lord
Archbiſhop of Canterbury.
To other Bithops. To the Right Reverend Father in
God, B. Lord Biſhop of W.
To the Clergy. To the Reverend B. A. D. D. Dean of
F. or Archdeacon, or Chancellor of O. or Prebendary, &c.
To the Reverend Mr A. B. at C.
To the Soldiers and Navy. To the Honourable A. B.
Eſq; Lieutenant-General of his Majeſty's Forces.
Note, In the army, all noblemen are ſtyled according
to their rank, to which is added their employ.
All inferiour officers ſhould have the name of their employment
ſet firſt: as,
To Major C. D. &c.
To Captain E. F. &c.
To incorporate Bodies. To the Honourable the Court of
Directors of the United Company of Merchants trading to
the Eaſt Indies.
To the Honourable the Governour, Deputy-Governour,
and Directors of the Bank of England.
To the Gentry. To Mr B. C. Eſq;
To Mr I. K.
To Men of Trade
and Profeſſions.} To Doctor A. B. Phyſician.
To Mr C. D.
To Mr E. F.
To Meſſrs Robſon and Co.
Superſcriptions or Directions of Letters.
Cite this Document
The Only Sure Guide to the English Tongue. 2023. In The Corpus of Modern Scottish Writing. Glasgow: University of Glasgow. Retrieved June 2023, from http://www.scottishcorpus.ac.uk/cmsw/document/?documentid=153.
"The Only Sure Guide to the English Tongue." The Corpus of Modern Scottish Writing. Glasgow: University of Glasgow, 2023. Web. June 2023. http://www.scottishcorpus.ac.uk/cmsw/document/?documentid=153.
The Corpus of Modern Scottish Writing, s.v., "The Only Sure Guide to the English Tongue," accessed June 2023, http://www.scottishcorpus.ac.uk/cmsw/document/?documentid=153.
If your style guide prefers a single bibliography entry for this resource, we recommend:
The Corpus of Modern Scottish Writing. 2023. Glasgow: University of Glasgow. http://www.scottishcorpus.ac.uk/cmsw/.